por Itamar Medeiros	
	
@designative	
	
http://www.linkedin.com/in/designative	
Designing Interactions 2013-2:	
DISCOVERY M...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Introduction » Welcome	
Designing Interactions:
Welcome!	
My n...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Introduction » Learning Objectives and Outline	
Designing Inte...
Introduction:	
Collect / Create / Relate / Donate	
Collect
Learn from previous
experiences	
!
Relate
Consult with peers
an...
Donate:
Disseminating Results	
Let’s recap what we’ve done so far. By now,
you should have:	
§  A Design Challenge	
§  A...
IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved
September 1st , 2011 from http://...
IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved
September 1st , 2011 from http://...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Interpretation	
Interpretation transforms your stori...
TED Conferences, LLC, 2011, “Emily Pilloton: Teaching design for change”,
in TEDGlobal 2010, retrieved on July 5th, 2011,
...
Search for Meaning	
 Create Work Models
Search for Meaning	
 Create Work Models
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Constant Evolution	
IDEO (2011), De...
IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved
September 1st , 2011 from http://...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories	
IDEO (2011), Design T...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories » Capture Your Learnin...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories » Share Inspiring Stor...
Quesenbery, W., Brooks, K., (2010),
Storytelling for User Experience: Crafting Stories for Better Design,
Rosenfeld Media;...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories » Share Inspiring Stor...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories » Share Inspiring Stor...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories » Share Inspiring Stor...
Kolko, J. (2008), INF385T | Information Design Studio, Lecture 4: Ethnography, Contextual
Inquiry, and Contextual Design, ...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories » Share Inspiring Stor...
Young, Indi. 2008. Contextual Inquiry notes in
Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York:
Rose...
Austin Center for Design (2009-2011), Interpretation Session in Starting to think about
the boys on the row, retrieved Sep...
Quesenbery, W, (2010),
Storytelling for User Experience: Crafting Stories for Better Design,
Rosenfeld Media; 1st edition ...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories » Share Inspiring Stor...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Search for Meaning	
Search For Mean...
IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators,
retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Search for Meaning	
Search For Mean...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Find Themes	
1.  Cluster Relate...
1.  Cluster Related
Information
What did many people
mention? Did someone
else say the opposite?
Are there behaviors
you s...
§  Workarounds	
§  Mismatch between what people say and do	
§  Offhand, under the breath comments	
§  Sighs	
§  Rolli...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Find Themes	
1.  Cluster Relate...
IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved
September 1st , 2011 from http://...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Making Sense of Findings	
Searc...
Young, Indi. 2008. Contextual Inquiry notes in
Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York:
Rose...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Making Sense of Findings	
Searc...
Young, Indi. 2008. Contextual Inquiry notes in
Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York:
Rose...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Making Sense of Findings	
Searc...
Ulaszek, J., Winters, B. (2013) ‘Setting Course – Design Research to Experience
Roadmap.’ Presentation at IxDA’s Interacti...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Making Sense of Findings	
Searc...
PhotoDev (2013), Affinity Diagrams in Contextual Inquiry, retrieved November 26th,
2013 from http://www.adamatorres.com/ga...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Making Sense of Findings » Affinity Diagrams	
Make S...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Making Sense of Findings » Affinity Diagrams	
Make S...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Making Sense of Findings » Affinity Diagrams	
Make S...
Design Process
Nadin, M.,(1990), Interface design: Semiotics in the Individual Sciences, Vol. II
(W.A. Koch, Ed.). Bochum:...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Making Sense of Findings » Affinity Diagrams	
Make S...
Young, Indi. 2008. Affinity Diagrams in
Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York:
Rosenfeld M...
Young, Indi. 2008. Mental model of a typical morning for people who commute to
work or school in Mental Models: Aligning D...
Young, Indi. 2008. Mental model with features aligned beneath it. (Features
borrowed from the product category list from P...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Relate » Interpretation	
Interpretation	
Let’s review what we’...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Relate » Interpretation	
Interpretation	
Let’s review what we’...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Define Insights	
Search for Mea...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Define Insights	
Search for Mea...
IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved
September 1st , 2011 from http://...
Young, Indi. 2008. Mental model with features aligned beneath it. (Features
borrowed from the product category list from P...
PhotoDev (2013), Affinity Diagrams in Contextual Inquiry, retrieved November 26th,
2013 from http://www.adamatorres.com/ga...
Search for Meaning	
 Create Work Models
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Create Work Models	
Search for ...
Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997),
Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan
Kaufmann; 1st edition (Se...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Create Work Models	
Search for ...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Create Work Models » Flow Model	
Create Work Models:...
Medeiros, I. (2007-2013), Swimlane Diagrams in Data Visualization,
retrieved November 27th, 2013 from
http://designative.i...
Kolko, J. (2008), Workflow Model of Getting a Tattoo in INF385T | Methods
of Design Synthesis, Lecture 2: Ethnography, Con...
Copyright status: Unknown (pending investigation).
Retrieved November 27th 2013 from
http://www.interaction-design.org/enc...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Create Work Models » Sequence Model	
Create Work Mod...
Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Email Triage Sequence Diagram in
Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems,...
Copyright status: Unknown (pending investigation).
Retrieved November 27th 2013 from
http://www.interaction-design.org/enc...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Create Work Models » Artifact Model	
Create Work Mod...
Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997),
Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan
Kaufmann; 1st edition (Se...
Huang, K. H., & Deng, Y. S. (2008). Chinese Tradition of Tea Drinking Artifact
Model in Social interaction design in cultu...
Holtzblatt, K., (2001). Artifact Model of a Car in Beyond the Tower of Babel.,
retrieved September 21st, 2011 from
http://...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Create Work Models » Cultural Model	
Create Work Mod...
Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997),
Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan
Kaufmann; 1st edition (Se...
Huang, K. H., & Deng, Y. S. (2008). Chinese Tradition of Tea Drinking Cultural
Model in Social interaction design in cultu...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Create Work Models » Physical Model	
Create Work Mod...
Holtzblatt, K., (2001). Physical Model of a Supermarket in Beyond the Tower of Babel,
retrieved September 21st, 2011 from
...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Consolidating Work Models	
Consolidating Work Models...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Collect » Consolidating Work Models	
Consolidating Work Models...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Relate » Consolidating Work Models	
Consolidating Work Models	...
{ Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” }
Youareat: Create » Interpretation » Exercise	
Interpretation:	
Exercise	...
Go to our KISD Space for this course and share
work-in-progress samples of your:	
	
1.  Affinity Diagram	
2.  Consolidated...
Designing Interactions / Experiences: Lecture #03
Designing Interactions / Experiences: Lecture #03
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Designing Interactions / Experiences: Lecture #03

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This is the 3rd (third) lecture of the "Designing Interactions / Experiences" module I’m teaching at Köln International School of Design of the Cologne University of Applied Sciences, which I’m honored to give by invitation of Professor Philipp Heidkamp. In it we discuss the general mechanics of Interpreting the data collected during Contextual Inquiry interviews

Published in: Design, Technology, Spiritual

Transcript of "Designing Interactions / Experiences: Lecture #03"

  1. 1. por Itamar Medeiros @designative http://www.linkedin.com/in/designative Designing Interactions 2013-2: DISCOVERY MODE
  2. 2. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Introduction » Welcome Designing Interactions: Welcome! My name is Itamar Medeiros http://designative.info/ http://www.linkedin.com/in/designative/ medeiros.itamar@gmail.com @designative
  3. 3. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Introduction » Learning Objectives and Outline Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” Learning Outcomes §  You will learn how to use storytelling to turn meaningful insights into actionable opportunities for design Class Outline §  Tell Stories §  Capture your learning; §  Share Inspiring Stories; §  Search for Meaning; §  Define Insights
  4. 4. Introduction: Collect / Create / Relate / Donate Collect Learn from previous experiences ! Relate Consult with peers and mentors " # $ Create Explore, compose, and evaluate possible solutions Donate Disseminating results Shneiderman, B. (February 1999), Creating Creativity for Everyone: User Interfaces for Supporting Innovation, ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 7, 1 (March 2000), 114-138. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Introduction » Collect / Create / Relate / Donate
  5. 5. Donate: Disseminating Results Let’s recap what we’ve done so far. By now, you should have: §  A Design Challenge §  A Definition of Your Audience §  An overview of what you know and what you don’t know about your topic (mind map) §  A questionnaire §  Audio/Video Records of your Interviews; §  A list of “Labeled Facts” or post-it notes { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Donate » Disseminating Results
  6. 6. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  7. 7. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  8. 8. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Interpretation Interpretation transforms your stories into meaningful insights. Observations, field visits, or just a simple conversation can be great inspiration— but finding meaning in that and turning it into actionable opportunities for design is not an easy task. Interpretation IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  9. 9. TED Conferences, LLC, 2011, “Emily Pilloton: Teaching design for change”, in TEDGlobal 2010, retrieved on July 5th, 2011, http://www.ted.com/talks/emily_pilloton_teaching_design_for_change.html
  10. 10. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Relate » Interpretation Interpretation Let’s review what we’ve go so far: §  A Design Challenge §  A Definition of Your Audience §  A Mind Map §  A Questionnaire §  Audio/Video Records of your Interviews §  A list of “Labeled Facts” or post-it notes
  11. 11. Search for Meaning Create Work Models
  12. 12. Search for Meaning Create Work Models
  13. 13. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Constant Evolution IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/ Interpretation: Constant Evolution Throughout the Interpretation phase, your perspective will evolve and change. As you gain a clearer understanding of what your observations mean, you can relate them to your challenge and use them as inspiration.
  14. 14. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  15. 15. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/ Interpretation: Tell Stories When you step out of an observation, it’s easy to feel overwhelmed by the amount of information you have taken in. Use the half hour immediately after the session to start capturing what you have learned.
  16. 16. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories » Capture Your Learnings Tell Stories: Capture Your Learnings 1.  Find a space and time Plan extra time so that you can share your thoughts and impressions right after your observation. This may often happen in a coffee shop or while in transit. 2.  Focus What’s Important who did you meet (profession, age, location, etc)? what did this participant care about the most? what frustrated him/ her? What was interesting about the way he/she interacted with his/her environment? 3.  Documents you Thoughts Capture your observations on Post-it Notes (easier to reorganize them later). Illustrate your thoughts with drawings.
  17. 17. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories » Share Inspiring Stories Tell Stories: Share Inspiring Stories Share what you learned from your research as stories, not just general statements. This will create common knowledge that your team can use to imagine opportunities and ideas. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  18. 18. Quesenbery, W., Brooks, K., (2010), Storytelling for User Experience: Crafting Stories for Better Design, Rosenfeld Media; 1st edition (April 15, 2010)
  19. 19. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories » Share Inspiring Stories Tell Stories: Share Inspiring Stories What storytelling does is: it can take rational ideas that may be about numbers or math and bring them more fully into the world by giving them a human context to affect people. Quesenbery, W., Brooks, K., (2010), Storytelling for User Experience: Crafting Stories for Better Design, Rosenfeld Media; 1st edition (April 15, 2010)
  20. 20. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories » Share Inspiring Stories Tell Stories: Share Inspiring Stories So one of the best things about stories is that they inspire other stories. Stories are a way for people to be constantly breathing a form of life into a very rational process. Quesenbery, W., Brooks, K., (2010), Storytelling for User Experience: Crafting Stories for Better Design, Rosenfeld Media; 1st edition (April 15, 2010)
  21. 21. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories » Share Inspiring Stories Tell Stories: Share Inspiring Stories 1.  Set up a Space Plan your storytelling session in a room with plenty of wall space. Distribute Post-it Notes and markers. Have a flip chart pad or large sheets of paper nearby, as well as tape to attach these sheets to the wall. 2.  Take Turns Describe the individuals you met and the places you visited. Be specific and talk about what actually happened. Revisit the notes you took right after your observation. Print out your photos and use them to illustrate your stories. 3.  Tell the story of each person following these prompts You may have already used them when capturing your first impressions (check the focus on what’s important mentioned during Capture Your Learnings).
  22. 22. Kolko, J. (2008), INF385T | Information Design Studio, Lecture 4: Ethnography, Contextual Inquiry, and Contextual Design, UT Austin: School of Information
  23. 23. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories » Share Inspiring Stories Tell Stories: Share Inspiring Stories 3.  Actively Listen While you are listening to each other, compare and contrast the things you have learned. Explore areas where you find different opinions and contradictions. Begin to look for recurring themes. 4.  Capture The Information in Small Pieces Write down notes and observations on Post-it Notes while listening to a story. Use concise and complete sentences that everyone can easily understand. Capture quotes— they are a powerful way of representing the voice of a participant. 5.  Surround Yourself with Stories Write large enough so that everyone can read your notes. Put all Post-its up on the wall on large sheets of paper. Use one sheet per story, so you have an overview of all your experiences and the people you have met.
  24. 24. Young, Indi. 2008. Contextual Inquiry notes in Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York: Rosenfeld Media.
  25. 25. Austin Center for Design (2009-2011), Interpretation Session in Starting to think about the boys on the row, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.ac4d.com/2010/10/13/starting-to-think-about-the-boys-on-the-row/
  26. 26. Quesenbery, W, (2010), Storytelling for User Experience: Crafting Stories for Better Design, Rosenfeld Media; 1st edition (April 15, 2010)
  27. 27. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Tell Stories » Share Inspiring Stories Tell Stories: Share Inspiring Stories Telling a story and making the context of that story wider basically gives you a set of glasses —a different sets of glasses—that allows people to grow in different ways and, therefore, because the world is different or wider or bigger – whichever you prefer – the problem takes on a different shape. Quesenbery, W., Brooks, K., (2010), Storytelling for User Experience: Crafting Stories for Better Design, Rosenfeld Media; 1st edition (April 15, 2010)
  28. 28. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Search for Meaning Search For Meaning After having collected and shared stories from your fieldwork, begin to make sense of all that information and inspiration. This part of the process can take some time. A good first step is to identify themes. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  29. 29. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  30. 30. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Interpretation » Search for Meaning Search For Meaning Every team member choose three Post-its they find most interesting. Place each of them on a large sheet of paper and begin to look for more evidence of the same theme. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  31. 31. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Find Themes 1.  Cluster Related Information What did many people mention? Did someone else say the opposite? Are there behaviors you saw repeatedly? Which issues were obvious? Rearrange the Post-its into these new buckets. 2.  Find Headlines Name the clusters you have defined, e.g., “lack of space.” Continue to sort and rearrange the information until you feel you have picked the interesting bits out. 3.  Turn Headlines into Sentences Have a closer look at your themes and the stories that support them, and express them in a meaningful way. Write a full sentence. Use a new Post-it and label your cluster with that statement. Search For Meaning: Find Themes
  32. 32. 1.  Cluster Related Information What did many people mention? Did someone else say the opposite? Are there behaviors you saw repeatedly? Which issues were obvious? Rearrange the Post-its into these new buckets. 2.  Find Headlines Name the clusters you have defined, e.g., “lack of space.” Continue to sort and rearrange the information until you feel you have picked the interesting bits out. 3.  Turn Headlines into Sentences Have a closer look at your themes and the stories that support them, and express them in a meaningful way. Write a full sentence. Use a new Post-it and label your cluster with that statement. Search For Meaning: Find Themes { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Find Themes
  33. 33. §  Workarounds §  Mismatch between what people say and do §  Offhand, under the breath comments §  Sighs §  Rolling of eyes §  Confessions §  Wants, Needs, Goals, Motivations §  Touch Points §  Sequences §  Workarounds §  Pain / Break Points §  Feelings
  34. 34. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Find Themes 1.  Cluster Related Information What did many people mention? Did someone else say the opposite? Are there behaviors you saw repeatedly? Which issues were obvious? Rearrange the Post-its into these new buckets. 2.  Find Headlines Name the clusters you have defined, e.g., “lack of space.” Continue to sort and rearrange the information until you feel you have picked the interesting bits out. 3.  Turn Headlines into Sentences Have a closer look at your themes and the stories that support them, and express them in a meaningful way. Write a full sentence. Use a new Post-it and label your cluster with that statement. Search For Meaning: Find Themes
  35. 35. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  36. 36. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Making Sense of Findings Search For Meaning: Make Sense of Findings Once you have created themes as an overview of your research findings, begin to take a closer look at what they mean. Sort and analyze them until they help you build a clear point of view. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  37. 37. Young, Indi. 2008. Contextual Inquiry notes in Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York: Rosenfeld Media.
  38. 38. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Making Sense of Findings Search For Meaning: Make Sense of Findings 1.  Look for links between themes Take a closer look at your themes and find overlaps, patterns and tensions as they relate to each other. Can you group several related themes in larger categories? What contradictions do you find? What feels surprising and why? 2.  Dig deeper Take a step back and discuss what you have discovered. Are there themes that you have different opinions about? What are you most excited about? Can you begin to see the relevance of your challenge? 3.  Move Things Around Regroup the information and add new versions of your headlines until they feel strong.
  39. 39. Young, Indi. 2008. Contextual Inquiry notes in Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York: Rosenfeld Media.
  40. 40. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Making Sense of Findings Search For Meaning: Make Sense of Findings 4.  Get input from the outside Explain the themes to someone who is not part of your team. Learn from their feedback and try alternative ways of organizing the information. 5.  Be prepared to let go Leave behind stories that don’t seem important. Clean up your space and only keep the information you are still using.
  41. 41. Ulaszek, J., Winters, B. (2013) ‘Setting Course – Design Research to Experience Roadmap.’ Presentation at IxDA’s Interaction’13 Conference, Toronto – Canada, 28 February 2013.
  42. 42. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Making Sense of Findings Search For Meaning: Make Sense of Findings What we’re trying to do is to synthesize large amounts of data by finding relationships between ideas. The information is then gradually structured from the bottom up into meaningful groups.
  43. 43. PhotoDev (2013), Affinity Diagrams in Contextual Inquiry, retrieved November 26th, 2013 from http://www.adamatorres.com/gallery-project/?page_id=106
  44. 44. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Making Sense of Findings » Affinity Diagrams Make Sense of Findings: Affinity Diagrams Affinity diagrams can be used to: §  Draw out common themes from a large amount of information; §  Discover previously unseen connections between various ideas or information §  Brainstorm root causes and solutions to a problem PM Hut (2007-2011) Affinity Diagram - Kawakita Jiro or KJ Method, Retrieved June 6, 2010 from http://www.pmhut.com/affinity-diagram-kawakita-jiro-or-kj-method
  45. 45. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Making Sense of Findings » Affinity Diagrams Make Sense of Findings: Affinity Diagrams Affinity diagrams can be used to: §  Draw out common themes from a large amount of information; §  Discover previously unseen connections between various ideas or information §  Brainstorm root causes and solutions to a problem PM Hut (2007-2011) Affinity Diagram - Kawakita Jiro or KJ Method, Retrieved June 6, 2010 from http://www.pmhut.com/affinity-diagram-kawakita-jiro-or-kj-method
  46. 46. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Making Sense of Findings » Affinity Diagrams Make Sense of Findings: Affinity Diagrams & Mental Models Designing something requires that you completely understand what a person wants to get done. Empathy with a person is distinct from studying how a person uses something. Empathy extends to knowing what the person wants to accomplish regardless of whether she has or is aware of the thing you are designing. Young, Indi. 2008. What is a Mental Model in Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York: Rosenfeld Media.
  47. 47. Design Process Nadin, M.,(1990), Interface design: Semiotics in the Individual Sciences, Vol. II (W.A. Koch, Ed.). Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1990, pp. 418-436.
  48. 48. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Making Sense of Findings » Affinity Diagrams Make Sense of Findings: Affinity Diagrams & Mental Models You need to know the person’s goals and what procedure and philosophy she follows to accomplish them. Mental models give you a deep understanding of people’s motivations and thought-processes, along with the emotional and philosophical landscape in which they are operating. Young, Indi. 2008. What is a Mental Model in Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York: Rosenfeld Media.
  49. 49. Young, Indi. 2008. Affinity Diagrams in Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York: Rosenfeld Media.
  50. 50. Young, Indi. 2008. Mental model of a typical morning for people who commute to work or school in Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York: Rosenfeld Media.
  51. 51. Young, Indi. 2008. Mental model with features aligned beneath it. (Features borrowed from the product category list from Procter & Gamble’s site www.pg.com.) in Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York: Rosenfeld Media.
  52. 52. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Relate » Interpretation Interpretation Let’s review what we’ve go so far: §  A Design Challenge §  A Definition of Your Audience §  Audio/Video Records of your Interviews §  A list of “Labeled Facts” or post-it notes
  53. 53. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Relate » Interpretation Interpretation Let’s review what we’ve go so far: §  A Design Challenge §  A Definition of Your Audience §  A Affinity Diagram
  54. 54. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Define Insights Search for Meaning: Define Insights Insights are a concise expression of what you have learned from your research and inspiration activities. They are the unexpected information that makes you sit up and pay attention. Insights allow you to see the world in a new way and are a catalyst for new ideas. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  55. 55. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Define Insights Search for Meaning: Define Insights 1.  Select from surprises Look across your buckets and themes and choose the information that you find most surprising, interesting, or worth pursuing. What have you learned that had not occurred to you before? What did you find most inspiring? 2.  Reconnect the learnings to your Design Challenge How do your findings relate to your challenge? Narrow down the information to those insights that are relevant and find new clusters. Try to limit your insights to the three to five most important. 3.  Craft your Insights Experiment with the wording and structure to best communicate your insights. Create short and memorable sentences that get to the point. Make sure your insights convey the sense of a new perspective or possibility.
  56. 56. IDEO (2011), Design Thinking Process in Design Thinking Toolkit for Educators, retrieved September 1st , 2011 from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/
  57. 57. Young, Indi. 2008. Mental model with features aligned beneath it. (Features borrowed from the product category list from Procter & Gamble’s site www.pg.com.) in Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York: Rosenfeld Media.
  58. 58. PhotoDev (2013), Affinity Diagrams in Contextual Inquiry, retrieved November 26th, 2013 from http://www.adamatorres.com/gallery-project/?page_id=106
  59. 59. Search for Meaning Create Work Models
  60. 60. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Create Work Models Search for Meaning: Create Work Models Creating a work model helps us develop: §  A shared understanding of the user-data; §  A shared language for the design team; §  An easily understandable deliverable for communication outside the design team; §  A visual representation of the user data. Kolko, J. (2008), INF385T | Methods of Design Synthesis, Lecture 2: Ethnography, Contextual Inquiry, and Work Flow Modeling, UT Austin: School of Information
  61. 61. Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997)
  62. 62. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Search for Meaning » Create Work Models Search for Meaning: Create Work Models Let’s look at five kinds of work models: §  Flow: Direction of communication and coordination §  Sequence: Detailed sequence of work steps §  Artifact: Physical objects that support the work §  Cultural: External influences §  Physical: Layout of the work environment Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997)
  63. 63. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Create Work Models » Flow Model Create Work Models: Flow Model Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997) §  Represents the coordination, communication, interaction, roles, and responsibilities of the people in a certain work practice §  Includes the places where communication happens, the artifacts used for communication, and breakdowns in communication that negatively impact work
  64. 64. Medeiros, I. (2007-2013), Swimlane Diagrams in Data Visualization, retrieved November 27th, 2013 from http://designative.info/project/data-visualization/#Swimlane_Diagrams
  65. 65. Kolko, J. (2008), Workflow Model of Getting a Tattoo in INF385T | Methods of Design Synthesis, Lecture 2: Ethnography, Contextual Inquiry, and Work Flow Modeling, UT Austin: School of Information
  66. 66. Copyright status: Unknown (pending investigation). Retrieved November 27th 2013 from http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/contextual_design.html
  67. 67. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Create Work Models » Sequence Model Create Work Models: Sequence Model Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997) §  Low-level, step-by-step information on how work is actually done: §  Includes the intent behind the action, the trigger that led the user to this action, and breakdowns that create problems; §  Captured at level of detail appropriate for focus of the design team.
  68. 68. Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Email Triage Sequence Diagram in Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997)
  69. 69. Copyright status: Unknown (pending investigation). Retrieved November 27th 2013 from http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/contextual_design.html
  70. 70. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Create Work Models » Artifact Model Create Work Models: Artifact Model Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997) §  Represents the documents or other physical things that are created while working or are used to support the work; §  Artifacts often have a structure or styling that could represent the user's way of structuring the work.
  71. 71. Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997)
  72. 72. Huang, K. H., & Deng, Y. S. (2008). Chinese Tradition of Tea Drinking Artifact Model in Social interaction design in cultural context: A case study of a traditional social activity. International Journal of Design, 2(2), 81-96.
  73. 73. Holtzblatt, K., (2001). Artifact Model of a Car in Beyond the Tower of Babel., retrieved September 21st, 2011 from http://incontextdesign.com/articles/beyond-the-tower-of-babel/
  74. 74. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Create Work Models » Cultural Model Create Work Models: Cultural Model Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997) §  Represents the norms, influences, and pressures that are present in the work environment §  Reveals in the language used to describe work, the tone of the place, the policies, and the influence of the overall organization
  75. 75. Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997)
  76. 76. Huang, K. H., & Deng, Y. S. (2008). Chinese Tradition of Tea Drinking Cultural Model in Social interaction design in cultural context: A case study of a traditional social activity. International Journal of Design, 2(2), 81-96.
  77. 77. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Create Work Models » Physical Model Create Work Models: Physical Model Beyer, H., Holtzblatt, K., (1997), Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition (September 15, 1997) §  Represents the physical environment where the work tasks are accomplished; §  Often, there are multiple physical models representing, e.g., office layout, network topology, or the layout of tools on a computer display; §  Focuses on aspects relevant to the work / focus, and not on complete fidelity.
  78. 78. Holtzblatt, K., (2001). Physical Model of a Supermarket in Beyond the Tower of Babel, retrieved September 21st, 2011 from http://incontextdesign.com/articles/beyond-the-tower-of-babel/
  79. 79. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Consolidating Work Models Consolidating Work Models Consolidating models across different users and interviews allows the team to see patterns: §  Some observations may be missed - by consolidating several interviews, we can achieve better coverage §  Reduces likelihood of bias by one idiosyncratic user or interview §  Only done for important and/or relevant models
  80. 80. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Collect » Consolidating Work Models Consolidating Work Models Which ones are relevant? §  Flow: Direction of communication and coordination §  Sequence: Detailed sequence of work steps §  Artifact: Physical objects that support the work §  Cultural: External influences §  Physical: Layout of the work environment
  81. 81. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Relate » Consolidating Work Models Consolidating Work Models Let’s review what we’ve go so far: §  A Design Challenge §  A Definition of Your Audience §  An Affinity Diagram §  A Consolidated Work Model
  82. 82. { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Create » Interpretation » Exercise Interpretation: Exercise Please continue to work throughout the week, so that we have the following ready for our next workshop: §  A refined Design Challenge §  A clear Definition of Your Audience §  An Affinity Diagram §  A Consolidated Work Model
  83. 83. Go to our KISD Space for this course and share work-in-progress samples of your: 1.  Affinity Diagram 2.  Consolidated Work Model Itamar Medeiros http://designative.info/ http://twitter.com/designative medeiros.itamar@gmail.com { Designing Interactions: Interpretation “Mode” } Youareat: Donate » Disseminating Results Donate: Disseminating Results

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