Communication

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  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001 Managers spend at least 80 percent of their work time in direct communication with others. The other 20 percent is spent doing desk work, most of which is communication in the form of reading and writing. Communication skills are a fundamental part of every managerial activity. When managers perform the planning function, they gather information and meet with others to explain the plan. When managers lead, they communicate to share a vision of the organization and motivate employees to achieve the vision. When managers organize, they gather information about the state of the organization and communicate the new structure to others.
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001 1. Good communication is essential for obtaining efficiency, quality, responsiveness to customers, and innovation and thus us a necessity for gaining competitive advantage. 2. Managers can increase efficiency by taking advantage of new and more efficient technologies and by training workers to operate the new technologies. 3. Improving quality hinges on effective communication. a. Managers need to communicate to all members of an organization the importance of high quality and the routes to attaining it. b. Subordinates need to communicate quality problems and suggestions to their superiors. 4. Good communication can help increase responsiveness to customers . a. When the organizational members who are closest to customers are empowered to communicate customers’ needs to managers, managers are better able to respond to these needs. b. Managers must communicate with other organizational members to determine how best to respond to changing customer preferences. 5. Innovation also requires effective communication. 6. Managers must have a good understanding of the communication process to perform effectively.
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001 Nonverbal communication refers to messages sent through human actions and behaviors rather than words. It represents a major portion of the messages sent and received and consists facial expression, voice, mannerisms, posture, and dress. Nonverbal messages convey thoughts and feelings with greater force than our most carefully selected words. Nonverbal communication occurs mostly face‑to‑face. When verbal and nonverbal messages conflict, the receiver will be confused and more apt to believe the nonverbal. Nonverbal messages can be a powerful asset to communication if they support the verbal messages.
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001 A. Communication in organizations tends to flow in certain patterns. 1. Communication networks are the pathways along which information flows in groups and teams and throughout the organization. 2. The type of communication network depends on the nature of the group’s tasks and the extent to which group members need to communicate with each other.
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001 Organization chart depicts formal reporting channels. Communication is informal and flows around issues, goals, and projects. Vertical Communication: goes up and down the corporate hierarchy. Horizontal Communication: between employees of the same level. Informal communications can span levels and departments. Grapevine: informal network carrying unofficial information through the firm.
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001 Downward communication includes the messages and information sent from top managers to subordinates in a downward direction and contains implementation of goals, strategies, and objectives, job instructions and rationale, procedures and practices, performance feedback, and indoctrination. The major problem with downward communication is information drop‑off, the distortion or loss of message content. Information drop‑off can be reduced by using the right communication channel, consistency between verbal and nonverbal messages, active listening, and understanding perception of the receiver.
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001 Upward communication includes messages that flow from the lower to the higher levels in the organization. Employees need to air grievances, report progress, and provide feedback to management. Information communicated upward includes problems and exceptions, suggestions for improvement, performance reports, grievances and disputes, and financial and accounting information. Mechanisms include suggestion boxes, employee surveys, open‑door policies, MIS reports, and face‑to‑face conversations between workers and managers.
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001 Horizontal communication is the lateral or diagonal exchange of messages across peers or co‑workers. The purpose of horizontal communication is to request support and coordinate activities. Horizontal communication includes intradepartmental problem solving, interdepartmental coordination, and change initiatives and improvements.
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001 Grapevine . An informal, person‑to‑person communication network of employees, not officially sanctioned by the organization. The grapevine links employees in all directions and will always exist particularly during times of change or stress. About 70 to 90 percent of the messages in the grapevine are accurate. About 80 percent of grapevine communications pertain to organization‑related topics.
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001 Wheel Network. a. In a wheel network , information flows to and from one central member of the group. b. The other group members do not need to communicate with each other to perform highly. c. Wheel networks are found in command groups with pooled task interdependence. d. These networks are not found in teams because they do not allow for intense interactions. 3. Chain Network. a. In a chain network , members communicate with each other in a predetermined sequence. b. Chain networks are found in groups with sequential task interdependence, such as in assembly-line groups. c. Chain networks tend not to exist in teams due to the limited amount of interaction it provides among team members. a. In a circle network , group members communicate with others who are similar to them in experience or office location. b. Circle networks are most often found in groups that are not teams. 5. All-Channel Network. a. An all-channel network is found in teams. b. It is characterized by high levels of communication: Every team member communicates with every other team member. c. Top-management teams, cross-functional teams, and self-managed work teams frequently have all-channel networks.
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001 Individual Barriers. There are interpersonal barriers which include problems with emotions and perceptions held by employees. If a person’s mind is made up before the communications start, communication will fail. People with different backgrounds or knowledge may interpret communication in different ways. Selecting the wrong channel for sending a message can be a problem. Semantics refers to the meaning of words and the way they are used, often causing communication problems. Many common words have an average of 28 definitions. Communicators must select words that accurately encode ideas. Sending inconsistent cues between verbal and nonverbal communications confuses the receiver. Organizational Barriers. Problems of status and power differences between lower and higher levels in the organization are barriers pertaining to the organization as a whole. Differences across departments in terms of needs and goals interfere with communication. The communication flow may not fit the organization’s task. Formal channels may not be available for upward, downward, and horizontal communications. Overcoming Communication Barriers Designing an organization to encourage effective communication involves both individual skills and organizational actions. Individual Skills. The most important individual skill is active listening, which includes feedback to the sender to complete the communication loop. Individuals should select the appropriate channel for the message. Senders and receivers should make a special effort to understand each other’s perspective. Managers should practice MBWA (management by wandering around), getting out of the office and checking communication with others. Organizational Actions. The most important thing managers can do to overcome communication barriers is to create a climate of trust and openness. Managers should develop and use formal information channels in all directions. Managers should encourage the use of multiple channels including formal and informal communications. The organizational structure should fit communication needs.
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001 Face-to-Face : highest information richness. Can take advantage of verbal and nonverbal signals. Provides for instant feedback. Management by wandering around takes advantage of this with informal talks to workers. Video Conferences : provide much of this richness. Reduce travel costs and meeting times. Verbal Communication electronically transmitted : has next highest richness. Phone conversations, but no visual nonverbal cues. Do have tone of voice, sender’s emphasis and quick feedback.
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communicating in Organizations 15/11/2001
  • Communication

    1. 1. COMMUNICATION 1
    2. 2. What is Communication ? Can be defined as the process by which information is exchanged and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior.Communication is bridging thegap of understanding (mis). 2
    3. 3. The gift of rhetoric had been responsible formore bloodshed than all the guns andexplosives ever invented. 3
    4. 4. POWER OF COMMUNICATIONCommunication articulate dreams, offerhope, stir hearts and minds, and offerthe audience a vision, acts as guidinglight, inspire to act, nurture dreams andeliminates fear. 4
    5. 5. Content & Container Language Matter 5
    6. 6. WHAT IS CONTENTData – Number / textData – Endowed with relevance is -Information – Endowed with purpose is -Knowledge – Endowed with experience is -Wisdom – And that is the CONTENT 6
    7. 7. HOW TO IMPROVE CONTAINERContainer is the language and its delivery 7
    8. 8. The objective of Communication * Inform/ Share information * Convince * Entertain * Lead to action * Share vision * Impress * Sustain Society 8
    9. 9. Hearing Smell Seeing Touch Taste 9
    10. 10. Communication has four important parts and six componentsFOUR PARTS : SPEAKING, LISTENING UNDERSTANDING & BEHAVIOUR SIX COMPONENTS : 1. SENDER 2. OBJECTIVE/IDEA 3. MESSAGE 4. MEDIA 5. RECEIVER 6. FEEDBACK 10
    11. 11. COMMUNICATION7% WORDS Words are only labels and the listeners put their own interpretation on speakers words.38% PARALINGUISTIC The way in which something is said - the accent, tone and voice modulation is important to the listener.55% BODY LANGUAGE What a speaker looks like while delivering a message affects the listener’s understanding most. 11
    12. 12. Importance of Good CommunicationGood Communication allows Individualand Group to; Learn new skills and techniques. Become more responsive. Improves Quality of work or service . Foster innovationEffective communication is needed byall 12
    13. 13. HOW TO MAKE COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVE 1. PLAN YOUR COMMUNICATION THROUGH  EXAMINING THE PURPOSE  DECISION ON WHAT TO SAY  VISUALISING ITS POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES  OBTAINING ALL THE FACTS  ARRANGE IDEAS IN SEQUENCE2. DON’T BE PREJUDICED, DON’T CONSIDER YOUR OWN LIKINGS AS MOST IMPORTANT 3. SELECT THE RIGHT MEDIA/CHANNELS 4. CONSIDER THE PHYSICAL & HUMAN SETTING, TIME & PLACE 5. BE POSITIVE IN APPROACH 13
    14. 14. 6. BE POLITE AND COURTEOUS 7. BE BRIEF AND AVOID VAGUENESS8. MUST REMEMBER THAT PEOPLE ARE INQUISITIVE BY NATURE, THEY MAY TALK TO OTHERS, DISTORT THE STATEMENT 9. MUST DEVELOP A SYSTEM TO ENSURE FOLLOW-UP OF COMMUNICATION 10. MUST ALSO DEVELOP FEED BACK 11. BE SURE YOUR ACTION SUPPORTS YOUR COMMUNICATION 12. SEEK NOT ONLY TO BE UNDERSTOOD BUT TO UNDERSTAND 13. DEVELOP THE HABIT OF LISTENING 14. COMMUNICATE FOR TODAY AS WELL AS FOR TOMORROW 14
    15. 15. MILITARYCOMMUNICATION It should be asunambiguous ashumanly possible 15
    16. 16. TOTAL COMMUNICATION PROCESS Writing 9% Speaking 30% Reading 16% Listening 45% 16
    17. 17. EFFECTIVE LISTENINIGLISTENING is the corner stone ofcommunication.Effectiveness of the spoken words hinges notso much on how people talk but mostly on howthey LISTEN.LISTENING is a skill that can be taught andlearned.We can LISTEN and still have some spare timefor thinking. 17
    18. 18. EFFECTIVE LISTENINIG STOP TALKING PUT THE TALKER AT EASE SHOW THAT YOU WANT TO LISTEN REMOVE DISTRACTIONS EMPATHISE WITH SPEAKER HOLD YOUR TEMPER/BE PATIENT KEEP YOUR MIND OPEN GO EASY ON ARGUMENTS JUDGE CONTENT NOT DELIVERY ASK FEEDBACK/QUESTIONS 18
    19. 19. FILTERED BARRIERS MESSAGE R AGE SS E S E P P M S C E E H E E N R Y M BLOCKED I MESSAGE D MESSAGE S S A V E O I N E R N C M T R ES A A I SA INCORRECT G L L C MESSAGE EOPERATION OF COMMUNICATION BARRIERS 19
    20. 20. COMMUNICATION AND ITS DIFFICULTY A small word could make a big difference I HIT HIM IN THE EYE YESTERDAYONLY I HIT HIM IN THE EYE YESTERDAYI ONLY HIT HIM IN THE EYE YESTERDAYI HIT ONLY HIM IN THE EYE YESTERDAYI HIT HIM ONLY IN THE EYE YESTERDAYI HIT HIM IN THE ONLY EYE YESTERDAYI HIT HIM IN THE EYE ONLY YESTERDAYI HIT HIM IN THE EYE YESTERDAY ONLY 20
    21. 21. SPEAKING FAULTS—AVOID THEM* Your talking too slowly- makes the listener lose interest.•Your talking too rapidly-makes the listener lose comprehension.•Your talking too loudly- makes the listener and all around disturbed.* Your talking too softly- makes the listener feel strained.* Your talking too much- makes the listener bored. •Your talking when you should not- makes the listener stunned.•Your parroting type talk - makes the listener feel that your talk is borrowed/copied.•Your using meaningless expression- makes the listener feel unable to understand. 21
    22. 22. Nonverbal Communication Messages sent through human actionsMessages sent through human actions and behavior rather through words.and behavior rather through words. Most nonverbal communication isMost nonverbal communication isunconscious or subconscious .. unconscious or subconscious Occurs mostly face-to-face.Occurs mostly face-to-face. Three factors in messageThree factors in message interpretation.interpretation. Verbal Impact: 7 percent. Verbal Impact: 7 percent. Vocal Impact: 38 percent. Vocal Impact: 38 percent. Facial Impact: 55 percent. Facial Impact: 55 percent. 22
    23. 23. OrganizationalCommunications Network Formal Communication Informal Communication 23
    24. 24. TYPES OF COMMUNICATIONVERTICAL COMMUNICATIONHORIZONTALCOMMUNICATIONGRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION 24
    25. 25. Downward Communication Messages sent from topMessages sent from top management down to subordinates.management down to subordinates. Most familiar and obvious flow ofMost familiar and obvious flow of formal communication.formal communication. Encompasses the following:Encompasses the following: 1. Implementation of goals and1. Implementation of goals and strategies.strategies. 2. Job instructions and rationale.2. Job instructions and rationale. 3. Procedures and practices.3. Procedures and practices. 4. Performance feedback.4. Performance feedback. 5. Indoctrination.5. Indoctrination. 25
    26. 26. Upward Communication Messages that flow from the lower toMessages that flow from the lower to the higher levels in thethe higher levels in the organizations.organizations. Five types of informationFive types of information communicated upward:communicated upward: 1. Problems and exceptions.1. Problems and exceptions. 2. Suggestions for improvement.2. Suggestions for improvement. 3. Performance reports.3. Performance reports. 4. Grievances and disputes.4. Grievances and disputes. 5. Financial and accounting5. Financial and accounting information.information. 26
    27. 27. Horizontal Communication Lateral or diagonal exchange ofLateral or diagonal exchange of messages among peers or co-messages among peers or co- workers.workers. Horizontal communications are ofHorizontal communications are of three categories:three categories: 1. Intradepartmental problem 1. Intradepartmental problem solving. solving. 2. Interdepartmental coordination. 2. Interdepartmental coordination. 3. Change initiatives and NECX 3. Change initiatives and improvements. improvements. 27
    28. 28. The GrapevineWill always exists in organizations.Will always exists in organizations.Used to fill in information gaps.Used to fill in information gaps.Tends to be more active duringTends to be more active duringperiods of change.periods of change.About 80% of topics are businessAbout 80% of topics are businessrelated.related.About 70-90% of details ofAbout 70-90% of details ofgrapevine are accurate.grapevine are accurate. 28
    29. 29. Communication Networks in Groups & TeamsWheel Network Chain Network All Channel NetworkCircle Network 29
    30. 30. Dialogue and Discussion T he Differences Conversation Lack of understanding, disagreement, divergent points of view Dialogue DiscussionReveal feelings State positionsExplore assumptions Advocate convictionsSuspend convictions Convince othersBuild common ground Build oppositions Result ResultLong-term, innovative Short-term resolutionsolutions Unified group Agreement by logic Shared Opposition beatenmeaning down Mind- Transformed mind-sets sets held onto 30
    31. 31. Communication Barriers & Ways to Overcome Them Barriers How to Overcome Individual Interpersonal dynamics Active listening Channels and media Selection of appropriate channel Semantics Knowledge of other’s perspective Inconsistent cues MBWA Organizational Climate of Trust Status and power differences Development and use of formal channels Departmental needs and goals Changing organization or group structure toCommunication network unsuited fit communication needs Lack of formal channels Encouragement of multiple channels, formal and informal 31
    32. 32. Information Richness and Media Type High Richness Face-to-face Face-to-face communication communication Verbal communication Verbal communication electronically electronically transmitted transmitted Verbal communication Verbal communication telephonically telephonically transmitted transmitted Impersonal written commun- Low ication Richness 32
    33. 33. Communication Skills as Senders Send clear and complete messages. Encode messages in symbols the receiver understands. Select a medium appropriate for the message AND monitored by the receiver. Avoid filtering (holding back information) and distortion as the message passes through other persons Ensure a feedback mechanism is included in the message. Provide accurate information to avoid rumors. 33
    34. 34. Communication Skills as ReceiversPay Attention to what is sent as amessage.Be a good listener: don’t interrupt. Ask questions to clarify your understanding.Be empathetic: try to understand what thesender feels.Understand linguistic styles: differentpeople speak differently. Speed, tone, pausing all impact communication. This is particularly true across cultures. 34
    35. 35. THANK YOU 35

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