Blood group.007[1]


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Blood group.007[1]

  1. 1. Blood Groups. Gmers Medical College, Val 1st MB Roll No: 21- Batch Mentor: Dr. Divyesh
  2. 2. Blood groups and Rhesus factor
  3. 3. • The differences in human blood are due to the presence or absence of certain protein molecules called antigens and antibodies. • The antigens are located on the surface of the RBCs and the antibodies are in the blood plasma. • Individuals have different types and combinations of these molecules. • The blood group you belong to depends on what you have inherited from your parents. What are the different blood groups?
  4. 4. • There are more than 20 genetically determined blood group systems known today • Eg. ABO System,Rh-System MNS System, Kell System, Lewis System • The AB0 and Rhesus (Rh) systems are the most important ones used for blood transfusions. • Not all blood groups are compatible with each other. Mixing incompatible blood groups leads to blood clumping or agglutination, which is dangerous for individuals. What are the different blood groups?
  5. 5. Classification Of Blood Groups. Major Blood Grouping System:  1-ABO blood group system  2-Rh blood group system  because they cause major transfusion reaction. Minor Blood Grouping System:  1-MNS blood group system  2-p blood group system  because they cause minor transfusion reaction. Familial Blood Grouping System:  Kell, Daffy, Lutheran, Lewis, Deigo, and Many more.
  6. 6. According to the ABO blood typing system there are four different kinds of blood types: A, B, AB or O (null). ABO blood grouping system
  7. 7. Landsteiner Law It was given by Karl Landsteiner in 1900. It states that ; If an agglutinogen is present on the RBC of an individual, the corresponding agglutinin must be absent in the plasma of that individual and vice-versa. This law is only applicable to ABO blood grouping system.
  8. 8. Blood group A If you belong to the blood group A, you have A antigens on the surface of your RBCs and B antibodies in your blood plasma.Blood group B If you belong to the blood group B, you have B antigens on the surface of your RBCs and A antibodies in your blood plasma. AB0 blood grouping system
  9. 9. Blood group AB If you belong to the blood group AB, you have both A and B antigens on the surface of your RBCs and no A or B antibodies at all in your blood plasma. Blood group O If you belong to the blood group O (null), you have neither A or B antigens on the surface of your RBCs but you have both A and B antibodies in your blood plasma.
  10. 10. View Of Different Cells And Antibodies
  11. 11. Blood Gro up Antigens Antibodies Can give bloo d to Can rece ive bloo d fro mAB A and B None AB AB, A, B, O A A B A and AB A and O B B A B and AB B and O O None A and B AB, A, B, O O
  12. 12. Blood group O is called "universal donor" because it has no antigens on RBC. Blood group AB are called "universal receivers“ because it has no anti- bodies in the plasma.
  13. 13. The Rhesus (Rh) System
  14. 14. Landsteiner and Weiner in 1940 discovered other antigens in human R.B.Cs and named rhesus antigens or Rh-antigen because the same antigens are present in monkey. One of the basic difference between ABO and Rh systems is that the Rh antibodies are not natural i.e. they are not present at birth but are synthesised in Rh negative persons in response to the presence of Rh+antigen. The Rhesus (Rh) System (Cont.)
  15. 15. The Rhesus (Rh) System (Cont.) • Rh antigens are transmembrane proteins with loops exposed at the surface of red blood cells. • They appear to be used for the transport of carbon dioxide and/or ammonia across the plasma membrane. • 85% of the population is RhD positive, the other 15% of the population is running around with RhD negative blood.
  16. 16. Rh Blood Group and Rh Incompatibility A person with Rh- blood does not have Rh antibodies naturally in the blood plasma
  17. 17. • A person with Rh- blood develop Rh antibodies in the blood plasma if he or she receives blood from a person with Rh+ blood. If such a person is given Rh+ blood, its anti-Rh antibodies react with the donor’s Rh antigens and aggulate the blood. • A person with Rh+ blood can receive blood from a person with Rh- blood without any problems.
  18. 18. Why is an Rh incompatibility so dangerous when ABO incompatibility is not during pregnancy? Incompatibility is seen between Rh- woman and her foetus. Rh- woman when married to Rh+ man bears Rh+ foetus. Although the foetal and maternal blood do not come in direct contact due to placental barrier, some foetal R.B.C’s manage to enter the maternal blood stream. The Rh antigen on their surface induces formation of anti-Rh antibodies. These antibodies then cross the placenta and enter the foetus blood circulation and cause a blood disorder known as erythroblastosis foetalis. The reaction of Rh-woman against her Rh+offspring becomes progressively more severe with each subsequent
  19. 19. Mis-Matched Blood Transfusion • The individuals of different blood groups are perfectly normal but the incompatibility is expressed during blood transfusion. • The antibodies of recipients blood reacts against the antigens of donor’s blood and cause the clumping of R.B.Cs known as agglutination. • The agglutination can cause serious consequences and may prove fatal. • That is why doctor make careful tests to determine what blood must safely be used in transfusion. • The anti- bodies in the plasma must not combine with the antigens on the surface of the red blood cells, or else
  20. 20. Ratio Of Different Blood Group In Society.
  21. 21. Thank You