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Organizing Capabilities using Formal Concept Analysis
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Organizing Capabilities using Formal Concept Analysis

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In this paper, we discuss the importance of the concept of capability for describing what an action does from a functional perspective. We introduce a conceptual model for representing capabilities as ...

In this paper, we discuss the importance of the concept of capability for describing what an action does from a functional perspective. We introduce a conceptual model for representing capabilities as attribute features entities. Furthermore, we use Formal Concept Analysis to create concept lattices for indexing a repository of capabilities descriptions.We applied this approach on a set of sensor capabilities deployed
within the Linked Energy Intelligence dataspace.

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Organizing Capabilities using Formal Concept Analysis Organizing Capabilities using Formal Concept Analysis Presentation Transcript

  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked Knowledge© Copyright 2011 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeOrganizing Capabilities usingFormal Concept AnalysisWassim Derguech, Souleiman Hasan,Sami Bhiri and Edward CurryWETICE, Hammamet, Tunisia, 2013
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeCapability: Informal Definition• Capability = What an action (Program, Business Process, Task)does from a functional perspective.• Synonyms: Business Function, Functionality• Related terms: Business Goal, Consumer Request• Central concept in (semantic) information systems• A service is an access mechanism to a certain capability.• A Business process is a set of ordered activities aiming to achieve abusiness goal.
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeProblems in SWS description(1/2)• Service functionalities are described in IOPEs• Domain-specific functional features cannot be easily defined withinIOPE.• Example:“book a package shipping service via telephone”vs. “book a package shipping service via Internet”• Cannot define interdependencies between features• No functionality based service clustering/categorization.• Clustered based on subsumption relation over IO(PE)s
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeProblems in SWS description (2/2)• Example: find services that “delivers a package” inProgrammable Web service repository.• results under “shipping” category.Address checkserviceTracking serviceRate query serviceUtility services:customer identification,payment processing…
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeGoals• Define a metamodel for describing capabilities featuringdomain properties• Organizing capabilities in an optimal way for enhancingtheir discovery
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeExamples of capabilities• FedexShipment: is a capability for Shipping• packages under 50 Kg,• serving certain routes,• the price depends on the source, destination and the weight ofthe package; i.e. different formulas for computing the price basedon other attributes.• FedexOffer:• Shipping of a 10Kg Package from Ireland to Singapore on 2013-06-15 for 200 Dollars.
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeCapability modelling challenges• Attribute dependency• :From and :To attributes are interdependent.• The :Price attribute depends on the attributes :From, :To and:Package.• Dynamic attributes• The :Price may depend on the current exchange rate or thecompany workload.➔ make it hard if not impossible to model non static andattribute-interdependent capabilities.
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeDefinition of Structured Entity• Structured Entity: describing concepts with a set of(property, value) pairs, a.k.a., property entries.• SE = {(p1,v1),(p2,v2),…}• A property value can be an rdf class or instance, if thevalue has its own property entries, it is also a SE.• We consider one mandatory attribute: Action Verb.• The action verb is a concept from a domain ontology.It represents all the actions performed in a certaindomain with meronymy relations between them.
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeExample of capabilitiesSensorCap2ActionVerb = sco:sensingState =ActiveStorageOption =noDigitalDisplay = sco:LCDScreenLocationState = AccessibleSensorCap1ActionVerb = sco:sensingState =ActiveStorageOption = 1MoDigitalDisplay = sco:LCDScreenLocationState = AccessibleSensorCap5ActionVerb = sco:sensingState =ActiveStorageOption = noDigitalDisplay = noLocationState = NotAccessibleSensorCap4ActionVerb = sco:sensingState =NotActiveStorageOption =1MoDigitalDisplay = sco:LCDScreenLocationState = AccessibleSensorCap3ActionVerb = sco:sensingState =NotActiveStorageOption =1MoDigitalDisplay = sco:LCDScreenLocationState = Accessible
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeGoals• Define a metamodel for describing capabilities featuringdomain properties• Organizing capabilities in an optimal way for enhancingtheir discovery
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeFormal Concept Analysis• FCA is a technique that evolved from mathematicallattice theory used for data analysis.• A powerful tool for identifying meaningful relationshipswithin a set of objects that share common attributes.• It provides a theoretical model to build from a formalcontext a partially ordered structure called concept lattice
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeFormal Context• A formal context FC is a triplet <X,Y,I>, where X and Y arenon-empty sets and I is a binary relation between X and Y.ActiveStorageOptionDigitalDisplayAccessibleSensorCap1 X X X XSensorCap2 X X XSensorCap3 X X XSensorCap4 X X XSensorCap5 XX, theset ofObjectsY, the set of Attributes<x,y> ∈ Idenotesthat theobject xhas theattribute y
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeFormal Concept• A formal concept in <X,Y,I> is a pair <E,I> where E is asubset of X and I is a subset of Y such that Att(E) = Iand Obj(I) = E. A formal concept is created by getting objects from Esharing the same attributes from I.ActiveStorageOptionDigitalDisplayAccessibleSensorCap1 X X X XSensorCap2 X X XSensorCap3 X X XSensorCap4 X X XSensorCap5 X
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeConcept Lattice• The set of ordered formal concepts derived from a formalcontext is called a concept lattice.
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeMultivalued Attributes (1/2)ActiveStorageOptionDigitalDisplayAccessibleObservedPhenomenonSensorCap1 X X X X EnergySensorCap2 X X X EnergySensorCap3 X X X LightSensorCap4 X X X TemperatureSensorCap5 X Motion
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeMultivalued Attributes (2/2)Observed PhenomenonEnergy Light Temperature MotionSensorCap1 XSensorCap2 XSensorCap3 XSensorCap4 XSensorCap5 XScaling
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeConcept Lattice
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeUse Case Application• Real world sensors deployed within the Linked EnergyIntelligence (LEI) dataspace.• LEI dataspace is has been realized in Digital EnterpriseResearch Institute (DERI).• Sensors deployed:• 50 energy consumption• 20 light and heater energy consumption• 8 temperature and motion detection• Attributes: Active, Phenomenon Observed, Protocol,Electricity Phases and Location
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeLEI – DERI Concept LatticeThe set of all Active sensorsThe set of all Motion sensorsThe set of all Temperature sensors
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeConclusion: Goals• Define a metamodel for describing capabilities featuringdomain properties Structured Entity Meta Model• Organizing capabilities in an optimal way for enhancingtheir discovery Formal Concept Analysis
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgePros and Cons• Each Formal Concept represents an Equivalence Class e.g. replacement of sensors• Explicit links between Equivalence Classes e.g. Optimise the discovery of a particular sensor• This approach is not application in case of huge numberof sensors.• Very difficult to adopt this approach in a highly dynamicenvironment.
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieEnabling Networked KnowledgeFuture Work• Define and implement algorithms for updating this indexingstructure• Investigate scaling operations in case of complex type• Describe event patterns for complex events• Provide automation support for creating capabilities