7.1 human breathing system

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  • 1. DESMOND SO, RD
  • 2. What makes us yawn?
  • 3. What makes us yawn?
  • 4. What makes us yawn?
  • 5. Which part of ourbody are in action when we yawn ?
  • 6. Where does theexchange of oxygenand carbon dioxidetake place between our body and atmosphere ?
  • 7. In what forms areoxygen and carbon dioxide carriedaround our body?
  • 8. DESMOND SO, RD
  • 9. In very small organisms: O2 CO2• diffuses across cell membrane
  • 10. In larger organisms:  O2  CO2• cannot diffuse across body surface
  • 11. In larger organisms:1. breathing system (呼吸系統) - for gas exchange2. transport system (運送系統) - for carrying gases to body cells
  • 12. Human breathing system
  • 13. Human breathing system
  • 14. Human breathing system
  • 15. air nasal cavity pharynx larynx trachea
  • 16. air bronchus bronchiole air sac
  • 17. 1 Nostrils and nasal cavityi) Hairs •filter larger dust particles
  • 18. 1 Nostrils and nasal cavityii) Mucus-secreting cellstraps dust particles & moistens air mucus
  • 19. 1 Nostrils and nasal cavityiii) Ciliated epithelial cellsCilia sweep mucus with dustparticles towards pharynx cilia
  • 20. 1 Nostrils and nasal cavityiv) Capillaries •blood warms up air
  • 21. Self Quiz! Which of the following structures is/are found in the nasal cavity? (1) ciliated epithelium (2) mucus-secreting cells (3) hairs A (1) only B (1) and (2) only C (1) and (3) only D (1), (2) and (3)
  • 22. 2 Pharynx and larynx
  • 23. 2 Pharynx and larynx pharynxlarynx oesophagus trachea
  • 24. 2 Pharynx and larynx foodlarynx oesophagus
  • 25. 2 Pharynx and larynx 1 Tongue pushes food towards pharynxlarynx oesophagus
  • 26. 2 Pharynx and larynx 2 Soft palate moves up, preventing food from entering nasal cavitylarynx oesophagus
  • 27. 2 Pharynx and larynx 3 Larynx rises and epiglottis covers entrance to trachea, preventing chokinglarynx oesophagus
  • 28. 2 Pharynx and larynxepiglottislarynx• made up of cartilage
  • 29. 2 Pharynx and larynxvocal cords (聲帶)• can vibrate to produce sound
  • 30. 2 Pharynx and larynx
  • 31. 3 Trachea, bronchi and bronchioles trachea bronchus bronchioles
  • 32. 3 Trachea, bronchi and bronchioles trachea bronchus bronchioles
  • 33. 3 Trachea, bronchi and bronchioles lumen C-shaped cartilage • prevents collapse ciliated epithelial cell
  • 34. 3 Trachea, bronchi and bronchioles Trachea Bronchi BronchiolesCiliated Yes Yes YesepithelialcellsMucus- Yes Yes Absent insecreting smallercells bronchiolesCapillaries Yes Yes YesCartilage C-shaped Circular Absent
  • 35. Self Quiz! The trachea is supported by many C- shaped cartilages. These cartilages A trap dust particles and bacteria. B warm up the inhaled air. C vibrate and produce sound. D keep the trachea open for breathing.
  • 36. Self Quiz! Mucus in the respiratory tract helps (1) warm up the air. (2) moisten the air. (3) trap the dust particles in the air. A (1) and (2) only B (1) and (3) only C (2) and (3) only D (1), (2) and (3)
  • 37. 4 Air sacs•large respiratory surface air sac capillary
  • 38. 5 Lungs•composed of bronchioles and air sacs•in thoracic cavity (胸腔)
  • 39. 5 Lungs•protected by rib cage (肋骨籃) vertebral column (脊柱) ribs sternumcartilage (胸骨)
  • 40. 5 Lungs intercostaldiaphragm muscles• sheet of muscle
  • 41. 5 Lungs
  • 42. 5 Lungs rib intercostal muscle outer pleural membrane right inner pleural membrane lung pleural cavity
  • 43. 5 Lungs•pleural cavity filled with pleural fluid (胸腺液) as lubricant (潤滑劑) right lung pleural cavity
  • 44. Misconceptions !! Hairs are present inside the nasal cavity to filter air
  • 45. Misconceptions !! Hairs are present at the nostrils of the nose to filter the incoming air
  • 46. Misconceptions !! Dust particles are trapped by cilia inside the nasal cavity
  • 47. Misconceptions !! Dust particles are trapped by mucus. The trapped dust particles are swept by the beating action of cilia to the pharynx where they are swallowed or coughed out
  • 48. Self Quiz! The human breathing system consists of the respiratory tract and structures that aid breathing.
  • 49. Self Quiz! Air flow along respiratory tract: nostrils nasal cavity pharynx larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles air sacs
  • 50. Self Quiz! In the nostrils, hairs filter larger dust particles.
  • 51. Self Quiz! In the lining of nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi and mucus-secreting cells bronchioles, mucus-secreting cells mucus secrete mucus to moisten the air.
  • 52. Self Quiz! In the lining of nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles,mucus mucus traps the dust particles and bacteria.
  • 53. Self Quiz! In the lining of nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles, blood in the capillaries blood warms the incoming air.