The Doric Order• In their original Greek version, Doric columns stood directly on the flat pavement (the stylobate) of a temple without a base; their vertical shafts were fluted with 20 parallel concave grooves; and they were topped by a smooth capital that flared from the column to meet a square abacus at the intersection with the horizontal beam (entablature) that they carried. Parthenon is an example of Doric columns.
The Temple of the Delians • The Temple of the Delians is a peripteral Doric order temple, the largest of three dedicated to Apollo on the island of Delos. It was begun in 478 B.C. and never completely finished. (19th century pen-and-wash restoration).
Example of Doric order in Paestum, Italy• Early examples of the Doric order include the temples at Paestum in southern Italy, a region called Magna Graecia, which was settled by Greek colonists and retained a strongly Hellenic culture.
The Roman Doric OrderIn the Roman Doric version the height of the entablature has been reduced. Theendmost triglyph is centered over the column rather than occupying the corner of thearchitrave. The columns are slightly less robust in their proportions.
The theatre of MarcellusDoric order columns can be found in the theatre of Marcellus, an ancientopen-air theatre in Rome, Italy, built in the closing years of the RomanRepublic. (13 B.C.)
The Ionic order• The Ionic order originated in the mid-6th century B.C. in Ionia, the southwestern coastland and islands of Asia Minor settled by Ionian Greeks, where an Ionian dialect was spoken. The Ionic order column was being practiced in mainland Greece in the 5th century B.C. The Ionic columns normally stand on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate or platform; The cap is usually enriched with egg-and-dart.
The Heraion of Samos • The first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos, built about 570 B.C.–560 B.C. by the architect Rhoikos. It stood for only a decade before it was levelled by an earthquake. It was in the great sanctuary of the goddess.
The Erechteum of the Acropolis • The Parthenon, although it conforms mainly to the Doric order, also has some Ionic elements. A more purely Ionic mode to be seen on the Athenian Acropolis is exemplified in the Erechtheum.
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus • A longer-lasting 6th century Ionic temple was the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The Temple of Artemis was located near the ancient city of Ephesus, about 50 km south from the modern port city of Izmir, in Turkey.
Corinthian order• The Corinthian order is stated to be the most ornate of the orders, characterized by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls.
The temple of Apollo at Bassae, Arcadia • The oldest known example of a Corinthian column is in the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae in Arcadia, ca 450–420 BCThe temple was dedicated to Apollo Epikourios ("Apollo the helper"). It was designed by Iktinos, architect at Athens of the Temple of Hephaestus and the Parthenon. The ancient writer Pausanias praises the temple as eclipsing all others but the temple of Athena at Tegea by the beauty of its stone and the harmony of its construction. It sits at an elevation of 1,131 metres above sea level on the slopes of Kotylion Mountain.
The choragic Monument of Lysicrates • A more famous example, and the first documented use of the Corinthian order on the exterior of a structure, is the circular Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in Athens, erected ca 334 B.C.The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates near the Acropolis of Athens was erected by the choregos Lysicrates, a wealthy patron of musical performances in the Theater of Dionysus to commemorate the award of first prize in 335/334 BCE, to one of the performances he had sponsored. The choregos was the sponsor who paid for and supervised the training of the dramatic dance-chorus.
The Temple of Olympian Zeus • The Temple of Olympian Zeus (Greek: Ναὸς τοῦ Ὀλυμπίου Διός, Naos tou Olympiou Dios), also known as the Olympieion or Columns of the Olympian Zeus (Styloi Olympiou Dios), is a colossal ruined temple in the centre of the Greek capital Athens that was dedicated to Zeus, king of the Olympian gods. Construction began in the 6th century B.C. during the rule of the Athenian tyrants, who envisaged building the greatest temple in the ancient world, but it was not completed until the reign of the Roman Emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century AD some 638 years after the project had begun.
La maison Carrée • The Maison Carrée is an ancient building in Nîmes, southern France; it is one of the best preserved temples to be found anywhere in the territory of the former Roman Empire. • It was built c. 16 B.C. and reconstructed in the following years by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, who was also the original patron of the Pantheon in Rome, and was dedicated or rededicated c. 2-4/5 AD to his two sons, Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar, adopted heirs of Augustus who both died young.
The arch of Trajan in Ancona • The arch is built of marble and stands 18.5 m high. It was erected in 114/115 A.D. as an entrance to the causeway atop the harbour wall in honour of Trajans creation of the harbour there. It stands on a high podium approached by a wide flight of steps. The archway, only 3 m wide, is flanked by pairs of fluted Corinthian columns on pedestals. An attic bears inscriptions. The format is that of the Arch of Titus in Rome, but made taller, so that the bronze figures surmounting it, of Trajan, his wife Plotina and sister Marciana, would be a landmark for ships approaching Romes greatest Adriatic port.
The Forum of AugustusThe Forum of Augustus is one of the Imperial forums of Rome,Italy, built by Augustus. It includes the Temple of Mars Ultor. (2B.C)
Library of Hadrian, Athens • The Library of Hadrian is located on the north side of the Acropolis, immediately north of the Roman Agora. The complex was built by the Roman emperor Hadrian in 131/2 A.D. It was visited by Pausanias (1.18.9) who provides a brief description. In form, the complex consists of a large, nearly square, walled enclosure, with entrance on the west. The western side also had a single row of Corinthian columns (made from marble from Karystos in southern Euboia) in front of the wall, on either side of the main entrance. Inside the complex was an open air courtyard, with a central pool and garden, surrounded by columns made from marble imported from Phrygia (no longer preserved).
The Colosseum • The Colosseum, or the Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering. Its construction started in 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus. (Doric at the bottom and Corinthian at the top)
The Pantheon • The Pantheon Greek: Πάνθειον, an adjective meaning "to every god") is a building in Rome, Italy, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa as a temple to all the gods of Ancient Rome, and rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian in about 126 AD. The ancient Roman writer Cassius Dio speculated that the name comes either from the statues of so many gods placed around this building or from the resemblance of the dome to the heavens. • The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment.
The Roman Temple of Évora • The Roman Temple of Évora (Portuguese: Templo romano de Évora), also referred to as the Templo de Diana (after Diana, the ancient Roman goddess of the moon, the hunt, and chastity) is an ancient temple in the Portuguese city of Évora (civil parish of Sé e São Pedro, around 1 A.D.). The temple is part of the historical centre of the city, which was included in the classification by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. It represents one of the most significant landmarks relating to the Roman and Lusitania civilizations of Évora, in Portuguese territory.
The Roman Theatre of MeridaThe Roman Theatre of Merida is a construction promoted by the consulVipsanius Agrippa in the Roman city of Emerita Augusta, capital ofLusitania (current Merida, Spain). It was constructed in the years 16 and15 BC (Unesco World Heritage Site since 1993).