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Morphology (2)
 

Morphology (2)

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Explanation of Mortphology of English.

Explanation of Mortphology of English.

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    Morphology (2) Morphology (2) Presentation Transcript

    • Morphology: Word Formation Processes (Yule, 2003 & Jarvie, 1993) M.C. Rafael Velasco Argente Linguistics Spring 2012
    • What’s Morphology?
      • Morphology refers to the study of how words are created in a language
      • There are two processes involved in Morphology: Inflection and Word Formation
    • What are Inflection and Word Formation?
      • Inflection refers to the change in the base form of a word (root or stem)
      • The base form of a noun is the singular form (e.g. cat ); for an adjective the base form ( old ) and for a verb the base form is the infinitive or imperative ( speak )
    • Examples of Inflection
      • Apple apple s
      • House house s
      • Sad sad der sad dest
      • Big big ger big gest
      • Learn learn ed learn ing
    • What about word formation?
      • The word formation processes consists on the following ones:
        • Etymology
        • Coinage
        • Borrowing
        • Compounding
        • Blending
        • Clipping
        • Backformation
        • Conversion
        • Acronyms
        • Affixation (prefixes, suffixes and infixes)
        • Compound processes
    • Coinage
      • This refers to the creation of totally new terms into a language. Most of them come from the name of the inventors, the products’ names or the company’s name.
        • Kleenex
        • Nylon
        • Zipper
        • Aspirin
        • Rotoplas
    • Borrowing
      • This process refers, as the name claims, when a language ‘borrows’ terms from other languages.
        • Alcohol (Arabic)
        • Boss (Dutch)
        • Piano (Italian)
        • Yoghurt (Turkish)
        • Robot (Czech)
    • Compounding
      • It It refers to the joining of two separate words to produce a single word. The two words don’t lose their individual sounds.
        • Bookcase
        • Fingerprint
        • Sunburn
        • Doorknob
        • Basketball
    • Blending
      • Similar to compounding, blending refers to the joining of two terms; however, in this case one (or both) word(s) lose a sound.
        • Motel (motor-hotel)
        • Telecast (television-broadcast)
        • Spanglish (Spanish-English)
        • Modem (Modulator-demodulator)
    • Clipping
      • Clipping a synonym of reduction . In this process a word that has more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form
        • Celular (cel)
        • Brassiere (bra)
        • Fanatic (fan)
        • Situation Comedy (sitcom)
        • Facebook (el Face )
    • Backformation
      • This occurs when a word of one type (usually a noun) is changed to another different type of word (usually a verb)
        • Donation(n) -donate (v)
        • Option(n) -Opt (v)
        • Babysitter(n) -Babysit (v)
        • Hypocorisms: the reduction of a long word to a single syllable and the –y and –ie are added to the end.
        • Television-telly Barbecue-barbie Breakfast -breakie
    • Conversion
      • This is the change of the function of the word. For example when a noun comes to be used as a verb.
        • Butter
        • Bottle
        • Water
        • Print out (a printout)
        • Want to be (wannabe)
    • Etymology
      • Etymology refers to the origin of several words. Usually these words are originated from Latin or Greek.
      • Some of them are not necessarily complete words but prefixes or part of blendings.
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Greek_and_Latin_roots_in_English
    • Affixation
      • Affixation is the process where we take a base form word and we add a prefix, infix or suffix.
      • A prefix is an affixation process that includes adding a morpheme at the beginning of the word
      • A suffix is a segment that we add at the end of the words.
      • An infix is what goes between the prefix and the root
    • Prefixes (examples)
      • http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/prefixtext.htm
    • Suffixes
      • These are the responsible for making words change their function.
      • There are:
        • Noun suffixes
        • Adjective Suffixes
        • Verb Suffixes
        • Adverb Suffixes
      • As a reading, writing or listening recognition strategy, despite of not having the exact meaning of a word, just by looking at the suffix we now the function of the word.
    • Suffixes (Examples)
      • http://www.scribd.com/doc/441225/English-suffixes
    • Infixes
      • They are not very common in English.
      • When they appear is because they are usually in an exclamation word.
      • Un fucking believable!
      • Abso goddam lutely!
    • Acronyms
      • Sometimes words are created because of acronyms. Acronyms are abbreviations pronounced as if they were words. They have proloferated.
      • Spanish
        • SIDA (Sindrome de Inmuno-Deficiencia Adquirida)
        • OVNI (Objeto Volador No Identificado)
      • English
        • Radar (Radio Detecting and ranging)
        • UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization)
    • Analogies
      • It’s when you use a word to compare the person.
      • Technobabble
      • Telethon
      • Smart cookie
    • Compound Processes
      • Sometimes in order to form a word we can combine some of the previous processes.
        • For example:
          • Deli (borrowing from German Delicatessen/Clipping)
          • Yuppie (Young Urban Professional (Acronym+ie(hypocorsim)
    • Morphemes
      • A morpheme is the minimal unit of a word.
      • There are different types of morphemes
        • Free Morphemes
        • Bound Morphemes
        • Lexical
        • Functional
        • Derivational
        • Inflectional
        • Allomorphs
    • Free Morphemes
      • These are morphemes that stand by themselves as single words, for example
        • Open
        • Tour
        • Teach
    • Bound morphemes
      • The bound morphemes are those that are attached to a free morpheme to have a meaning.
      • All prefixes and suffixes are bound morphemes.
        • Un-dress-ed care-less-ness
        • Ex: reduce, receive and repeat (bound stems)
    • Free Morphemes-Lexical & Functional
      • Lexical morphemes are usually free morphemes. They carry their full meaning in the word itself.
        • Nouns, adjectives and verbs
      • Functional Morphemes are words that bring a function inside of them. They assist lexical morphemes to add details to the meaning.
        • Conjunctions (and...) prepositions, articles, pronuouns
    • Bound morphemes-Derivational and inflectional Morphemes
      • Derivational morphemes: They refer to those bound morphemes that create new words out of/with a free morpheme.
        • Pay-ment
        • Quick-ly
        • God-ess
      • Inflectional morphemes. These are morphemes that help the words to change their grammatical function. They are suffixes
      • Car-car s
      • Do-Do ne
      • Cold-Cold est
      Bound morphemes-Derivational and inflectional Morphemes
    • Morph and Allomorphs
      • A morph is a modification of a morpheme. The basic example of it is the plural ‘s’.
      • Bus-Bus es
      • Girl-Girl s
      • Baby-bab ies
      • Sheep- sheep
      The allomorph is the set of morphs
    •