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A related, more recent Nobel Prize (Chemistry, 1993) was given for the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to Kary Mullis
This puts together the concepts of DNA synthesis catalyzed by a polymerase, denaturation, and annealing.
"In Berkeley it drizzles in the winter. Avocados ripen at odd times and the tree in Fred's front yard was wet and sagging from a load of fruit. I was sagging as I walked out to my little silver Honda Civic, which never failed to start. Neither Fred, empty Becks bottles, nor the sweet smell of the dawn of the age of PCR could replace Jenny. I was lonesome."
Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis are two of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. The infections are asymptomatic and can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, salpingitis in women, epididymitis in men, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy.
The HIV-1 test is used as a monitor of the severity of the virus. The HIV-1 causes a depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes, causing immunodeficiency, multiple opportunistic infections, malignancies, and death.
A 142 base target sequence in the HIV-1 gag gene is converted from RNA to complementary DNA, and to double stranded DNA using Thermus thermophilus DNA polymerase in the presence of manganese and buffers, which performs the reverse transcription and the amplification steps simultaneously.