General Information on
Official Name: Kyrgyz Republic
Government Type: Republic
Population: 5.36 million
Area: 77,181 square miles
Languages: Kyrgyz (official), Uzbek,
Russian (official), Dungun
Republic, is a country
located in Central Asia.
Landlocked and mountainous,
Kyrgyzstan is bordered
by Kazakhstan to the
north, Uzbekistan to the
west, Tajikistan to the southwest
and China to the east.
• Manas, an epic poem
• Komuz, a three-stringed lute
• Tush kyiz, large, elaborately
embroidered wall hangings
• Shirdak, flat cushions made in
40-rayed yellow sun in the center of the
flag represents 40 warriors of the mythical
lines inside the sun represent the
crown or tündük (Kyrgyz түндүк) of a yurt, a
symbol replicated in many facets of Kyrgyz
red portion of the flag represents peace
and openness of Kyrgyzstan.
An ethnic Kyrgyz teenager girl from
the Ulupamir village in the Van
province, Turkey. 21.06.2009.
Bübüsara Beyşenalieva, ballet
dancer, as shown on the
Kyrgyz 5 som note.
Chinghiz Aitmatov –
Orzubek Nazarov who won the bronze medal
at the 1986 World Amateur Boxing
Championships in Reno. He is a former WBA
JSC National Air Carrier "Kyrgyzstan Airlines" It
operated scheduled international and domestic
services, as well as charter flights. Its main
base was Manas International Airport, with a
hub at Osh Airport.
An Tupolev Tu-154 in the newest livery of
Kyrgyzstan Airlines in 2003.
General Information on Cambodia
Official Name: Kingdom of Cambodia
Capital: Phnom Penh
Government Type: Constitutional
Monetary unit: Riel
Population: 14.8 million
Area: 69,898 sq mi
Languages: The Khmer language is a
member of the Mon–Khmer subfamily of the
Austroasiatic language group. French, once
the language of government in Indochina, is
still spoken by many older Cambodians.
Located in the southern portion of the
Indochina Peninsula in Southeast
Asia. bordered by Thailand to the
northwest, Laos to the northeast,
Vietnam to the east, and the Gulf of
Thailand to the southwest.
The most famous period in Cambodia's history came from 900 to 1400 AD
during the rule of the Khmer Kingdom. The Khmer Kingdom ruled the area
and was Southeast Asia's largest empire for part of its history. Their capital
city was Angkor where its possible more than 1 million people lived at the
height of its power. There are many famous temples build here including the
most famous Angkor Wat. In the 15th century the Khmer Kingdom collapsed
and never regained its former glory.
In 1863 Cambodia became a protectorate of France. This continued for nearly
100 years until it gained full independence on November 9, 1953.
In the early 1970's Cambodia became embroiled into the Vietnam War.
However, things got even worse after the war. A group called the Khmer Rouge
took over led by a man named Pol Pot. They forced people into horrible work
conditions and around 1 million Cambodians, around 12% of the total
population, were killed.
Various factors contribute to the Cambodian
culture including Theravada Buddhism,
Hinduism, French colonialism, Angkorian
culture, and modern globalization. The
Cambodian Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts
is responsible for promoting and developing
Angkor Wat or "City of Temples“
is largest religious monument in the
the most popular dine out dish, kuy teav, is a pork
broth rice noodle soup with fried garlic, scallions,
green onions that may also contain various
toppings such as beef balls, shrimp, pork liver or
lettuce. The cuisine is relatively unknown to the
world compared to that of its neighbours Thailand
Bon Om Tuuk (Festival of
Boat Racing), the annual
boat rowing contest, is the
most attended Cambodian
Football (soccer) is one of the most popular
sports, Western sports such as volleyball,
bodybuilding, field hockey, rugby union, golf,
and baseball are gaining popularity. Volleyball
is by far the most popular sport in the country.
Native sports include traditional boat
racing,buffalo racing, Pradal Serey, Khmer
traditional wrestling and Bokator.
Khmer Apsara dancers
The music of crooner Sinn
Sisamouth and Ros Sereysothea from the
1960s to the 1970s is considered to be the
classic pop music of Cambodia.
In 2009 there were
Ministry of Education,
Youth and Sports
Integrity, Justice and
POL POT (1925-1998)Cambodian
communist who led the Khmer
Rouge revolutionary group
from 1963 to 1988.
PISITH PILIKA (19651999)Cambodian actress and dancer
who starred in over 60 movies and
appeared in numerous advertisements
throughout her lengthy career.
HUN SEN 65
Cambodia in 1985.
CHHET SOVAN PANYA 27
Famous Cambodian pop singer
who made it to the top of
Cambodia's music charts with little
to no self-promotion.
Cambodia Angkor Air is the national
flag carrier airline of Cambodia,
headquartered in Phnom Penh. It
commenced operations on 28 July
2009. The airline is owned by the
Cambodian government (51%) and
Vietnam Airlines (49%), the latter
allowing for codeshare flights.
General Information on Iraq
Official Name: Republic of Iraq
Government Type: Federal, Parliamentary,
Monetary unit: Iraqi Dinar
Population: 2012 estimate 31,129,225
Area: 169,234 sq mi
Languages: Arabic Kurdish
Iraq borders Turkey to the
north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to
the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the
south, Jordan to the southwest,
and Syria to the west.
From earliest times Iraq was known as
Mesopotamia—the land between the rivers—for it
embraces a large part of the alluvial plains of the
Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
An advanced civilization existed in this area by
4000 B.C. Sometime after 2000 B.C., the land
became the center of the ancient Babylonian and
Assyrian empires. Mesopotamia was conquered by
Cyrus the Great of Persia in 538 B.C. and by
Alexander in 331 B.C. After an Arab conquest in 637–
640, Baghdad became the capital of the ruling
caliphate. The country was pillaged by the Mongols in
1258, and during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries
was the object of Turkish and Persian competition.
Iraq is known primarily for its rich maqam
The National Theatre of Iraq was looted during the
2003 invasion, but efforts are underway to restore it.
Some important cultural institutions in the capital
include the Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra –
rehearsals and performances were briefly interrupted
during the Occupation of Iraq but have since
returned to normal.
there were a period of significant growth in the
broadcast media in Iraq. Immediately, and the ban on
satellite dishes is no longer in place.
Some characteristic ingredients of Iraqi cuisine
include – vegetables.
•Despite the fact that Iraq lies in ruins
as a result of modern violence, it is
still a beautiful ancient city. Since the
war, security has increased to quite an
extent. There are many tourist
attractions in Iraq for those who are
willing to take the challenge and risk
of visiting Iraq.
KADIM AL SAHIR 56
The flag of Iraq has been in use since
1963, although the design has undergone
many changes since then.
The current one uses three bands of red,
white, and black as the background, with
the takbir written on it in green.
Iraqi Airways Company, operating as Iraqi is
the national carrier of Iraq, headquartered on
the grounds of Baghdad International Airport
in Baghdad. One of the oldest airlines in the
Middle East, Iraqi Airways operates domestic
and regional service. Its main base is Baghdad
General Information on Turkey
Official Name: Republic of Turkey
Government Type: Unitary,
parliamentary, constitutional republic
Monetary unit: Turkish Iira
Population: 2013 estimate75,627,384
Area: 302,535 sq mi
Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to
the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the
northeast; Armenia, Iran and the Azerbaijani
exclave of Nakhchivan to the east; and Iraq and
Syria to the southeast.
The Mediterranean Sea is to the south; the Aegean
Sea is to the west; and the Black Sea is to the
north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the
Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish
Straits) demarcate the boundary between Thrace
Anatolia (Turkey in Asia) was occupied in about
1900 B.C. by the Indo-European Hittites and, after
the Hittite empire's collapse in 1200 B.C. , by
Phrygians and Lydians. The Persian Empire
occupied the area in the 6th century B.C. , giving
way to the Roman Empire,
the Ottoman Empire was not only one of the most
powerful empires in the history of the
Mediterranean region, but it generated a great
cultural outpouring of Islamic art, architecture, and