Western Scholarship20th – 21st Century Prepared by : 1. Samini A. 2. Shareen Lee 3. Thanavathi
TIMELINE Structuralism20th century Sassure, Bloomfield Generativism Chomsky, Shaumyan21th century Functionalism Simon Dik, Michael Halliday, Robert van Valin
StructuralismWhen?• Early 20th century 1920s 1930s – 1960s
Father of Structuralism…Ferdinand de Saussure What? • Language has a structure - Language is a structure in which each element interact Swiss Linguist • Language is a system of signs Studied and taught in University of Geneva Intellectual ability at 14 Learnt Greek, Latin, - Noise is only language when it Sanskrit Born in 1857, died at 55 in 1913 PhD Locative Absolute in expresses or communicates idea. • Language operates at two Sanskrit Famous bible “Cours de linguistique generale” (1916) levels: Langue and Parole - Langue – Abstract system EUROPEAN STRUCTURALISM Parole – The actual speech
Leonard Bloomfield What? • Language is a descriptive science. -Describe what people say. Not what people should say. • The primary form of language is the spoken one. - Not every language has a written form. Led the development of structural linguistics in the 1930s Spoken comes first, then the written. and 1940s. Born in 1887, died at 62 in 1949. Influential textbook, • Language is a system. Language,published in 1933. Comprehensive description on - Smaller units are arranged systematically American structural linguistics. to form the larger ones. • Language is observable speech, not knowledge. - Language should be based on observable samples (corpus/corpora).
GENERATIVISM Generativism can designate an approach for relating language to theintuitive knowledge of speakers and to the mental capacities of humans at large.When? – Mid - Late 20th Century (1960s) (Robert de Beaugrande)
Who? • Dec 7 1928 • American Linguist, History Philosopher, CognitiveAvram Noam Chomsky Scientist, Logician, Activist • Highly credited for the development of Generativism What • Has a significant impact on the intellectual community since the mid 20th Century • Development of the Theories of generative grammar • Classification of formal Contributions language properties in the Chomsky Hierarchy • Critiques of the school of Behaviorism
GENERATIVE THEORYWhat? explains language as a form of knowledge, a unique (human) capacity which is part of our cognitive makeup . basic form of language Universal Grammar is a set of universal syntactic rules primary objective and of the.underlies the grammars of all languages discipline of linguistics
UNIVERSAL GRAMMARChomsky’s theories grew out of criticism of Behaviourism. In learning language, complex grammars are acquired rapidly. Mental grammar is innate and universal
SINS OF GENERATIVISM confounds the phonological Shaumyan level with the (1987: 30) morphological level Generativism distorts linguistic reality in the following ways: rejects the phonological level. uses fictitious confounds entities called the deep structures constituency and fictitious relations phonological with linear representations word order
FUNCTIONAL THEORIES OF GRAMMAR approaches to the study of language that see the functions of language. pay attention to the way language is actually used in communicative context. differs significantly from other linguistic theories which stress purely formal approaches to grammar. The structuralist functionalism of the Prague school, was the earliest functionalist framework developed in the 1920s.
Simon Dik – a language is in the first place conceptualized as an instrument of social instrument among human beings. Danish functional grammar – Michael Halliday – pragmatics linguistics as studyand discourse of “how people Framework exchange meaning by ‘languaging’. Robert Van Valin – Sentence is formulated in terms of its semantic structure and communicative functions.
Pinker, S. (1994). The Language Instinct. England :Penguin. p.22Widdowson, H.G. (2000).Linguistics. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press.oen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_theories_of_grammarowww.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/222121/functionalismohttp://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080625033158AAAD0DYohttps://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Michael_Halliday.htmlohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structuralismohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Bloomfieldohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_de_Saussure