Learning package intergenerational dialogue


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Learning package intergenerational dialogue

  1. 1. Learning PackageIntergenerational Dialogue
  2. 2. Learning Package This learning package gives an overview of issues related to inter- generational dialogue. Each section offers a short introduction to the given topic, in addition to links where the reader can exploreIntergenerational Dialogue each topic more deeply. The package aims to guide the reader towards an understanding of what intergenerational dialogue is Introduction and how it can be generated, by introducing topics related to this subject and links for further reading. The last topic within this learning package gives a brief introduction to the suburban area called ‘Kannelmäki’, where the ‘Repicturing Suburban Neighbour- hood’ workshop will be held.
  3. 3. Intergenerational DialogueLonelinessGenerationAgeingThe ageing population in FinalndCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki References
  4. 4. Intergenerational Dialogue Solidarity Practice LearningLonelinessGenerationAgeingThe ageing population in FinalndCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  5. 5. Intergenerational Dialogue Intergenerational dialogue is a way to improve the contact be- tween different age groups, in order to achieve understanding and solidarity between generations. The European population Solidarity is ageing while birthrates are decreasing; these demographic changes will challenge societies in different ways. The imbalance Practice between the working population and pensioners is a frequently discussed topic, related to negative consequences incurred by demographic changes. Facilitating dialogue between genera- Learning tions can promote an attitude where challenges are seen as op- portunities, instead of focusing on the negative consequences that might appear. (“EU-CoE youth”, n.d.).Loneliness For further information, see: http://youth-partnership-eu.coe.int/youth-partnership/ekcyp/Generation BGKNGE/Intergenerational.htmlAgeingThe ageing population in FinalndCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  6. 6. Intergenerational Dialogue “Intergenerational solidarity refers to the mutual support and cooperation between different age groups in order to achieve a society where people of all ages have a role to play in line with Solidarity their needs and capacities, and can benefit from their commu- nity’s economic and social progress on an equal basis.” Practice -AGE Platform Europe (European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations, 2011) Learning Find out more about the AGE Platform here: http://www.age- platform.org/ See the AGE Publications section for more information related toLoneliness ageing and intergenerational solidarity. Also see this report on intergenerational solidarity by the Euro-Generation pean Commission: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/flash/ fl_269_en.pdfAgeing See this position paper on solidarity between generations by the European Youth Forum: http://www.youthforum.org/fr/system/ files/yfj_public/strategic_priorities/en/0313-09_YFJ_Position_The ageing population in Finalnd Intergenerational_Solidarity_FINAL.pdfCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  7. 7. Intergenerational Dialogue “Intergenerational practice aims to bring people together in purposeful, mutually beneficial activities which promote greater understanding and respect between generations and contrib- Solidarity utes to building more cohesive communities. Intergenerational practice is inclusive, building on the positive resources that the young and old have to offer each other and those around them.” Practice (“Home – Center”, 2011) Dialogue and solidarity between generations can be facilitated Learning through different types of programmes and activities. Intergen- erational Practice can take various forms but focuses on bring-Loneliness ing together people from different generations, where interac- tion between the people involved is achieved by doing things together. (“Home – Center ”, 2011)Generation [For more information on the Beth Johnson Foundation and their work on intergenerational practice, see: http://www.centreforip.org.uk]Ageing “Elämänkulku ja Ikäpolvet” (“Life Course and Generations”) is a research and practice development project, which has listed theThe ageing population in Finalnd following themes regarding intergenerational practice: Learning and mentoring; History and memories; Sports andCommunity Development health; Arts; Media education; Coaching for work life; Commu- nity planning; Community development; Environmental protec- tion.Kannelmäki A description of “Elämänkulku ja ikäpolvet” in English can be found here: http://www.ikapolvet.fi/in-english In the links section [linkkejä] there are English links at the bottom of the page: http://www.ikapolvet.fi/linkkejae -
  8. 8. Intergenerational Dialogue Intergenerational learning means that people from different generations learn new things together, learn from each other or teach each other. It is an effective way for young and old to Solidarity learn to appreciate one another by working together to gain various new skills, values or knowledge. Learning together is Practice also a way to connect people from different generations with each other (“What is”, 2011). Learning The key focus in intergenerational learning is that younger and older people, who are becoming more and more distanced and segregated in society today, have in fact many common areasLoneliness of concern. Therefore, through intergenerational learning, many key issues related to communities and such can be addressed effectively (“What is”, 2011).Generation For information about the European Map of Intergenerational Learning, see:Ageing http://www.emil-network.eu/about/what-is-intergenerational- learningThe ageing population in FinalndCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  9. 9. Intergenerational DialogueLoneliness Among the elderly Among the youthGenerationAgeingThe ageing population in FinalndCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki
  10. 10. Intergenerational Dialogue Loneliness can be described as perceived social isolation. Social isolation can be measured and correlates directly to the number of social contacts of an individual, whereas loneliness is relatedLoneliness to an individual’s perception of the quality of his or her social relationships. Loneliness relates to emotions and expectations Among the elderly regarding social contacts and networks. (Routasalo, 2006) Research on loneliness has shown that the quality of one’s social Among the youth contacts affects one’s physical and psychological health. Recent- ly researchers have more attentively explored the relationship between subjective well-being and social relationships. (Saari,Generation 2009, p. 39-47) In the doctoral dissertation “Loneliness of Older People andAgeing Elements of an Intervention for its Alleviation”, Savikko (2008) defines loneliness as “...an individual’s subjective experience of a lack of satisfying human relationships, and thus loneliness is aThe ageing population in Finalnd negative feeling causing distress to an individual.”Community Development The dissertation can be accessed here: http://www.doria.fi/bit- stream/handle/10024/38910/D808.pdf?sequence=1 See sections 2.1 and 2.2 for a literature review on the concept ofKannelmäki loneliness and theoretical perspectives on loneliness. -
  11. 11. Intergenerational Dialogue Loneliness among the elderly has been studied mainly in rela- tion to social and demographic factors and those risks that are at stake regarding health. Recent findings have also shown thatLoneliness the experience of loneliness among the elderly can be linked to negative consequences. (Routasalo & Pitkälä, 2003.) Among the elderly See section 2.4 “Characteristics associated with loneliness among older people” in Savikko’s dissertation: http://www.doria. Among the youth fi/bitstream/handle/10024/38910/D808.pdf?sequence=1GenerationAgeingThe ageing population in FinalndCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  12. 12. Intergenerational Dialogue Loneliness among school-aged youth is usually involuntary and often related to bullying or social hierarchies. Among older youth, negative loneliness is more often related to unemploy-Loneliness ment or being excluded from the educational system. (Harinen, 2008) Among the elderly During recent years the well-being of the majority of young people in Finland has increased, but for a minority it has de- Among the youth creased; this has to do with factors relating to social exclusion. (Young People in Finland 2010, 2010)Generation For more information about young people in Finland, see the report by Finnish Youth Co-operation Allianssi: http://www.alli. fi/binary/file/-/id/665/fid/1033Ageing Chapter 27 is about social exclusion.The ageing population in FinlandCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  13. 13. Intergenerational DialogueLonelinessGeneration Familial Generation Cultural GenerationAgeingThe ageing population in FinlandCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  14. 14. Intergenerational DialogueLonelinessGeneration The definition of “generation” differs according to the context. Its most general meaning refers to biology, meaning simply the act of producing offspring (“generation”, n.d.). Familial Generation Generally, there are two approaches to defining the term: famil- Cultural Generation ial generation and cultural generation.AgeingThe ageing population in FinlandCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  15. 15. Intergenerational DialogueLonelinessGeneration A familial generation is related to the number of years that pass and is often defined as the average time between a mother’s first offspring and her daughter’s first offspring. In European Familial Generation countries the number of years ranges between 25 and 30. Cultural Generation Simon Biggs (2011) explains that “[t]he question of communica- tion and understanding between different generations” is one of the most important issues in this century, especially with theAgeing increase in the ageing population. Encouraging empathy be- tween generations can help bridge the generation gap and is crucial to creating more common ground for communication byThe ageing population in Finland knowing each other’s preferences, spending time together and being open.Community DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  16. 16. Intergenerational DialogueLonelinessGeneration A cultural generation refers to a group of people that share the same or similar values. These values are mainly determined by developments or movements in the society in history, and Familial Generation hence even in a sub-context a cultural generation will relate to a certain period in time: it may therefore include people of Cultural Generation different “biological ages”. Some of these generations in history have certain common characteristics. For instance, the GI gen- eration (including people growing up during the deprivation ofAgeing the Great Depression in the USA) is known as idealist/collectiv- ist, whereas the “silent generation” (which was born during the Great Depression and World War II) is known as practical/collec-The ageing population in Finland tivist (“Cultural generation”, n.d.). Some more examples of cultural generations:Community Development “The Silent Generation” – people who were born between 1925 and 1945 and who were too young to join the military service during World War II. This generation lived through the Great Depression as children, and this had a profound impact on them during their adulthood as well.Kannelmäki “The Baby Boom Generation” – people born right after World War II, from 1946 to 1964. This time was marked by an increase in birth rates, which in turn now shows its impact as the increase in the elderly population. A study called “A chain of generations: Baby boomers and cross-genera- tional interaction in Finland” can be found here: https://helda.helsinki.fi/ bitstream/handle/10138/14965/Tutkimuksia107.pdf?sequence=3 - Both the abstract and the summary are in English.
  17. 17. Intergenerational DialogueLonelinessGenerationAgeing Age identity Ageing in place Active ageing Dependency / IndependencyThe ageing population in FinlandCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  18. 18. “The ageing process is of course a biological reality which has its own dynamic, largely beyond human control. However, it is also subject to the constructions by which each society makes sense of old age. In the devel-Intergenerational Dialogue oped world, chronological time plays a paramount role. The age of 60 or 65, roughly equivalent to retirement ages in most developed countries, is said to be the beginning of old age. In many parts of the developingLoneliness world, chronological time has little or no importance in the meaning of old age. Other socially constructed meanings of age are more significant such as the roles assigned to older people; in some cases it is the loss of roles accompanying physical decline which is significant in defining old age.”Generation (Gorman, 2000)Ageing Aging is the process of becoming older; it is a process that is genetically determined and environmentally modulated. Not only old people are in this process: we are all constantly age- Age identity ing. It is a process that contains both physical and psychological aspects. Our bodies change while our perception of ourselves and the world change as we get older and gain experience. The Ageing in place World Health Organization (WHO) defines ageing and old age here: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ageingdefnolder/ en/index.html . Active ageing Getting older involves aspects such as a weaker physical con- dition, but it also includes possessing knowledge, skills and Dependency / Independency experience. Shanahan et al. (2005) explain that contemporary adulthood is marked by self-control, autonomy and higherThe ageing population in Finland social responsibility. Within various generations, different levels of socialization also naturally occur (Shanahan et al., 2005). Get- ting older includes the concept of abandonment, where certainCommunity Development things are left behind while new opportunities are emerging. (Saaristo, 2011, p.131-138)Kannelmäki See this Demos UK report on ageing: - http://www.demos.co.uk/files/Coming_of_Age_-_web.pdf?1302099024 Especially chapter 3, “Older people’s experiences of ageing”.
  19. 19. Intergenerational Dialogue “I don’t feel old, I don’t realize I’m old, I still think I’m younger, I still don’t think I’m beyond 40.” -A 70-year-old woman (Sherman, 1994, p. 406)Loneliness Age identity in general refers to a certain age or age group thatGeneration an individual or a group of people feels or identifies themselves with, rather than the actual number of years that they have lived through. It may result in feeling “younger” or “older”. As the rolesAgeing that are expected from certain age groups have changed, age- related identity has also changed. For instance, Shanahan et al. (2005) suggest that today younger people identify themselves Age identity as “adults”, since they identify certain responsibilities as well as independent decision-making with adulthood, rather than de- mographic markers. Ageing in place “As life expectancy has increased, we would expect ideas about aging and old age to change. In addition, as individuals move Active ageing through the life course they may reevaluate their notions of ag- ing.” (Kaufman and Elder, 2002). Dependency / Independency Age identity is also linked to well-being. S. K. Baum states that “since a decline in health is assumed to accompany aging, thoseThe ageing population in Finland who feel poorly will feel older while those who feel good will feel younger” (1984).Community DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  20. 20. Intergenerational Dialogue Ageing in place means modifying any living environment, mak- ing the necessary changes to allow seniors to live in their homes for as long as possible. It is a concept that aims to reduce the de-Loneliness pendence of the elderly on family and society (Stibich, 2009).Generation Some basic issues related to ageing in place are: Preventing Falls; Better Lighting;Ageing Communications – simple devices that replace complicated communication tools (hi-tech cell phones and other electronic devices); Age identity Special Concerns – specialized needs for each elderly individual. The links below are organizations focusing on Ageing in Place: Ageing in place Aging in Place Initiative: http://www.aginginplaceinitiative.org National Aging In Place Council (USA): http://www.ageinplace. org Active ageing For those interested in the design process related to ageing in place: Dependency / Independency Aging in Place Design Checklist prepared by the National Asso- ciation of Home Builders (NAHB) in Maryland, USA: http://www.The ageing population in Finland toolbase.org/Home-Building-Topics/Universal-Design/aging-in- place-checklistsCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  21. 21. “Active ageing is the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation and security in order to enhance quality ofIntergenerational Dialogue life as people age. It applies to both individuals and population groups.” -World Health Organization For a further description of Active ageing by the WHO, see: http://www.Loneliness who.int/ageing/active_ageing/en/index.html The concept of active ageing takes into account the fact that people liveGeneration longer and healthier lives and can therefore stay active at an older age. Older people can participate in and contribute to various activities within society also after retirement. One aspect of active ageing is initiatives aim-Ageing ing at postponing retirement. It is worth considering that older people are often capable and willing to remain active, but getting older can to some extent be a process towards a less active life. (Demos UK, 2011) Age identity Within the text “Vanhusten yksinäisyys” (Loneliness among the elderly) Saaristo (2011) notes that people commonly share a de- Ageing in place sire for a calm and harmonious elderly life. Active ageing should not be imposed upon the elderly but offered as an opportunity, where the older person’s situation is considered individually. Active ageing (Saaristo, 2011) There has also been increasing awareness of the concept of ‘agency’ within Dependency / Independency research on geriatric care. The Finnish researcher Jyrki Jyrkämä (2006) explains this concept by referring to Elder and Kirkpatrick Johnson’s defini- tion (2003, 60), where “individuals construct their own life course throughThe ageing population in Finland choices and actions they take within the opportunities and constraints of history and social circumstances.” Jyrkämä (2006) further explains the importance of taking those being studied into consideration by posing questions such as: ‘How will the people being studied be present withinCommunity Development the research?’ ‘What is the relevance of the concept of agency within the research?’ and ‘What does the research provide for those who are being studied?’.Kannelmäki 2012 is the year for active ageing and solidarity between generations; more information about this here: http://ec.europa.eu/social/ey2012. - jsp?langId=en
  22. 22. Intergenerational Dialogue “…when older adults behave as if they need help, younger people tend to support that dependence. However, when older people behave in an independent fashion, younger people doLoneliness not support that independence, and in fact they reject the older adult’s independence quite a bit of the time. The consequence is that older people are discouraged from being independent, andGeneration hence will move toward reinforcing the stereotype that they are dependent.” (Harwood, 2007, Chap. 4)Ageing People often continue doing things for which they are rewarded and supported, and they often stop doing things for which Age identity they are punished. While stereotyping the “older” generations, younger people often think that the elderly should always be taken care of and that they need help with every action (“The Ageing in place Encyclopedia”, 2006). For a broad definition of dependence, see The Encyclopedia of Active ageing Aging & Elderly: http://www.medrounds.org/encyclopedia-of-aging/2006/01/ dependence.html Dependency / Independency Several organizations specifically focus on the issue of increased independence of the elderly; for one example, see the CenterThe ageing population in Finland for Elders’ Independence, http://cei.elders.org/HOME/tabid/134/ Default.aspxCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  23. 23. Intergenerational DialogueLonelinessGenerationAgeingThe ageing population in FinlandCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  24. 24. Intergenerational Dialogue Finland is the fastest ageing society within the European Union. The demographic changes are due to increasing life expectancy and a decline in birthrates. Within the debate on the ageingLoneliness population and its consequences the main issues are related to:Generation Economy and finance; The labour market; Urban planning and housing;Ageing Education and training; Social values; Immigration, cultural diversity and bilingualism;The ageing population in Finland Health care; Regional cohesion (Ketola & Kunz, 2005).Community Development For more on demographic changes see the following links:Kannelmäki http://www.vnk.fi/julkaisukansio/2004/j27-28-34-hyva-yhteiskunta-kaik- enikaisille/pdf/en.pdf http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1077.htm http://www.bancaditalia.it/studiricerche/convegni/atti/publ_ expe/i/159-174_kinnunen_tuovinen.pdf Statistics on the population development in Finland: http://www.stat.fi/tup/suomi90/joulukuu_en.html -
  25. 25. Intergenerational DialogueLonelinessGenerationAgeingThe ageing population in FinlandCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki -
  26. 26. Intergenerational Dialogue “Community development can be both an occupation (such as a community development worker in a local authority) and a way of working with communities. Its key purpose is to buildLoneliness communities based on justice, equality and mutual respect.” -Community Development Exchange (“What is”, 2011)Generation For more information on Community Development Exchange, their work and definitions, see: http://www.cdx.org.uk/commu-Ageing nity-development/what-community-development) Here is a community action toolkit prepared by The YoungThe ageing population in Finland Foundation: http://www.youngfoundation.org/community-action-tool-kitCommunity Development Intergenerational dialogue can be fostered through community development projects, where people of different ages come together and collaborate around issues concerning their neigh-Kannelmäki bourhood. Fostering intergenerational dialogue can also be seen as a community development process, as bringing people from different generations together can strengthen the social cohesion within a community. (Beth Johnson Foundation, 2004) -
  27. 27. Intergenerational DialogueLonelinessGenerationAgeingThe ageing population in FinlandCommunity DevelopmentKannelmäki local links -
  28. 28. Intergenerational Dialogue Kannelmäki is a suburban area in Helsinki, which can be reached by train from Helsinki city centre in less than fifteen minutes.Loneliness Kannelmäki is part of an area called Kaarela that had been com- plete countryside until the 1950s, when construction began inGeneration Kannelmäki. Kannelmäki was the first suburban area in Kaarela. When the local railway was completed in the 1970s, the number of dwellings in the area doubled within only a few years. (Hels-Ageing ingin kaupunki Tietokeskus, 2011) In the Sub 26 - Suburban Guide Helsinki there is a chapter aboutThe ageing population in Finland Kannelmäki starting on page 141: http://lahioprojekti.hel.fi/ sites/lahioprojekti.hel.fi/files/sub26_english.pdfCommunity Development Here is a service map for Helsinki: http://www.hel.fi/palvelukartta/DefaultKannelmäki aspx?language=en&city=91 local links Type “Kannelmäki” in the field for keyword or service for a closer look at the area. -
  29. 29. Intergenerational DialogueLonelinessGenerationAgeingThe ageing population in Finland Webpage edited by residents of Kannelmäki; http://kaupunginosat.net/kannelmaki/Community Development In the section “yhdistykset” you can find a list of associations operating in Kannelmäki; http://kaupunginosat.net/kannelmaki/index.php/yhdistyksetKannelmäki Kanneltalo, cultural centre in Kannelmäki; local links http://www.kanneltalo.fi/ The public library in Kannelmäki; http://www.lib.hel.fi/en-GB/kannelmaki/ -
  30. 30. References -
  31. 31. References Baum, S. K. (1983–1984). Age identification in the elderly: some theoretical considerations. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 18, 25–30. Beth Johnson Foundation (2004). Intergenerational Community Development. UK: Hatton-Yeo, A., Watkins, C. Retrieved 11 December 2011, from http://www.cip2.cswebsites.org/Libraries/Local/949/Docs/Inter%20community%20development.pdf Biggs, S. (2011). Generational intelligence: A critical approach to age relations. London: Routledge. Cultural generation – Psychology Wiki (n.d.) Cultural generation. Retrieved 10 February 2012, from http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/ Cultural_generation Demos UK. (2011). Coming of Age. London, UK: Bazalgette, L., Holden, J., Tew, J., Hubble, N., Morrison, J. London: Demos UK. Elämänkulku ja ikäpolvet (2011). Life Course and Generations. Retrieved 11 December 2011, from http://www.ikapolvet.fi/in-english EU-CoE youth partnership – Promotion of intergenerational dialogue in youth work (n.d.). Promotion of intergenerational dialogue in youth work. Retrieved 11 December 2011, from http://youth-partnership-eu.coe.int/youth-partnership/ekcyp/BGKNGE/Intergenerational.html European Map of Intergenerational Learning. (2011). What is Intergenerational Learning – EMIL. Retrieved 11 December 2011, from http://www.emil-network.eu/about/what-is-intergenerational-learning European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations 2012. (2011). Everyone has a role to play! [Brochure]. Retrieved 11 December 2011, from http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=6773&langId=en Generation – Definition and More from the Free-Merriam-Webster Dictionary (n.d.). generation. Retrieved 11 December 2011, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/generation Generation. (n.d.) Generation. Retrieved 11 December 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generation Gorman M. (2000). Development and the rights of older people. In: J. Randel, T. German, D. Ewing (Eds.), The ageing and development report: poverty, independence and the world’s older people. London, UK: Earthscan Publications. Harinen, P. (2008). Hyvä, paha yksinäisyys. Itsellisyys, yksinäisyys ja ystävyys myöhäisnuoruudessa. In M. Autio, K. Eräranta & S. Myllynie- mi (Eds.) Polarisoituva nuoruus? (pp.84-93). Helsinki: Hakapaino Oy. Harwood, J. (2007). Understanding communication and aging: Developing knowledge and awareness. Los Angeles: Sage Publications. -
  32. 32. References Helsingin kaupunki Tietokeskus (2011). Helsinki alueittain 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2012, from http://www.hel2.fi/tietokeskus/ju- lkaisut/pdf/11_03_30_Tilasto_hki_alueittain_2011_Tikkanen.pdf Helsingin kaupunki (2012). Service map. Retrieved 17 February 2012, from http://lahioprojekti.hel.fi/sites/lahioprojekti.hel.fi/files/ sub26_english.pdf Home – Center For Intergenerational Practice (2011). Building better communities for all ages between the generations… Retrieved 11 December 2011, from http://www.centreforip.org.uk Jyrkämä, J. (2006) Vanhukset toimijoina. Vanhusten läsnäolo ja osallisuus tutkimuksessa. In P. Topo (Ed.) Eettiset kysymykset vanhusten- huollon tutkimuksessa. (pp. 14-19). Stakes, työpapereita 21/2006. Kaufman, G., & Elder G. H. (2002). Revisiting age identity: A research note. Journal of Aging Studies, 16, 169-176. Ketola, T. & Kunz, J. (2005). Population ageing and its consequences in Finland: A review of current trends and debates. Tampere: Tam- pereen Yliopistopaino Oy. Lähiöprojekti (2011) Sub 26. Suburban Guide Helsinki. Retrieved 14 February 2012, from http://lahioprojekti.hel.fi/sites/lahioprojekti. hel.fi/files/sub26_english.pdf Routasalo, P., Pitkälä, K. (2003). Ikääntyvien yksinäisyys – miten sitä on tutkittu gerontologiassa? Gerontologia 1, 23-9. Routasalo, P., Savikko, N., Tilvis, R.S., Strandberg, T.E. & Pitkälä, K. H. (2006). Social contacts and their relationship to loneliness among aged people – a population-based study. Gerontology 52, 181-187. Saari, J. (2009). Yksinäisten yhteiskunta. Helsinki: WSOYpro Oy. Saaristo, L. (2011). Vanhusten Yksinäisyys. In T. Heiskanen & L. Saaristo (Eds.) Kaken keskellä yksin. Yksinäisyyden syyt, seuraukset ja hal- lintakeinot. (pp. 131-139). Juva: Bookwell Oy. Savikko, N. (2008). Loneliness of Older People and Elements of an Intervention for its Alleviation. (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/38910/D808.pdf?sequence=1 Shanahan, M., Porfeli, E. & Mortimer, J. (2005). Subjective Age Identity and The Transition to Adulthood: When Does One Become an Adult? In Settersten, R. A., Furstenberg, F. F. & Rumbault, R. G. (Eds.), On the Frontier of Adulthood: Theory, Research, and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. -
  33. 33. References Sherman, S. R. (1994). Changes in age identity: self perceptions in middle and late life. Journal of Aging Studies, 8, 397–412. Stibich, M. (2009). What Does Aging In Place Mean? Retrieved 11 December 2011, from http://longevity.about.com/od/ agingproblems/f/aging-in-place.htm The Encyclopedia of Aging and the Elderly: dependence. (2006). Retrieved 11 December 2011, from http://www.medrounds.org/ency- clopedia-of-aging/2006/01/dependence.html The Finnish Youth Co-operation Allianssi. (2010). Young People in Finland 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2011, from http://www.alli.fi/ binary/file/-/id/665/fid/1033 What is community development? | CDX. (2011). Retrieved 11 December 2011, from http://www.cdx.org.uk/community-development/ what-community-development WHO (2011a). Definition of an older or elderly person. Retrieved 11 December 2011, from http://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ ageingdefnolder/en/index.html WHO (2011b). What is “active ageing”? Retrieved 11 December 2011, from http://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ageingdefnolder/en/ index.html -