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Designing Interactions / Experiences: Lecture #02

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This is an introduction workshop to Designing Interactions / Experiences module I’m teaching at Köln International School of Design of the Cologne University of Applied Sciences, which I’m honored to …

This is an introduction workshop to Designing Interactions / Experiences module I’m teaching at Köln International School of Design of the Cologne University of Applied Sciences, which I’m honored to give by invitation of Professor Philipp Heidkamp.

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  • 1. por Itamar Medeiros @designative http://www.linkedin.com/in/designative Designing Interactions 2013-2: DISCOVERY MODE
  • 2. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Introduction » Learning Objectives and Outline Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” Learning Outcomes §  You will understand all the preparation necessary to conduct user research; §  You will understand the basics of conducting Contextual Inquiry Studies Class Outline §  Understand the Design Challenge §  Define Your Audience §  Prepare for Research §  Contextual Inquiry
  • 3. Introduction: Collect / Create / Relate / Donate Collect Learn from previous experiences ! Relate Consult with peers and mentors " # $ Create Explore, compose, and evaluate possible solutions Donate Disseminating results Shneiderman, B. (February 1999), Creating Creativity for Everyone: User Interfaces for Supporting Innovation, ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 7, 1 (March 2000), 114-138. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Introduction » Collect / Create / Relate / Donate
  • 4. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  • 5. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  • 6. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Discovery Discovery builds a solid foundation for your ideas, opening up to new opportunities, and getting inspired to create new ideas. Discovery IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  • 7. Sharon, T., (2014), “Tools for Entrepreneurs: Flying Cars, UX Research, Attitude and Behavior” in Google for Entrepreneurs, retrieved on April 4th, 2014 from http://www.google.com/entrepreneurs/onlinelearning/
  • 8. Tomer, S., (2012), It's Our Research: Getting Stakeholder Buy-in for User Experience Research Projects, Morgan Kaufmann; 1 edition (April 2, 2012)
  • 9. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  • 10. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  • 11. Let’s review what we’ve go so far: §  A Design Challenge §  A Definition of Your Audience §  A list of Assumptions §  A list of Research Questions { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Relate » Discovery » Prepare for Research Discovery: Prepare for Research
  • 12. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Ethnography » Definitions Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos = folk/people and γράφω grapho = to write) is the science of contextualization Ethnography: Definitions Greenhouse, Carol (2009). Ethnographies of Neoliberalism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780812241921.
  • 13. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Ethnography » Definitions It is often employed for gathering empirical data on human societies and cultures. Data collection is often done through participant observation, interviews, questionnaires, etc. Ethnography: Definitions Wikipedia (2011), Ethnography, retrieved on September 13th, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnography
  • 14. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Ethnography » Definitions A qualitative description of the human social condition, based on fieldwork and observation. Ethnography: Definitions Kolko, J. (2008), INF385T | Information Design Studio, Lecture 4: Ethnography, Contextual Inquiry, and Contextual Design, UT Austin: School of Information
  • 15. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Ethnography » How we know what to design Ethnography: How we know what to design? Kolko, J. (2008), INF385T | Information Design Studio, Lecture 4: Ethnography, Contextual Inquiry, and Contextual Design, UT Austin: School of Information All ethnographic techniques attempt to understand and document user behavior: What People Do? Why they Do it?
  • 16. Kolko, J., (2011), Thoughts on Interaction Design, Second Edition, Morgan Kaufmann; 2nd edition (February 8,2011)
  • 17. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Ethnography » What can it do and what it cannot Ethnography: What can it do and what it cannot Ethnography is good for: §  Understanding problems within existing designs; §  Understanding how people work, play and live; §  Understanding why people do the things they do with a service, product or system; Ethnography is bad for: §  Determining if someone would buy a certain product or service; §  Identifying how much someone would pay for a certain product or service; §  Understanding what color, texture, material, size, or shape to make a certain product;
  • 18. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Ethnography » Tools & Techniques Ethnography: Tools & Techniques 1.  Contextual Inquiry Context, Partnership, Interpretation & Focus. 2.  Interviews No context for observation. 3.  Passive Observation Anthropological: become invisible and simply watch. 4.  Evaluative Ethnography Introduce a new object in the environment to understand its effects 5.  Kinesics Understanding the non-verbal behavior related to the human movement.
  • 19. Portigal, S., (2013), Interviewing Users, Rosenfeld Media; 1st edition (May 2, 2013)
  • 20. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Ethnography » Tools & Techniques Ethnography: Tools & Techniques 1.  Contextual Inquiry Context, Partnership, Interpretation & Focus. 2.  Interviews No context for observation. 3.  Passive Observation Anthropological: become invisible and simply watch. 4.  Evaluative Ethnography Introduce a new object in the environment to understand its effects 5.  Kinesics Understanding the non-verbal behavior related to the human movement.
  • 21. Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997)
  • 22. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Ethnography » Contextual Inquiry Ethnography: Contextual Inquiry Contextual inquiry defines four principles to guide the interaction with users: §  Context Interviews are conducted in the user’s actual workplace. §  Partnership User and researcher collaborate to understand the user’s work. §  Interpretation The researcher shares their interpretations and insights with the user during the interview §  Focus The researcher steers the interaction towards topics which are relevant to the team’s scope.
  • 23. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Contextual Inquiry » Advantages Contextual Inquiry: Advantages Contextual inquiry offers the following advantages over other customer research methods: §  Reveals tacit knowledge §  Produces highly reliable information §  Produces highly detailed information §  It is a very flexible technique
  • 24. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Contextual Inquiry » The Context Contextual Inquiry: The Context The researcher watches users do their own work tasks and discusses any artifacts they generate or use with them. In addition, the researcher gathers detailed re-tellings of specific past events when they are relevant to the project focus Wikipedia (2011), Contextual Inquiry, retrieved on September 13th, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contextual_inquiry
  • 25. Medeiros, I., (2010), People, Tools, Process & Artifacts in User Research retrieved 5 November 2013 from http://designative.info/project/user-research/
  • 26. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » The Context » People and Culture are Incredibly Complex The Context: People and Culture are Incredibly Complex Ethnography offers a way to make sense of this complexity. It lets us see beyond our preconceptions and immerse ourselves in the world of others. Most importantly, it allows us to see patterns of behavior in a real world context—patterns that we can understand both rationally and intuitively. AIGA (2011), An Ethnography Primer, retrieved on September 13th, 2011 from http://www.aiga.org/ethnography-primer/
  • 27. TED Conferences, LLC, 2011, “Jan Chipchase on our mobile phones”, in TED2007, retrieved on July 5th, 2011, http://www.ted.com/talks/view/lang/eng//id/190
  • 28. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » The Context » Gather Inspiration The Context: Gather Inspiration With a curious mindset, inspiration and new perspectives can be found in many places […] Sharpen your skills in observing the world around you. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  • 29. Medeiros, I. (2009), Living in China: Shanghai’s Pajamas Sightings in { design@tive } thoughts on Design, Technology & Culture, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://designative.info/2010/03/25/living-in-china-shanghais-pajamas-sightings/
  • 30. Medeiros, I. (2010), Blind-dating in China: parents "setting their kids up”, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/designative/3957914152/
  • 31. Medeiros, I. (2010), Blind-dating in China: "tall handsome guy looking for love... or for somebody with 2 masters degrees”, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/designative/3957600785/
  • 32. Medeiros, I. (2012), Untitled [Photograph; The Dubai Mall Courtesy Policy Notice, Dubai (UAE).]
  • 33. Medeiros, I. (2009), Untitled in Trips: Hong Kong 2009-2010, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/designative/9203967056/
  • 34. Medeiros, I. (2010), Untitled in Trips: Japan 2010, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/designative/9200540319/
  • 35. Medeiros, I. (2010), Untitled in Trips: Japan 2010, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/designative/9201902447/
  • 36. Medeiros, I. (2010), Untitled in Trips: Seoul 2010, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/designative/9203723240/
  • 37. Medeiros, I. (2010), Untitled in Trips: Seoul 2010, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/designative/9200973227/
  • 38. Medeiros, I. (2012), Untitled in Itamar Medeiros's Photos, retrieved October 31st , 2013 from https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10151118302052493&l=e97dd0dd46
  • 39. Medeiros, I. (2012), Untitled [Photograph; Pedestrian Crossing Button, Bonn (Germany).]
  • 40. Medeiros, I. (2012), Untitled [Photograph; Pedestrian Crossing Button, Dubai (UAE).]
  • 41. Medeiros, I. (2012), Untitled [Photograph; Pedestrian Crossing Button, Atlanta GA (USA).]
  • 42. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » The Context » Plan your Observations The Context: Plan your Observations Think of certain aspects of your experience you want to capture, such as: §  What emotions do you experience? Surprise? Frustration? Motivation? Decision making factors? And why? §  What interactions do you observe, and how do they feel? §  What is the mood of the room? What is the lighting like? What is the temperature? How is it affecting everyone? IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  • 43. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Plan your Observations » Build a Questionnaire Plan your Observations: Build a Questionnaire Having a good conversation with a stranger is not always easy. When speaking with research participants, you have to both build trust and help them feel comfortable while collecting relevant information. Carefully prepare for your conversations in order to manage this delicate balance. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  • 44. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Plan your Observations » Build a Questionnaire Plan your Observations: Build a Questionnaire IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/ 1.  Identify Topics What do you need to learn about your challenge? What are you hoping to understand about people’s motivations and frustrations? What do you want to learn about their activities? 2.  Develop Questions Formulate open-ended questions that explore these topics, such as: » “Tell me about an experience...” » “What are the best/worst parts about…?” » “Can you help me understand more about…?” 3. Organize Your Questions Use the following structure: » Start with specifics: ask questions your participants are comfortable answering » Go broad: ask more profound questions about hopes, fears and ambitions. » Probe deep: explore your challenge or any interesting theme. Consider prompting thoughts with “what if” scenarios.
  • 45. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Plan your Observations » Be Prepared Plan your Observations: Build a Questionnaire Be Prepared!
  • 46. Austin Center for Design (2009-2011), Design Research Tools in Design Research Toolkit, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.ac4d.com/2010/12/06/design-research-toolkit/
  • 47. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Plan your Observations » Explore and Take Notes Plan your Observations: Explore and Take Notes Try to blend in with everyone else during your observation. §  Find a spot that’s out of the way. §  Take notes and photos. Capture interesting quotes. §  Draw sketches, plans and layouts. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  • 48. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Plan your Observations » Explore and Take Notes Plan your Observations: Explore and Take Notes Being a good “apprentice”: §  Be a keen observer §  Don’t be afraid to ask questions §  Maintain an attitude of inquiry and learning §  Admire the Master as an expert in his/her work §  Aspire to see the World as they do Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997)
  • 49. Kuniavsky, M. (2003), Observing the User Experience, Morgan Kaufmann; 1 edition (April 22, 2003)
  • 50. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Explore and Take Notes » What to Collect Explore and Take Notes: What to Collect The tools they use. Note whether the tools are be used as they’re designed or repurposed. How do the tools interact? What are the brands? What kind of Post-its they have around their monitor/desk? Kuniavsky, M. (2003), Observing the User Experience, Morgan Kaufmann; 1 edition (April 22, 2003)
  • 51. Medeiros, I., (2010), People, Tools, Process & Artifacts in User Research retrieved 5 November 2013 from http://designative.info/project/user-research/
  • 52. Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997)
  • 53. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Explore and Take Notes » What to Collect Explore and Take Notes: What to Collect The sequences in which actions occur. The order of action is important in terms of their understanding about the task. Is there a set order that’s dictated by the tools or by office culture? When does the order matter? Kuniavsky, M. (2003), Observing the User Experience, Morgan Kaufmann; 1 edition (April 22, 2003)
  • 54. Informatics@Northwestern (2012), IKEA Instructions in My checklist for deploying mission critical web apps, retrieved 5 November 2013 from http://informatics.northwestern.edu/blog/tag/step-by-step-instructions/
  • 55. Copyright status: Unknown (pending investigation). Retrieved November 27th 2013 from http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/contextual_design.html
  • 56. Kolko, J. (2008), Workflow Model of Getting a Tattoo in INF385T | Methods of Design Synthesis, Lecture 2: Ethnography, Contextual Inquiry, and Work Flow Modeling, UT Austin: School of Information
  • 57. Medeiros, I. (2007-2013), Swimlane Diagrams in Data Visualization, retrieved November 27th, 2013 from http://designative.info/project/data-visualization/#Swimlane_Diagrams
  • 58. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Explore and Take Notes » What to Collect Explore and Take Notes: What to Collect Their methods of organization. People cluster some information for convenience and some out of necessity. The clustering my be shared between people, or it may be unique to the individual being observed. How do they organize the information elements they use? Kuniavsky, M. (2003), Observing the User Experience, Morgan Kaufmann; 1 edition (April 22, 2003)
  • 59. Murray, K. (2010), The Pit and the Password Pendulum in Kevin’s Security Scrapbook retrieved 5 November 2013 from http://spybusters.blogspot.de/2010_09_01_archive.html
  • 60. Contextual Inquiries Costumer Visit at an Electric Distribution Utility Company to understand the artifacts produced by Electric Distribution Designers in the Utility Design domain.
  • 61. Contextual Inquiries Costumer Visit at an Electric Distribution Utility Company to understand the artifacts produced by Electric Distribution Designers in the Utility Design domain.
  • 62. Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997)
  • 63. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Explore and Take Notes » What to Collect Explore and Take Notes: What to Collect Artifacts. The non-digital tools people user to help them accomplish the tasks they’re trying to do. Documenting and collecting people’s artifacts can be enlightening. Kuniavsky, M. (2003), Observing the User Experience, Morgan Kaufmann; 1 edition (April 22, 2003)
  • 64. Medeiros, I., (2010), People, Tools, Process & Artifacts in User Research retrieved 5 November 2013 from http://designative.info/project/user-research/
  • 65. Contextual Inquiries Costumer Visit at an Electric Distribution Utility Company to understand the artifacts produced by Electric Distribution Designers in the Utility Design domain.
  • 66. Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997)
  • 67. Huang, K. H., & Deng, Y. S. (2008). Chinese Tradition of Tea Drinking Artifact Model in Social interaction design in cultural context: A case study of a traditional social activity. International Journal of Design, 2(2), 81-96.
  • 68. Holtzblatt, K., (2001). Artifact Model of a Car in Beyond the Tower of Babel., retrieved September 21st, 2011 from http://incontextdesign.com/articles/beyond-the-tower-of-babel/
  • 69. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Explore and Take Notes » What to Look for Explore and Take Notes: What to Look for §  Workarounds §  Mismatch between what people say and do §  Offhand, under the breath comments §  Sighs §  Rolling of eyes §  Confessions Kolko, J. (2008), INF385T | Information Design Studio, Lecture 4: Ethnography, Contextual Inquiry, and Contextual Design, UT Austin: School of Information
  • 70. §  Workarounds §  Mismatch between what people say and do §  Offhand, under the breath comments §  Sighs §  Rolling of eyes §  Confessions §  Wants, Needs, Goals, Motivations §  Touch Points §  Sequences §  Workarounds §  Pain / Break Points §  Feelings
  • 71. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Explore and Take Notes » Capture What You’ve Seen Explore and Take Notes: Capture What You’ve Seen Things you must do immediately after your observation: §  Take some time to capture the things you found most interesting. §  Write them on Post-it Notes (or any re- sortable media) so you will be able to reorganize them later. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  • 72. Kolko, J. (2008), INF385T | Information Design Studio, Lecture 4: Ethnography, Contextual Inquiry, and Contextual Design, UT Austin: School of Information
  • 73. Young, Indi. 2008. Contextual Inquiry notes in Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York: Rosenfeld Media.
  • 74. Young, Indi. 2008. Affinity Diagrams in Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York: Rosenfeld Media.
  • 75. { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Create » Plan your Observations » Exercise Plan your Observations: Exercise #1 Let’s finalize the preparation of our research. The output of this exercise should be: §  A refined Design Challenge §  A clear Definition of Your Audience §  A questionnaire to guide you through the contextual inquiry interviews
  • 76. Plan your Observations: Exercise #2 Once all that is defined, let’s plan our Pilot Interview. The output of this exercise should be: §  Audio/Video Records; §  A list of “Labeled Facts” or post-it notes §  An updated questionnaire { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Create » Plan your Observations » Exercise
  • 77. Go to the KISD Space for this course and share with the group: 1.  Any updates to Design Challenge 2.  Any updates to definition of Your Audience 3.  The questionnaire that will guide you through the contextual inquiry interviews Itamar Medeiros http://designative.info/ http://twitter.com/designative itamar.medeiros@designative.info { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Donate » Disseminating Results Donate: Disseminating Results
  • 78. Go to the KISD Space for this course and share with the group: 4.  Audio/Video Records of your Pilot interview; 5.  A list of “Labeled Facts” or post-it notes of your Pilot interview; 6.  An updated questionnaire Itamar Medeiros http://designative.info/ http://twitter.com/designative itamar.medeiros@designative.info { Designing Interactions: Discovery “Mode” } Youareat: Donate » Disseminating Results Donate: Disseminating Results