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  • 1. Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion
  • 2. David A. Leeming, Kathryn Madden, Stanton Marlan (Eds.)Encyclopedia of Psychologyand ReligionWith 15 Figures and 2 Tables
  • 3. Editors-in-Chief:David A. Leeming, Ph.D.Blanton-Peale Institute3 West 29th StreetNew York, NY 10001USAKathryn Madden, Ph.D.National Institute for the Psychotherapies250 West 57th Street, Suite 501New York, NY 10019USAStanton Marlan, Ph.D.Pittsburgh Center for Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis4527 Winthrop StreetPittsburgh, PA 15213-3722USAA C.I.P. Catalog record for this book is available from the Library of CongressLibrary of Congress Control Number: 2009934794ISBN: 978-0-387-71801-9The electronic version will be available under ISBN 978-0-387-71802-6The print and electronic bundle will be available under ISBN 978-0-387-71803-3ß Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010 (USA)All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher(Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviewsor scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or bysimilar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden.The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be takenas an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights.springer.comPrinted on acid-free paper SPIN: 11528708 2109 — 5 4 3 2 1 0
  • 4. PrefaceMr. Kenneth Giniger some time ago suggested to Dr. Holly Johnson, then President of Blanton-Peale Institute, New York,NY, that Blanton-Peale compile an encyclopedia of psychology and religion, a comprehensive reference work consistingof articles contributed by scholars of importance in the fields of religion, psychology, psychology and religion, andpsychology of religion. Dr. Johnson also saw the need for such an information source and began planning work on theproject with the assistance of Blanton-Peale colleagues, Dr. Walter Odajnyk and Dr. David A. Leeming. Long workingtogether with Blanton-Peale on behalf of Journal of Religion and Health, Springer Science+Business Media becamepublisher, with Dr. Leeming, Dr. Kathryn Madden, and Dr. Stanton Marlan named as Editors-in-Chief. Dr. Leemingbecame Managing Editor of the project. He has taught courses in myth, religion, and literature for many years and haspublished several books on these subjects, including the Oxford Companion to World Mythology, and until recently wasEditor-in-Chief of the award-winning Journal of Religion and Health and Dean of Blanton-Peale’s Graduate Institute. Heis currently President of Blanton-Peale Institute. Dr. Madden served as Dean and later President of Blanton-Peale, wasAssociate Editor and later Executive Editor of the Journal of Religion and Health, and has recently published Dark Lightof the Soul (Lindisfarme Books). She teaches and lectures regularly and is in private practice. She received her M.A.,M.Phil., and Ph.D. degrees in Psychology and Religion from Union Theological Seminary in New York City. She haspublished many articles in her field and is Editor of Quadrant. Dr. Marlan is a clinical psychologist in private practice.He is a training and supervising analyst for the Inter-Regional Society of Jungian Analysts and is President of thePittsburgh Society of Jungian Analysts. He is also Adjunct Clinical Professor of Psychology at Duquesne University andholds diplomates in both Clinical Psychology and Psychoanalysis from the American Board of Professional Psychology.He has been Editor of the Journal of Jungian Theory and Practice and is the author of numerous articles and books in thefield of Jungian psychology. Parentage of the Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion comes naturally to the Blanton-Peale Institute. Founded in 1937 by Dr. Norman Vincent Peale and psychologist Smiley Blanton, the Institute is a mentalhealth clinic and psychological training institute dedicated to the constructive integration of religion and psychology.The Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion provides a crucial new resource for the collaboration and mutual illumina-tion of these two fields. Entries are drawn from a wide variety of religious traditions, not only modern world religions, such as Christianity,Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism, but also, for example, African Animism, pre-Christian Celtic and Germanictraditions, Egyptian, Greek, Gnostic, and Native North American and Mesoamerican religious movements. Approachesto the subjects demonstrate a broad range of methodologies. Each entry is intended to create a tension of meaningbetween traditional religious terms and psychological interpretations. The goal is not to impose the correct or definitivemeaning, but to explore new and latent deposits of meaning that bear implications for human self-understanding,cross-cultural interpretation, and therapeutic possibilities. Occasionally, more than one article on a given subject is included to present different points of view. Extensive cross-referencing allows the reader to enhance understanding of particular subjects through direct access to related topics. TheEncyclopedia of Psychology and Religion will serve as a valuable and accessible reference work in both electronic and printversions for academic libraries and their patrons and will be of particular use to the growing community of researchers,academics, teachers, clergy, therapists, counselors, and other professionals who are involved in the developingreintegration of the fields of religion and psychology.
  • 5. AcknowledgmentThe Editors and Blanton-Peale Institute thank the members of Springer Science+Business Media staff in both Germanyand the United States for their support on this project. We are particularly grateful to Carol Bischoff, Thomas Mager,Susanne Friedrichsen, Heike Richini, and Christine Hausmann for their consistent help and support.David A. Leeming, Kathryn Madden, and Stanton Marlan
  • 6. IntroductionThe world’s great religions have always served as the repository of the psychological truths and values of mankind.Religions address the fundamental questions of human existence: the purpose and meaning of life; our relationship withGod; the nature of the soul; the existence of evil, suffering, and death; ethical behavior and conscience; our search forhappiness, redemption, and salvation. In previous centuries theologians and religious philosophers were not inclined todifferentiate between matters of ‘‘soul’’ or ‘‘psyche.’’ Figures such as St. Paul, St. Augustine, Martin Luther, Pascal, andKierkegaard were people of faith who also grappled with the mysteries of human interiority, will, and motivation. In the course of addressing these issues, every religion has developed a definition of human nature and examined ourfundamental motivations, drives, and desires. Religions have been crucibles for the time-tested psychological principlesthat assure a sense of identity, community, and meaningful life. All religions, for example, have discovered that negativepsychological states, such as pride, anger, hatred, lust, envy, ignorance, selfishness, and egotism, lead to personal andsocial conflict, injustice, and pain. On the other hand, positive mental and emotional attitudes, such as love, altruism,forgiveness, compassion, generosity, humility, equanimity, and wisdom, lead to a sense of personal well-being and socialharmony. From a psychological perspective, religions are all-encompassing therapeutic systems that deal with major lifeevents, transitions, and crises and respond in a healing, often life-saving way to the travails of the suffering soul and theimpoverished spirit. With the emergence and then dominance of scientific rationalism, however, the fields of religion and psychologydiverged and entered into a relation of mutual suspicion. Beginning with the Enlightenment and its materialistic,secular, and rationalistic weltanschauung, the previously generally accepted religious and spiritual delineation of humannature was seriously challenged. In time, a split occurred between studies of human nature based on secular definitionsand the age-old religious knowledge of the human soul and spirit. The two fields that should have been allied and increative dialogue instead became estranged from each other, and often ignored or rejected the knowledge that each couldhave contributed to the enterprise of understanding human nature. Purely secular notions of human nature emerged:human beings were seen as rational animals; a person was born a tabula rasa, neither good nor evil, with parenting andeducation forming the personality; human beings were a composite of their economic and social relations; humanbeings were initially motivated by instinctive, irrational, and unrealistic drives and desires; all human behavior,emotions, and motivations and those most sublime cultural creations, religious beliefs and experiences, were the resultof complex organic, neurological, and biochemical interactions. The tradition inspired by Sigmund Freud tended toview religion as an illusion, a cultural vestige of immaturity and projection. Consequently, those in the religious campcame to view psychology as a reductionist enterprise that denied the sacred and transcendent aspects of reality. While some continue to subscribe to such stereotypes, a more sophisticated understanding of religion – particularlyas advanced by the field of depth psychology – has done much to overcome them. The secular paradigm that has ruledthe domain of psychology for the past centuries was challenged early on by pioneers such as William James, C. G. Jung,Roberto Assagioli, Viktor Frankl, Erik Erikson, and the humanistic psychologists Gordon Allport, Erich Fromm, andAbraham Maslow. During the 1970s, these thinkers were joined by the transpersonal psychologists, who have sought asynthesis between secular psychology and the great spiritual traditions. While they have accepted the stages of personaldevelopment described by various exponents of secular psychology, they have added the stages of transpersonaldevelopment evidenced in the world’s contemplative and meditative traditions. Because of the cultural shift representedby the above and the persistence of religious beliefs in the vast majority of populations worldwide, contemporarypsychologists are beginning to recognize that a purely secular approach to the study and treatment of human beings isinadequate. A science dedicated to the exploration of the basic characteristics and strivings of human beings and to theclassification of the laws of human behavior needs to be inclusive and not exclusive of the religious dimension. The need to address religious and spiritual problems is now deemed not only legitimate, but also clinically andethically imperative. The 1994 edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by theAmerican Psychiatric Association, for example, contains a new classification, ‘‘Religious or Spiritual Problems.’’ This Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion grows out of the developing awareness of the need to reintegrate thesciences of the mind with the science of the spirit. By bringing together the disciplines of psychology and religion, it
  • 7. viii Introduction unites the two areas of study concerned with the behavior and motivations of human beings and provides a crucial new resource for the collaboration and mutual illumination of these two fields. For those in the study of religion, it offers new tools for understanding the images, structures, symbols, and rhythms that constitute the vocabulary of religious experience. For those in the field of psychology it reveals deep patterns of meaning and practice that inform human culture and the personal identity of millions. This Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion illustrates, even to the skeptical, the vital importance of religion in our world and the serious depths of its symbolic universe. For those already immersed in religious studies, it demonstrates layers of meaning that are enriched – not reduced – by the tools of psychological investigation. We trust this encyclopedia provides comprehensive timely accessible information from a multi-faceted perspective that reflects the intersection and the growing synthesis of psychology and religion. David A. Leeming, Kathryn Madden, and Stanton Marlan
  • 8. Editors-in-ChiefDavid A. LeemingBlanton-Peale Institute3 West 29th StreetNew York, NY 10001USAKathryn MaddenNational Institute for the Psychotherapies250 West 57th Street, Suite 501New York, NY 10019USAStanton MarlanPittsburgh Center for Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis4527 Winthrop StreetPittsburgh, PA 15213-3722USAManaging EditorDavid A. LeemingBlanton-Peale Institute3 West 29th StreetNew York, NY 10001USAAssociate Managing EditorFelice Noelle RodriguezBlanton-Peale Institute3 West 29th StreetNew York, NY 10001USA
  • 9. List of Contributors with ContributionsDon Allen, Jr. Claudia BaderChristian Life Center Institute for Expressive AnalysisWest Chester, OH 45069 New York, NY 10025USA USAPastoral Counseling Astrology and Alchemy Astrology and MandalasJennifer Amlen Astrology and the Transitional ObjectThe Second Wind Duende and PsychoanalysisNew York, NY 10016USA Lee W. BaileyDance and Religion Department of Philosophy and ReligionTwelve Steps Ithaca College (Retired) Ithaca, NY 14850Lucinda Antrim USABlanton-Peale Graduate Institute Amita BuddhaNew York, NY 10001 AnimismUSA AnthropomorphismRumi, Celaladin Dying and Rising Gods Golden Bough, TheJamie D. Aten Guan YinDepartment of Psychology MandalaThe University of Southern Mississippi MythHattiesburg, MS 39406-0001 Myths and DreamsUSA ProjectionAfrican-American SpiritualityReligious Coping David C. Balderston New York, NY 10128Galit Atlas-Koch USANew York, NY 10003 LoveUSA ShakersPostmodernism Matthias BeierAli Ayten Drew Theological SchoolDepartment of Psychology of Religion Madison, NJ 07940Marmara University USAIstanbul 34662 Drewermann, EugenTurkeyHafiz Benjamin Beit-HallahmiHajj University of HaifaKa’bah Haifa 31905 IsraelAnthony Badalamenti BahaisScientific Support ConversionWestwood, NJ 07675 EgoUSA Freud, SigmundMysticism and Psychotherapy New Religions
  • 10. xii List of Contributors with Contributions Object Relations Theory Music Thanatology Primal Horde Theory Shamanic Healing Super-Ego Transference Jeffrey H. Boyd Women and Religion Waterbury Hospital Waterbury, CT 06708 David M. Bell USA Department of Religious Studies Biblical Psychology Georgia State University Atlanta, GA 30322-4089 USA Dianne Braden Religious Identity Inter-regional Society of Jungian Analysts Solon, OH 44139 David Berman USA Philosophy Department Compulsion Trinity College Dublin 2 Roger Brooke Ireland Psychology Clinic Panaceas and Placebos Duquesne University Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Atheism Pittsburgh, PA 15282 Socrates’ Daimonion USA Jung, Carl Gustav, and Phenomenology Rod Blackhirst Philosophy & Religious Studies Charlene P. E. Burns La Trobe University Department of Philosophy & Religious Studies Bendigo, VIC 3550 University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Australia Eau Claire, WI 54702 Astrology USA Creation Incarnation Plato and Religion Reductionism Sacred Time Stigmata Nicholas Grant Boeving Rice University Daniel Burston Houston, TX 77251 Psychology Department USA Duquesne University Hallucinations Pittsburgh, PA 15282-1707 Paranormal Experience USA Ramana Maharshi Anti-Semitism Spiritualism Authoritarian Personality Swamis Laing, Ronald David Transcendental Meditation Luther, Martin Transpersonal Psychology Nazism Unconscious ´ Ressentiment and Religion Visions Stern, Karl Meg Bowles Joe Cambray Westchester Institute for Training in Providence, RI 02906 Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy USA New Fairfield, CT 06812 Amplification USA Emergentism
  • 11. List of Contributors with Contributions xiiiFrances Campbell Kathy CoffmanNew York, NY 10001 ACA, MCAUSA Hattiesburg, MS 39402Synchronicity USA African-American SpiritualityNathan CarlinDepartment of Religious Studies Allan Hugh Cole, Jr.Rice University Pastoral CareHouston, TX 77251-1892 Austin Presbyterian Theological SeminaryUSA Austin, TX 78705Augustine USAMelancholia AnxietyPruyser, Paul PrayerThanatos Michael ConfortiAnn Casement The Assisi InstituteThe British Association of Psychotherapists Brattleboro, VT 05302London USAUK Objective PsycheArchetypeNuminosum Paul C. CooperPersona New York, NY 10016Self USATranscendent Function Koan Mu Koan or Joshu’s Dog PrajnaWing-Shing Chan SunyataFaculty of Medicine ZenThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatin, N.T.Hong Kong Lionel CorbettHong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Pacifica Graduate InstitutePeople’s Republic of China Carpinteria, CA 93013Chan Buddhism USAEnlightenment Depth Psychology and SpiritualityEnlightenment Initiation Soul: A Depth Psychological ApproachF. X. Charet Elisa Bernal CorleyAion Center for the Study of Spirituality and Culture Castaic, CA 91348Montreal, QC H2V 3A3 USACanada EvangelicalConsciousness OrthodoxyStuart Z. Charme´ Bonnie Smith CrusalisDepartment of Philosophy and Religion Albuquerque Psychiatry and Psychology AssociatesRutgers University Albuquerque, NM 87104Camden, NJ 08102 USAUSA Death AnxietyAdam and Eve Wounded Healer, The
  • 12. xiv List of Contributors with Contributions Sam Cyrous Ryan M. Denney Faro Department of Psychology Portugal University of Southern Mississippi Sabeanism Hattiesburg, MS 30406-0001 Zoroastrianism USA African-American Spirituality Don E. Davis Religious Coping Virginia Commonwealth University Richmond, VA 23284 Stephen A. Diamond USA Center for Existential Depth Psychology Forgiveness Los Angeles, CA 90048 USA Daimonic Gerardo James de Jesus Existential Psychotherapy Philadelphia, PA Possession, Exorcism, and Psychotherapy USA Shadow Shame and Depth Psychology Marta Dominguez Diaz Laurence de Rosen SOAS 75116 Paris University of London France London WC1H 0XG Music and Religion UK Sound Traditionalism Miriam Dean-Otting Todd DuBose Religious Studies The Chicago School of Professional Psychology Kenyon College Chicago, lL 60610 Gambier, OH 43022 USA USA Daseinsanalysis Prophets Existentialism Fate Heidegger, Martin Ingeborg del Rosario Hermeneutics Emmaus Center Homo Religiosus Loyola Heights, Quezon City Lived Theology Philippines Meaning of Human Existence USA Phenomenological Psychology Doubt Psychotherapy Exodus Purpose in Life Genesis Transcendence Job Trauma Psalms Song of Songs Anthony J. Elia JKM Library Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago Valerie DeMarinis McCormick Theological Seminary Uppsala University Chicago, IL 60615 Uppsala 75120 USA Sweden Rome Migration and Religion Vatican Syncretism Virgin Mary
  • 13. List of Contributors with Contributions xvRobert S. Ellwood Regina A. FredricksonOjai, CA 93023 Blanton-Peale InstituteUSA New York, NY 10001Eliade, Mircea USAShinto MaryTheosophyWatts, Alan Wilson Maurice FriedmanJames G. Emerson San Diego State UniversitySan Francisco, CA 94109 Solana Beach, CA 92075USA USABonnell, John Sutherland Buber, MartinForgiveness and the BrainHiltner, Seward James Markel FurnissRogers, Carl University of Connecticut Canton, CT 06019Mark William Ennis USAClinton Ave. Reformed Church Oedipus MythBergenfield, NJ 07621USACain and Abel Tiffani FutchPredestination Department of Psychology The University of Southern MississippiStacey Enslow Hattiesburg, MS 39406-0001Anthropology Department USAPurdue University African-American SpiritualityWest Lafayette, IN 47907-2059USA Daniel J. GaztambideAnthropocentric View Union Theological Seminary ProgramSacred King in Psychiatry and ReligionAmani Fairak New York, NY 10027Heythrop College USAUniversity of London Liberation PsychologyLondon W8 5HQ Liberation TheologyUK ´ ´ Martın-Baro IgnacioAnalogy (Islamic) MiraclesSharia Giorgio GiaccardiSukey Fontelieu London SE4 1TRPacifica Graduate Institute UKCarpinteria, CA 93013 DefensesUSAChthonic Deities Paul GiblinPan Loyola UniversityAndrew J. P. Francis Chicago, IL 60611Division of Psychology USASchool of Health Sciences Ignatius of LoyolaRMIT University JesuitsBundoora, VIC 3083Australia Ann GleigLocus of Control Department of Religious StudiesWater Rice University
  • 14. xvi List of Contributors with Contributions Houston, TX 77005-1892 Louis Hagood USA Oxbridge Communications Inc. & Narcissism New York, NY 10010 New Age Movement USA Psychology as Religion Dreams Psychospiritual Fredrica R. Halligan MindBodySpirit Institute David M. Goodman Stamford, CT 06905 Danielsen Institute at Boston University USA Boston, MA 02215 Asceticism USA Atman Levinas, Emmanuel Avatar Bhagavad Gita Marta Green Chaos New York, NY 10025-3586 Gayatri USA Ibn al-’Arabi Gnosticism Mantra Kingdom of God Merton, Thomas Meister Eckhart Om Omega Point Mark Greene Ramakrishna Paramahansa Department of Counselling and Psychology Sai Baba Hong Kong Shue Yan University Sufis and Sufism North Point, Hong Kong Surrender Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Taoism People’s Republic of China Teilhard de Chardin Happiness as a Goal Vedanta Orpheus and Orphism Spirit Writing Jaco J. Hamman Wong Tai Sin Western Theological Seminary Holland, MI 49423 Christopher S. M. Grimes USA Saint Louis Behavioral Medicine Institute Calvinism St. Louis, MO 63110 Masochism USA Protestantism Religion and Mental and Physical Health Winnicott, Donald Woods Halina Grzymala-Moszczynska Curtis W. Hart Department of Psychology of Religion Weill Cornell Medical College Jagielonian University New York, NY 10065 Cracow USA Poland Boisen, Anton Cultural Psychology Dunbar, Helen Flanders Faith Development Theory Robert Kaizen Gunn James, William United Church of Rockville Centre Worcester, Elwood (Emmanuel Movement) Rockville Centre, NY 11570 USA John Ryan Haule American Buddhism C.G. Jung Institute Boston Poverty Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 Religious Experience USA
  • 15. List of Contributors with Contributions xviiAnima and Animus Berkeley, CA 94709Collective Unconscious USACommunal and Personal Identity AntichristFeelingParticipation Mystique Ronald Katz New York, NY 10010Philip Browning Helsel USAPastoral Theology AdoptionPrinceton Theological SeminaryPrinceton, NJ 08540 Peregrine Murphy KavrosUSA Department of PsychologyChild, The Pace UniversityFaith New York, NY 10038Father USAGender Roles ReligionTransitional Object ReligiosityVia Negativa ReligiousLouis HoffmanColorado School of Professional Psychology John Eric KillingerUniversity of the Rockies The Intermundia Foundation for VocationColorado Springs, CO 80903 and Calling, Inc.USA Warrenton, VA 20188-1243Fundamentalism USAInterfaith Dialog Animectomy Complex Bion, Wilfred Ruprecht, and ‘‘O’’C. Harry Hui CommunitasDepartment of Psychology Hanging and Hanging GodUniversity of Hong Kong HierosgamosHong Kong RevelationHong Kong Special Administrative Region of the UroborosPeople’s Republic of ChinaChinese Religions Haddon Klingberg, Jr.Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP) Evanston, IL 60201 USAJames W. Jones Frankl, ViktorDepartment of ReligionRutgers University Elisabeth KoenigNew Brunswick, NJ 08901 Ascetical TheologyUSA New York, NY 10003Violence and Religion USA DiscernmentKalman J. KaplanDepartments of Psychiatry and Medical Education Ali KoseUniversity of Illinois in Chicago Ilahiyat FacultesiChicago, IL 60612 Marmara UniversitesiUSA Istanbul 34662Biblical Narratives Versus Greek Myths TurkeyJudaism and Psychology Conversion (Islam) KabirBobbi Dykema Katsanis MirajGraduate Theological Union Qur’an
  • 16. xviii List of Contributors with Contributions Richard L. Kradin Liminality Departments of Medicine and Psychiatry Locutions Massachusetts General Hospital Mormonism Harvard Medical School Occultism Boston, MA 02114 Oracles USA Pantheism Judaism and Christianity in Freudian Psychology Paracelsus Judaism and Christianity in Jungian Psychology Polytheism Puer Aeternus Alexandra Krithades Rites of Passage CG Jung Institute of New York Sacred Prostitution New York, NY 10003 Sangha USA Smith, Joseph Dionysos Tulku David A. Leeming Steven Kuchuck Blanton-Peale Institute Institute for Expressive Analysis New York, NY 10001 New York, NY 10011 USA USA Apollo Relational Psychoanalysis Apollonian and Dionysian Axis Mundi Ryan LaMothe Baptism Pastoral Care and Counseling City St. Meinrad School of Theology Cosmic Egg St. Meinrad, IN 47577 Culture Heroes USA Deity Concept Emotional Intelligence Deluge Deus Otiosus Paul Larson Divine Child The Chicago School of Professional Psychology Eleusinian Mysteries Chicago, IL 60610 Gardens, Groves, and Hidden Places USA Jihad Ananda Monomyth Arhat Monotheism Bodhi Tree Pilgrimage Bodhisattva Primordial Waters Breathing Quest Buddhism Resurrection Circumambulation Sex and Religion Dalai Lama Shakti Divination Trickster Esoteric Buddhism Vestments Hermits Hierophany Lorna Lees-Grossmann Homosexuality Department of Psychosomatic Medicine Hormic Psychology Klinikum Rechts der Isar Iconography Munich 81675 Immanence Germany Initiation Delusion Karma Evil
  • 17. List of Contributors with Contributions xixFreud, Sigmund, and Religion Mission, SDSchreber, Daniel Paul USA Black ElkMeredith LisagorNew York, NY 10025 Kathryn MaddenUSA National Institute for the PsychotherapiesDeus Absconditus New York, NY 10019Logos USANative American Messianism Abyss Dark MotherKate M. Loewenthal Dark Night of the SoulPsychology Department Descent to the UnderworldRoyal Holloway ErosUniversity of London Homo TotusEgham Mary MagdaleneSurrey TW20 0EX TantrismUK TransfigurationCharity Winnicott, Donald Woods, and ReligionConscienceDepression Ronald MaddenHasidism New York, NY 10025Psychology USAPsychosis Dragon SlayingPsychotherapy and Religion TemenosZionism Stanton Marlan Pittsburgh Center for Psychotherapy andGeorge A. Looks Twice PsychoanalysisOglala Lakota Sioux Tribe Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3722SD USAUSA Hillman, James, and AlchemyBlack Elk Kelly Murphy MasonGeorgine Leona Looks Twice The Blanton-Peale InstituteOglala Lakota Sioux Tribe New York, NY 10001SD USAUSA EpiphanyBlack Elk Labyrinth Story as Scripture, Therapy, RitualSana Loue WisdomCenter for Minority Public HealthCase Western Reserve University Mathew MatherSchool of Medicine Centre for Psychoanalytic StudiesDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics University of EssexCleveland, OH 44106-4945 Wivenhoe Park, ColchesterUSA Essex CO4 3SQCuranderismo UK ´Santerıa Alchemical Mercurius and Carl Gustav JungAlex Lunderman, Jr. Kelley Raab MayoRosebud Sioux Tribe Royal Ottawa Mental Health CentreRing Thunder Community University of Ottawa
  • 18. xx List of Contributors with Contributions Ottawa, ON K1Z 7K4 Claudia Nagel Canada Mercurius Management Consulting Psychiatry ¨ Konigstein 61462 Germany Pittman McGehee Analytical Psychology Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center Ethics and Ethical Behavior San Francisco, CA 94111-1920 USA Jo Nash Jungian Self Mental Health Section School of Health and Related Research Jill L. McNish University of Sheffield Union Theological Seminary Sheffield S1 4DA Swedesboro, NJ 08085 UK USA Affect Fall, The Ecstasy Julian of Norwich Libido Shame and Guilt Mindfulness Alice Mills Annabelle Nelson University of Ballarat The WHEEL Council Ballarat, VIC 3353 Flagstaff, AZ 86002 Australia USA Apotheosis and Return Sophia Call, The Cupid and Psyche Eddie C. W. Ng Dismemberment Victoria University Etiological Myth Melbourne, VIC Refusal of the Call Australia Chinese Religions Jessica Mitchell Kenneth L. Nolen Blanton-Peale Institute Salinas Valley Memorial Healthcare System New York, NY 10001 Salinas, CA 93930 USA USA Dissociation Glossolalia Personal God Ann Moir-Bussy Spiritual Direction Department of Counselling and Psychology Hong Kong Shue Yan University V. Walter Odajnyk Hong Kong Pacifica Institute Contemplative Prayer Carpinteria, CA 93013 John of the Cross USA Tara Angels David M. Moss III Thomas St. James O’Connor Atlanta, GA 30305 Waterloo Lutheran Seminary USA Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 God Canada Providence Healing Psychoanalysis Narrative Therapy Theodicy Purgatory
  • 19. List of Contributors with Contributions xxiTrish O’Sullivan IslamNew York, NY 10023 JesusUSA KabbalahAhimsa MagicBuddha-Nature Moon and Moon GoddessesChakras MummificationMeditation Mystery Religions New TestamentJohn Pahucki Virgin BirthDepartment of HumanitiesSUNY Rockland Nathalie PilardSuffern, NY 10901 King’s CollegeUSA School of DivinityLacan, Jacques University of AberdeenPlato on the Soul Aberdeen AB24 3UBQuaternity UKRank, Otto I ChingTwice Born IntuitionErica Palmer Mark PopovskyCenter for Growth Department of Pastoral CareColorado Springs, CO 80918 Weill Medical College of CornellUSA New York Presbyterian Hospital - ChaplaincyFundamentalism New York, NY 10021Ginette Paris USA Baal Shem TovPacifica Graduate Institute CircumcisionSanta Barbara, CA 93105 Heschel, Abraham JoshuaUSARedemption, the Problem with Jerusalem Syndrome Jewish LawAnnette Peterson Jewish Mourning RitualsRiverside, IL 60546 Jewish Sexual MoresUSA Maimonides, MosesFemale God Images MidrashGod Image and Therapy ShekhinahGod Image in Dreams TalmudMale God Images Robert Prue (Sicangu Lakota)Jeffrey B. Pettis School of Social WelfareDepartment of Theology University of KansasFordham University Kansas City, MO 64109New York, NY USAUSA Peyote CeremonyAndrogyny Peyote ReligionAscension Vision QuestBibleChristianity Thomas C. PutnamConfucianism Cambridge, MA 02138Eclipses USAElixir Mountain, TheHinduism Rinpoche
  • 20. xxii List of Contributors with Contributions Robert Quackenbush Kierkegaard, Søren New York, NY 10075 Scapegoat USA Oedipus Complex Jeffrey Burton Russell Department of History Brandon Randolph-Seng University of California Department of Psychology Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9410 Texas Tech University USA Lubbock, TX 79409 Devil USA Altered States of Consciousness Krystyna Sanderson Method The Blanton-Peale Institute Personal Unconscious New York, NY 10001 Prejudice USA Compassion Roberto Refinetti Crucifixion Psychology Grace University of South Carolina Holocaust Walterboro, SC 29488 USA Alane Sauder-MacGuire Body and Spirituality New York, NY 10016 Relativism USA Jung, Carl Gustav, and Alchemy Jennifer S. Ripley Osiris and the Egyptian Religion School of Psychology and Counseling Regent University Frank Scalambrino Virginia Beach, VA 23464-9956 Department of Philosophy USA Duquesne University Forgiveness Pittsburgh, PA 15282 Joenine E. Roberts USA Blanton-Peale Institute Samsara and Nirvana Association for Psychoanalytic Self Psychology Leon Schlamm New York, NY 10024 School of European Culture & Languages USA Religious Studies Section Kohut, Heinz University of Kent Alan Roland Canterbury National Psychological Association for Psychoanalysis Kent CT2 7NF New York, NY 10014 UK USA Active Imagination Mysticism and Psychoanalysis Individuation Inflation Ann M. Rothschild Jung, Carl Gustav, and Eastern Religious Traditions Private Practice Jung, Carl Gustav, and Gnosticism New York, NY 10003 Jung, Carl Gustav, and Religion USA Wilber, Ken Teresa of Avila Waiting Magda Schonfeld Tadd Ruetenik Hudson Holistic Health Care St. Ambrose University Cold Spring, NY 10516 Davenport, IA 52803 USA USA Yoga
  • 21. List of Contributors with Contributions xxiiiMatthew B. Schwartz Adler, AlfredDepartment of History Sullivan, Harry StackWayne State UniversityDetroit, MI 48202 Lynn SomersteinUSA Institute for Expressive AnalysisBiblical Narratives Versus Greek Myths New York, NY 10028Judaism and Psychology USA AkedahCarol L. Schnabl Schweitzer Erikson, ErikPastoral Care Union-PSCE Ethics of the FathersRichmond, VA 23227 HillelUSA MikvehKristeva, Julia SederSacraments ShemaSelf Psychology Western WallVocation