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  • 1. Five steps to facilitating the convergence of manned and unmanned aviation Learn what is happening in the industry today to make the coexistence of UAVs and manned aviation in commercial airspace a reality. David Vos, Ph.D. Senior Director Control Technologies, Rockwell Collins © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 2. Defining future airspace Many in the aerospace industry believe there are more questions than answers related to mixing UAVs and manned aircraft in commercial airspace How do we improve safety and reliability of communications, controls, sensors, engines and networking to enable the coexistence of UAVs and manned aircraft in commercial airspace? What are the pros and cons of UAVs and manned aviation flying together in commercial airspace? Who in industry and government is doing what tests, demonstrations and pilots today? What are the critical technologies needed to make UAVs as reliable, or better yet, more reliable than manned aircraft? What role does NextGen Air Traffic Management play in facilitating the convergence of UAVs and manned aviation? What is happening at the regulatory agency level today to facilitate merged airspace operations? In this e-book, you will learn about what is happening today, what can happen tomorrow and everything else you need to know about facilitating the convergence of manned and unmanned, military and civilian aircraft into one coordinated air traffic management system. Feel free to pass this e-book along to your colleagues in the industry. 1 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 3. Unlocking the potential of UAVs in commercial airspace Integrating UAVs into commercial airspace is an initiative we have been advocating for many years. There are just too many benefits not to be on the leading edge of these emerging capabilities. Similar to the Internet which grew out of use by the military, then proliferated once civilian use and demand started, we expect the same to happen with UAVs. There is a lot happening in the industry today and progress is being made with technology demonstrations and real time operations. We wanted to aggregate some examples and share with you the latest in this global initiative with Rockwell Collins’ e-book: Five Steps to Facilitating the Convergence of Manned and Unmanned Aviation. What does it take to make integrated airspace happen? At the most fundamental level, it takes the successful design, demonstration and implementation of greater levels of automation, redundancy, interoperability and safety into the critical avionics and mechanical subsystems of both UAVs and manned aircraft. We are very close. Enabling technologies such as Automatic Dependant Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), due regard radar, automatic flight and engine control, navigation, damage tolerance, RNP and others, tied into the NextGen Air Traffic Management system, are being approved and certified at a rapid pace. The acceptance of these new technologies is complemented by their availability in small, lightweight form factors and at the required low acquisition and implementation price points. Availability, approvals and affordability all come together to facilitate this convergence. Now that much of the technology is in place or, at least available, the next step is working with key regulatory agencies such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and EUROCONTROL to determine and implement the standards and certifications needed for UAVs to coexist with manned aircraft for their reliability to meet and exceed manned aircraft. At Rockwell Collins, our UAV solutions are already performing well on the major UAV production programs including Watchkeeper, Shadow, and Sky Warrior. We are now taking our solutions through the certification process to ensure compliance with existing standards, while we continue to develop the next generation capabilities to bring to fruition the true benefits of integrated airspace. David Vos, Ph.D. Senior Director Control Technologies, Rockwell Collins 2 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 4. Five steps to integrated airspace Step 1 Discover what is needed technically to facilitate the convergence of manned and unmanned aviation Step 2 Develop and engage automated air traffic management solutions: controls, navigation, communications, sensors, networking and more Step 3 Stay apprised of the technology tests and evaluations underway by industry and government Step 4 Understand the rules as determined by agencies such as the FAA and EUROCONTROL and collaborate to drive global air traffic management Step 5 Change embedded culture and imagine the possibilities 3 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 5. Step 1 Discover what is needed technically to facilitate the convergence of manned and unmanned aviation While today’s UAVs bring an unquestioned list of capabilities to a growing variety of surveillance and proactive situations, their array of uses is still limited by the need to safely migrate their operation with that of manned military and commercial aircraft. 4 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 6. Step 1 Discover what is needed technically to facilitate the convergence of manned and unmanned aviation continued.... Fortunately a number of technological advancements have been made in avionics and navigation capabilities to help create solutions that facilitate the safe and effective integration of UAVs into the next generation airspace. This migration will rely heavily on automatic air traffic management systems like ADS-B, which provides for the automated notification of an aircraft’s position to ground-based controllers, as well as to other manned and unmanned aircraft. The cost-effective availability and strategic implementation of these advanced avionics, navigation and communications capabilities will help demonstrate the extremely high level of precision, reliability and safety required for UAVs to technologically and culturally coexist, waiver free, with manned aircraft in common airspace. Rockwell Collins is the recognized industry leader in the development of new hardware and software systems that can enable many of the capabilities needed to facilitate airspace integration. We are introducing and demonstrating new technologies that contribute to the improved performance of UAV, while optimizing the interaction and communications between UAV, ground operators and ATC. 5 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 7. Step 2 Advanced automation and sensing enable Next Generation Air Traffic Management At Rockwell Collins, we are embracing automated air traffic management from all perspectives, providing the advanced capabilities needed to improve aircraft reliability and enable manned, unmanned, military and civil aircraft to coexist more efficiently and safely in common airspace. 6 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 8. Step 2 Advanced automation and sensing enable Next Generation Air Traffic Management continued.... Flight Control, Navigation and Redundancy To help maximize capabilities while controlling acquisition and operational costs, Rockwell Collins provides the Athena family of INS/GPS/ADAHRS and autopilot/flight control systems in a variety of integrated, miniaturized and affordable packages. Dual-triplex-and quad-redundant avionics for both UAVs and manned aircraft, critical to safe and reliable integrated airspace operations, are available today from Rockwell Collins. See Shadow Video: http://www.rockwellcollins.com/athena/demos/shadow/index.asp Auto-Takeoff and Landing To take full advantage of all of the capabilities offered by emerging UAVs, they must be able to operate in a totally autonomous mode. Rockwell Collins’ proven automatic flight control systems provide full-mission pilotless capabilities with unsurpassed accuracy and reliability. Today this technology is available for all types of manned and unmanned aircraft, from a commercial airliner all the way down to the smallest civilian aircraft or tactical UAV. See video of a UAV auto-takeoff and landing with Athena flight controls. http://www.rockwellcollins.com/athena/demos/alenia/ A U.S. congressional report found that current air traffic Structural Damage/Fault Tolerance delays and congestion In emergency situations caused by pilot incapacitation or structural damage to the aircraft, cost the national economy Rockwell Collins’ advanced adaptive flight controls can enable an aircraft to continue to fly $41 billion per year. and safely return to home base or the nearest airport. http://www.rockwellcollins.com/news/page11697.html 7 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 9. Step 2 Advanced automation and sensing enable Next Generation Air Traffic Management continued.... Panic Button Emergency Landing Utilizing a combination of adaptive flight controls, auto-takeoff and landing, and damage/fault tolerance capabilities, manned aviation will in the near future be able experience the benefits already realized by unmanned systems, with completely automated panic button auto-land. In the case of a bird strike or other damage, or pilot incapacitation, a flight crew member or passenger can simply press a button during an emergency and the aircraft will autonomously fly to the nearest airport and land safely. Step 1 – Step 2 – Aircraft Crew/passenger encounters presses guarded emergency Panic Button Step 3 – Flight controls take over and fly aircraft to nearest airport Step 4 – Flight controls land aircraft safely 8 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 10. Step 2 Advanced automation and sensing enable Next Generation Air Traffic Management continued.... Integrated Air Traffic Management The FAA, other major governmental agencies, and industry including Rockwell Collins, all recognize the growing need for technological improvements in airspace utilization and management. An example of this is the FAA’s Next Generation Air Transport System. The “NextGen” program utilizes a variety of advanced automated technologies, including ADS-B, which provides automated aircraft position reporting. 9 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 11. Step 2 Advanced automation and sensing enable Next Generation Air Traffic Management continued.... Situational Awareness Utilizing advanced data link technologies, IFF, ADS-B and multilateration solutions can greatly increase situational awareness by automatically broadcasting an aircraft’s state vector, as well as communicating the positions of other aircraft within a given sector of airspace. Capabilities like these, along with distributed computing, automatic communications and collision avoidance systems, give UAVs and manned aircraft the ability to reactively and proactively anticipate and avoid conflicts with not only other aircraft, but also buildings and mountains. And with form factors and pricing continuing to decrease, solutions for situational awareness such as ADS-B are becoming affordable for general aviation, including homebuilts and even for hot air balloons and sky divers. Soon, all aircraft will be able to “plug in” to see and be seen in next generation air space. Integrated Communications: Radios, Data links and Networking Rockwell Collins offers superior communications, from radios to common data links and high bandwidth networking to provide valuable, real time, dynamic information about an aircraft’s location as it relates to others, both cooperative and uncooperative. Our complete line of solutions features the smallest form factors and the highest transmission speeds for both voice and data. Required Navigation Performance and 4D-Navigational Capabilities At Rockwell Collins we believe the ability to seamlessly integrate with manned aircraft is crucial to opening the skies to increasing UAV operations. Next generation navigation capabilities like Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and 4D-Nav ensure the predictability and accuracy of separation and arrival times, improve aircraft trajectories, as well as increase the safety and fuel efficiency of UAVs and manned aircraft. Digital Engine Controls Efficiency gains through automation can be more easily achieved via simple interfaces to digital engine control Approximately systems. For example, digital flight controls including autoland require interfaces to engine controls. Also, every 20 minutes, aircraft reliability can be significantly enhanced by bringing electronic engine controls to a much bigger a UAV equipped market – manned, unmanned, military and civilian aircraft. As fuel costs rise, levels of congestion increase, with a Rockwell Collins and manned and unmanned aircraft occupy common airspace, mission duration becomes a critical Athena flight control component to the success of the convergence. To achieve their long mission duration times and ensure system completes a successful autolanding. engine reliability, optimum engine control and efficiency are key to maximum UAV utilization. Rockwell Collins Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) systems improve the overall performance and reliability of both manned and unmanned aircraft engines and have demonstrated up to a 20% 10 increase in fuel efficiency. © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 12. Step 2 Advanced automation and sensing enable Next Generation Air Traffic Management continued.... Due Regard and Weather Radar Actively monitoring and avoiding aircraft or severe weather are keys to optimal UAV utilization. Rockwell Collins airborne due regard and weather radar systems provide increased awareness and avoidance capabilities in all operational conditions. 11 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 13. Step 3 Stay apprised of the technology tests, evaluations and operations underway by industry and government At Rockwell Collins, we believe UAVs are capable of flying in common airspace alongside manned aviation. Achieving the full potential of this manned/unmanned integration is more than a technological challenge – it will take a change in thinking. Our risk adverse culture is preventing faster integration. The only way to influence a change in the standing culture is through demonstration – seeing is believing. Demonstrations, pilot programs and some operations are occurring on a regular basis to show that the technology to enable UAVs to operate with extremely high reliability exists today. Key technologies such as ADS-B, due regard radar, redundant control systems and more are enabling the convergence to materialize. Following are some examples of the demonstrations and operations that are happening every day. What Manned/Unmanned Demonstrations and Operations are Happening in the Industry Today? Manned/Unmanned integration in the Battlespace Image concept courtessy of the United States Army. The reliability of today’s UAVs has, in fact, increased significantly over the past decade making them critical tools in military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Through advancements in flight control and navigation systems, as well as engines, radar and air frames, UAVs are operating today alongside manned aircraft around one of the busiest airports in the world. 12 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 14. Step 3 Stay apprised of the technology tests, evaluations and operations underway by industry and government continued.... Balad Air Base in Iraq Currently, there are up to 30 UAV flights daily from Balad that are completely integrated with manned military helicopters and jets, military and civilian cargo planes, as well as many other aircraft types. This is undeniable proof that this level of interaction is absolutely feasible in the near future for the commercial airspace. Link to Aviation Week article: Demand for UAVs continues to grow Total number of military UAVs has grown from 167 in 2001 to 5,500. Predators and Reapers for example are flying over 30 patrols a day in Iraq and Afghanistan. Because these airplanes cost less, are less risky and are invaluable for surveillance information, demand for UAVs will continue. In fact, in the meantime, the U.S. military is equipping turboprop airplanes with the same video cameras as UAVs. With increasing demand for UAVs in the battlespace, UAVs and manned aircraft will increasingly coexist in the same airspace. World News Week Network article: http://article.wn.com/view/2009/03/17/Drones_US_weapons_of_choice/ UAVs are serving to keep you safe UAVs continue to increase their presence in commercial airspace as demand for these low cost, high utility aircraft continues to climb. Places such as Grand Forks Air Force Base in North Dakota are encouraging faster integration to meet their goals of hosting an Unmanned Aircraft Wing by 2011. The FAA is considering restricting airspace just for UAVs around the air base. UAVs are being granted certificates of authorization (COAs) from the FAA to fly tests or operational missions related to police surveillance, border patrol, fire fighting and weather monitoring. Under the current rules, COAs require UAVs to fly under restrictions related to low population areas or VFR only conditions. Often times a chase aircraft or ground observer is required. Aviation Today article: http://www.aviationtoday.com/asw/categories/military/Drone-Flight-Authorizations-Take-Off_30526.html Proliferation of UAVs in safety-related and civil missions Demand for UAVs are again being deployed for use in natural disaster situations. A Predator UAV was dispatched to UAVs is increasing. conduct surveillance over the Red River flood area in North Dakota supplying video of the damage to Did you know that authorities to compare against pre-flood images. After taking some criticism for not deploying UAVs the total number of UAVs in the United States after the Hurricane Katrina disaster, UAVs are getting clearances more quickly and easily to fly over in 2001 was 167? disaster affected areas, as was also the case during the Gulf Coast Hurricanes and Southern California Today it is over 5,500. fires. Star Tribune article: http://www.startribune.com/local/41841417.html?elr=KArks:DCiUHc3E7_V_nDaycUiacyKUUr 13 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 15. Step 3 Stay apprised of the technology tests, evaluations and operations underway by industry and government continued.... UAVs are helping scientists with critical weather and climate research The benefits of using UAVs for dangerous and dirty assignments is obvious for the scientists assigned to the Arctic to survey summer melting trends or for the assessment of hurricane intensity. Furthermore, the use of UAVs enables a sustained period of analysis and constant data reporting as well as the ability to continue nonstop to remote locations. It is among these reasons that NOAA funded a $3 million, three-year Unmanned Aircraft Systems Program intended to test UAVs for this purpose. According to Marty Ralph, manager of NOAA’s UAV Program, “Data gathered by unmanned aircraft can help us understand how humans are affecting the planet and how we might mitigate the impacts of natural disasters resulting from severe weather and climate.” The funding of this program is further evidence of the expanding market and potential use of UAV technology. NOAA Article: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2008/20080122_aircraft.html UAVs give local police “eyes in the sky” The law enforcement community is trailblazing the use of UAVs in civilian airspace, and for good reason – the benefits are enormous. UAVs can operate around the clock. They don’t tire, are more economical and can cover more territory than manned aircraft. But similar to military use, the purpose of UAVs in law enforcement and civilian applications is to augment manned aircraft operations, not replace them. Police departments across the country are trialing UAVs to use for reconnaissance and surveillance. In Los Angeles, the Sheriffs’ department experimented with a UAV in commercial airspace in 2006. BBC article: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/5051142.stm In Miami and Houston, police departments are conducting trials of UAVs in cooperation with the FAA to determine restrictions on when, where and under what conditions the aircraft can be flown. Many police departments see the value of UAVs, which can provide real time video, fly for longer periods of time and cost less than operating similarly equipped manned aircraft. Government Video article: http://www.theppsc.org/Archives/wp/?p=2388 Major United Kingdom UAV research program - ASTRAEA Autonomous Systems Technology Related Airborne Evaluation and Assessment, “ASTRAEA,” is an initial £32 million joint government and industry evaluation program with the mission to research and test technologies to facilitate flying UAVs in desegregated airspace in Europe. Some of the technologies being researched and developed include: ground technologies, communications, UAS handling, adaptive routing, collision avoidance, multiple aircraft integration, vehicle health monitoring and decision modeling. Phase I of ASTRAEA culminated with simulated UAV flight demonstrations, while Phase II will involve actual flight demonstrations. ASTRAEA article: http://www.projectastraea.co.uk/ 14 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 16. Step 3 Stay apprised of the technology tests, evaluations and operations underway by industry and government continued.... ASAC is key to DARPA’s successful damage tolerance demonstration Rockwell Collins completed a successful flight test of a significantly damaged unmanned F/A-18 subscale model air vehicle. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored the flight demonstrations held in the spring of 2008, at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland. During the first flight test, nearly half of the airplane’s right wing was ejected to simulate battle damage and in-flight failure. During the second flight, almost 60 percent of the airplane’s right wing was ejected. Upon ejecting the wing section during both flights, Rockwell Collins’ Automatic Supervisory Adaptive Control (ASAC) technology reacted to the airplane’s new vehicle configuration, automatically regained baseline performance, continued to fly the plane, and then autonomously landed it using internal Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System (INS/GPS) reference only. Defense News article: http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i=3609855 15 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 17. Step 3 Stay apprised of the technology tests, evaluations and operations underway by industry and government continued.... Army Aviation’s Dynamic Airspace Management Demonstration The U.S. Army’s Aviation System Project Office briefed the audience at the Association of Army Aviation UAV Symposium in December 2008 about a demonstration titled Dynamic Airspace Management. The office demonstrated that UAVs can maintain the equivalent level of safety of manned aircraft, which is an FAA requirement before UAVs will be granted unrestricted access to the national airspace. Current FAA restrictions require a UAV to either have a chase aircraft or an observer on the ground. In addition, daylight only operations are allowed. In a demonstration held in October of 2008, the Army incorporated sensors, communications, mitigation procedures and “tunnels” of airspace to demonstrate UAVs could fly collision free with manned aircraft. See presentation on AAAA website: http://www.quad-a.org/Symposiums/08UAS/Presentations/Potts%20COL.ppt What ADS-B Demonstrations and Operations Are Happening in the Industry today? 16 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 18. Step 3 Stay apprised of the technology tests, evaluations and operations underway by industry and government continued.... ADS-B: unifying NextGen airspace One of the keys to making the safe integration of UAVs with manned aircraft in the “NextGen” airspace is the global implementation of Automated Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). Because ADS-B radiates a signal containing an aircraft’s type, identification, GPS position, altitude, heading, speed, intent (i.e., climbing, descending or level) and other data, the technology gives aircraft, manned and unmanned, the ability to know where they are and where they are relative to other aircraft. NextGen Air Traffic Management is making progress as a result of the success to date with ADS-B pilots and demonstrations in Alaska and by UPS. With ADS-B in the NextGen airspace, air traffic controllers will become air traffic managers. Federal Computer Week article: http://www.fcw.com/Articles/2009/03/09/FAA-NextGen.aspx UPS flights fakeoff with ADS-B When you’re operating the world’s ninth largest airline, it pays to take advantage of emerging technologies thatcan help you save time and fuel. United Parcel Service, Inc., which operates 266 aircraft totaling some 1,900 flights to and from its hub in Louisville, Kentucky, has initiated a test program by installing ADS-B ADS-B has been proven on six of its aircraft. According to a story in The Washington Times, the goal of the test is to determine to save 40-70 gallons what kind of increased efficiencies the company can gain through improved information handling. One of fuel per commercial of the early benefits is that it enables the air carrier’s pilots to perform a “continuous descent” landing, airliner landing. which cuts down on emissions and, according to the story, saves 40 to 70 gallons of fuel per landing. The Washington Times article: 17 http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/mar/02/air-traffic-control-evolves-as-faa-adopts-gps/ © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 19. Step 3 Stay apprised of the technology tests, evaluations and operations underway by industry and government continued.... Capstone Project improves Alaskan air safety Alaska has one of the largest populations of general aviation aircraft and pilots in the world. Unfortunately, because of its combination of rough terrain, unpredictable weather and lack of radar and navigational aids, it also has a high rate of fatal accidents. During his testimony to the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Aviation, Agam N. Sinha Sr., Senior Vice President and General Manager of The MITRE Corporation, discussed the Capstone Project. Capstone was a joint project between the FAA and aviation industry that ran from 1999 to 2006. Under the test program, the FAA provided aircraft avionics, including ADS-B, to both private and commercial aircraft in the region. According to Mr. Sinha’s testimony, the results of the Capstone program were dramatic, achieving a 49% reduction in fatal accidents for ADS-B equipped aircraft. Video: http://republicans.transportation.house.gov/hearings/hearingdetail.aspx?NewsID=532 Written Testimony: http://republicans.transportation.house.gov/Media/file/TestimonyAviation/2009-03-18-Sinha.pdf US Air puts ADS-B to the transatlantic test According to a recent story in Aviation Week & Space Technology, the FAA has given US Airways $6 million dollars to begin a pilot program to evaluate the benefits of satellite-based navigation and ADS-B for flights in the congested Northeastern airspace and long-haul transatlantic routes. US Airways expects to have the ADS-B equipment on 20 of its Airbus A330 aircraft by 2010. The aircraft will use both “ADS-B In” and “ADS-B Out,” so they will not only transmit their own position information, but also be able to receive information from other aircraft. This automated two-way communication is key to achieving the goals of NextGen airspace. Aviation Week article: http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story_generic.jsp?channel=awst&id=news/ aw012609p3xml&headline=US+Airways’+A330s+Slated+to+Test+ADS-B NextGen ADS-B Debuts in Florida An early milestone was reached with the roll out of NextGen’s ADS-B system at Miami International Airport in April 2009. This is the first location in the United States where radar will be phased out and replaced with satellite based ADS-B, providing more location information for air traffic controllers and pilots. Long term, the NextGen system, with the aid of ADS-B, will allow pilots to fly more direct paths while improving safety and reducing fuel consumption and will facilitate the integration of UAVs into combined airspace. Miami Herald article: http://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation/story/989545.html 18 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 20. Step 4 Understand the rules as determined by organizations such as the FAA and EUROCONTROL and collaborate to drive global air traffic management Global air traffic management and UAVs Global air traffic management and UAVs are intertwined. In the planning and development of next generation air traffic management systems in the U.S. and in Europe, it is critical that global collaboration within government and industry groups occur and that UAVs be considered and planned for in the mix. Rockwell Collins Chairman, and CEO Clay Jones, when discussing the challenge of global air traffic management, the importance of collaboration, and increasing use of UAVs for an article in Flight International, said, “We can be the generation and the ‘global industry’ that truly unites the planet politically, economically and culturally as we face future challenges.” United States Flying UAVs outside of segregated airspace in the United States National Air System (NAS) today can occur by one of two methods: Certificate of Authorization (COA) and Experimental Certification. Neither method is a fixed, set-in-stone process. The FAA evaluates each applicant on its own merits, based on its needs, the aircraft, desired flight location, time, etc. Outside of emergencies and disaster recovery, applying for a COA is generally a one flight at a time process and tends to be easier the second time if nothing about the request/application has changed. UAV manufacturers are no longer able to apply for COAs, making flying a UAV in the NAS more challenging if the manufacturer does not already have a military sponsor for the work. Only military and public use operators may be granted COAs. An Experimental Certification must be applied for each aircraft, but is good for multiple flights for a given set of fixed equipment, location and other conditions. The FAA’s website contains an extensive amount of information about how to apply for a COA, an Experimental Certification, who to contact, Q&As and more. The site posts newsletters about approvals for COAs and other progress related to integrating UAVs in the NAS including the passage of the Small Unmanned Aircraft System Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC), to begin to determine the first set of standard rules for flying UAVs in the NAS, starting with smaller UAVs. http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/air/hq/engineering/uapo/ http://www.faa.gov/aircraft/air_cert/design_approvals/uas/cert/ http://www.auvsi.org/news/sUAS_ARC.pdf 19 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 21. Step 4 Understand the rules as determined by organizations such as the FAA and EUROCONTROL and collaborate to drive global air traffic management continued.... Other organizations involved in facilitating safe and efficient integration of UAV into the NAS include the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 203 (SC-203): (http://www.rtca.org/comm/Committee.cfm?id=45) and UAV National Industry Team (UNITE) : (http://www.uniteaero.com/Archives/UNITE%20v2/html/index2.html). SC-203’s operates under the Federal Advisory Committee Act to make formal recommendations to the FAA for UAV technical standards. UNITE is a non-profit industry organization comprised of several major UAV and subsystem manufacturers including Rockwell Collins. Europe EUROCONTROL is the intergovernmental organization responsible for the safety of air navigation in Europe. The organization has 38 members and is responsible for the vision, master plan, working plan and oversight of the Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) program. The goal of SESAR is to convert the segmented air space of Europe into one sky with two major ATC centers. The program vision is to modernize the air traffic management system in Europe, accommodate increasing air traffic, improve safety, reduce emissions through more direct flight paths and ultimately reduce costs. The European Parliament and the European Council have finalized the Single European Sky legislation which should be formally adopted later in 2009, accepting the SESAR master plan. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/trans/106966.pdf While UAV integration into nonsegregated airspace is an objective of EUROCONTROL and is actively being pursued, convergence of manned and unmanned aircraft may be more complex in Europe than in the U.S. until SESAR is actually implemented and there is truly one sky instead of several. 20 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 22. Step 4 Understand the rules as determined by organizations such as the FAA and EUROCONTROL and collaborate to drive global air traffic management continued.... Part of EUROCONTROL, the European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EuroCAE) Working Group 73, (http://www.eurocae.net/workinggroups.html), recommends certification standards for UAVs in Europe, working closely with the RTCA SC-203 committee in the U.S. to ensure technical standards will be consistent across the globe. Some of WG73’s subgroups and priorities for UAV standards include 1) UAS operations, 2) airworthiness and continued airworthiness, 3) command and control, communications and spectrum, and security, and 4) UAS for visual line of sight. http://www.eurocontrol.int/eatm/gallery/content/public/events/Updated%20Presentations/9%20EUROCAE%20WG%2073.pdf EUROCONTROL is approaching UAV integration into nonsegregated airspace in two phases: Phase I) integration of UAVs as it relates to the requirements and standards of Europe’s current ATM system through 2020, and Phase 2) integration beyond 2020 in line with the modernized Single European Sky ATM System. EUROCONTROL published a set of comprehensive UAV specifications for flying military UAVs as operational air traffic (OAT) in commercial airspace and plans to have a UAV road map by the end of 2009 that details how UAVs will be integrated into common airspace. Information is available at: http://www.eurocontrol.int/mil/public/news/UAV_specifications.html 21 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 23. Step 5 Change Culture - Imagine the possibilities Whether it is from a mission success and performance standpoint, or the economic and safety value of unmanned aircraft, the world has seen enormous success with UAVs conducting reconnaissance in Iraq, Afghanistan and other countries. As the need and desire to use UAVs in law enforcement, disaster recovery, fire fighting, weather monitoring, cargo delivery and other applications continue to increase, and the civilian airspace becomes more and more utilized by UAVs and manned aviation, the need for NextGen air traffic management, sophisticated levels of technology, and greater automation are critical. It is unlikely that there will ever be an adequate number of ATC operators added to the system to manage the increase in air traffic. The problem has to be solved with automation. This is a similar scenario to the growth of the Internet. After years of increasing traffic, today Internet traffic and conflict resolution are fundamentally managed through automation. With programs such as FAA’s NextGen air traffic modernization and the Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program underway, more funding of technology and automation, such as ADS-B and RNP, is coming. With positive results from technology demonstrations in the areas of ADS-B, multilateration, RNP, damage tolerance, networking and communications, and with changes to industry and government cultures, we can expect to see UAVs flying in commercial airspace in the very near future. And one day, we may in fact be stepping onto an unmanned commercial or business jet, pressing a button to select a destination, then sitting back, relaxing and enjoying a cup of automatically brewed coffee. 22 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 24. About the Author Dr. Vos joined Rockwell Collins with the acquisition of Athena Technologies – a leading flight control and navigation systems company – in April 2008. Vos was Founder, CTO and CEO of Athena Technologies. Having worked in the unmanned systems industry since its inception, he is a pioneer and a thought leader in the area of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). While still studying for his Ph.D. at MIT, Vos developed a new mathematical approach for treating nonlinear, highly timed-variant systems as if they were both linear and time invariant. He proved this approach and the resulting technology with the invention of the world’s first autonomous unicycle. With this success, Vos opened the door to an entirely new field of dynamics and control. Born in South Africa and now a U.S. citizen, Vos is the inventor and developer of Rockwell Collins Control Technologies core technology. He holds patents in nonlinear control systems and other areas and has broad experience in guidance and control systems. In August of 2007, Vos was appointed by Virginia’s Governor Kaine to Commissioner of the Vint Hill Economic Development Authority’s Board of Commissioners. In June of 2007, Vos was named by Ernst & Young as an Entrepreneur of the Year in the greater Washington area. Vos holds a B.S. in Engineering with Honors in Aeronautical Engineering from the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, an M.S. in Dynamics and Control from MIT, and a Ph.D. in Estimation and Control from MIT, in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. David W. Vos, Ph.D. Senior Director, Rockwell Collins Control Technologies 23 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
  • 25. Building trust every day. Rockwell Collins delivers smart communication and aviation electronic solutions to customers worldwide. Backed by a global network of service and support, we stand committed to putting technology and practical innovation to work for you whenever and wherever you need us. In this way, working together, we build trust. Every day. For more information contact: Rockwell Collins 400 Collins Road NE Cedar Rapids, Iowa 52498 800.321.2223 319.295.5100 Fax: 319.378.1172 email: learnmore@rockwellcollins.com www.rockwellcollins.com/gs 147-1006-000 © Copyright 2009, Rockwell Collins, Inc. All rights reserved. All logos, trademarks or service marks used herein are the property of their respective owners.