General Information on
Official Name: Kyrgyz Republic
Government Type: Republic
Population: 5.36 million
Area: 77,181 square miles
Languages: Kyrgyz (official), Uzbek,
Russian (official), Dungun
Republic, is a country
located in Central Asia.
Landlocked and mountainous,
Kyrgyzstan is bordered
by Kazakhstan to the
north, Uzbekistan to the
west, Tajikistan to the southwest
and China to the east.
40-rayed yellow sun in the center of the
flag represents 40 warriors of the mythical
lines inside the sun represent the
crown or tündük (Kyrgyz түндүк) of a yurt, a
symbol replicated in many facets of Kyrgyz
red portion of the flag represents peace
and openness of Kyrgyzstan.
An ethnic Kyrgyz teenager girl from
the Ulupamir village in the Van
province, Turkey. 21.06.2009.
Bübüsara Beyşenalieva, ballet
dancer, as shown on the
Kyrgyz 5 som note.
Chinghiz Aitmatov –
Orzubek Nazarov who won the bronze medal
at the 1986 World Amateur Boxing
Championships in Reno. He is a former WBA
JSC National Air Carrier "Kyrgyzstan Airlines" It
operated scheduled international and domestic
services, as well as charter flights. Its main
base was Manas International Airport, with a
hub at Osh Airport.
An Tupolev Tu-154 in the newest livery of
Kyrgyzstan Airlines in 2003.
General Information on Cambodia
Official Name: Kingdom of Cambodia
Capital: Phnom Penh
Government Type: Constitutional
Monetary unit: Riel
Population: 14.8 million
Area: 69,898 sq mi
Languages: The Khmer language is a
member of the Mon–Khmer subfamily of the
Austroasiatic language group. French, once
the language of government in Indochina, is
still spoken by many older Cambodians.
Located in the southern portion of the
Indochina Peninsula in Southeast
Asia. bordered by Thailand to the
northwest, Laos to the northeast,
Vietnam to the east, and the Gulf of
Thailand to the southwest.
The most famous period in Cambodia's history came from 900 to 1400 AD
during the rule of the Khmer Kingdom. The Khmer Kingdom ruled the area
and was Southeast Asia's largest empire for part of its history. Their capital
city was Angkor where its possible more than 1 million people lived at the
height of its power. There are many famous temples build here including the
most famous Angkor Wat. In the 15th century the Khmer Kingdom collapsed
and never regained its former glory.
In 1863 Cambodia became a protectorate of France. This continued for nearly
100 years until it gained full independence on November 9, 1953.
In the early 1970's Cambodia became embroiled into the Vietnam War.
However, things got even worse after the war. A group called the Khmer Rouge
took over led by a man named Pol Pot. They forced people into horrible work
conditions and around 1 million Cambodians, around 12% of the total
population, were killed.
Various factors contribute to the Cambodian
culture including Theravada Buddhism,
Hinduism, French colonialism, Angkorian
culture, and modern globalization. The
Cambodian Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts
is responsible for promoting and developing
Angkor Wat or "City of Temples“
is largest religious monument in the
the most popular dine out dish, kuy teav, is a pork
broth rice noodle soup with fried garlic, scallions,
green onions that may also contain various
toppings such as beef balls, shrimp, pork liver or
lettuce. The cuisine is relatively unknown to the
world compared to that of its neighbours Thailand
Bon Om Tuuk (Festival of
Boat Racing), the annual
boat rowing contest, is the
most attended Cambodian
Football (soccer) is one of the most popular
sports, Western sports such as volleyball,
bodybuilding, field hockey, rugby union, golf,
and baseball are gaining popularity. Volleyball
is by far the most popular sport in the country.
Native sports include traditional boat
racing,buffalo racing, Pradal Serey, Khmer
traditional wrestling and Bokator.
Khmer Apsara dancers
The music of crooner Sinn
Sisamouth and Ros Sereysothea from the
1960s to the 1970s is considered to be the
classic pop music of Cambodia.
In 2009 there were
Ministry of Education,
Youth and Sports
Integrity, Justice and
POL POT (1925-1998)Cambodian
communist who led the Khmer
Rouge revolutionary group
from 1963 to 1988.
PISITH PILIKA (19651999)Cambodian actress and dancer
who starred in over 60 movies and
appeared in numerous advertisements
throughout her lengthy career.
HUN SEN 65
Cambodia in 1985.
CHHET SOVAN PANYA 27
Famous Cambodian pop singer
who made it to the top of
Cambodia's music charts with little
to no self-promotion.
Cambodia Angkor Air is the national
flag carrier airline of Cambodia,
headquartered in Phnom Penh. It
commenced operations on 28 July
2009. The airline is owned by the
Cambodian government (51%) and
Vietnam Airlines (49%), the latter
allowing for codeshare flights.
General Information on Iraq
Official Name: Republic of Iraq
Government Type: Federal, Parliamentary,
Monetary unit: Iraqi Dinar
Population: 2012 estimate 31,129,225
Area: 169,234 sq mi
Languages: Arabic Kurdish
Iraq borders Turkey to the
north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to
the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the
south, Jordan to the southwest,
and Syria to the west.
From earliest times Iraq was known as
Mesopotamia—the land between the rivers—for it
embraces a large part of the alluvial plains of the
Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
An advanced civilization existed in this area by
4000 B.C. Sometime after 2000 B.C., the land
became the center of the ancient Babylonian and
Assyrian empires. Mesopotamia was conquered by
Cyrus the Great of Persia in 538 B.C. and by
Alexander in 331 B.C. After an Arab conquest in 637–
640, Baghdad became the capital of the ruling
caliphate. The country was pillaged by the Mongols in
1258, and during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries
was the object of Turkish and Persian competition.
Iraq is known primarily for its rich maqam
The National Theatre of Iraq was looted during the
2003 invasion, but efforts are underway to restore it.
Some important cultural institutions in the capital
include the Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra –
rehearsals and performances were briefly interrupted
during the Occupation of Iraq but have since
returned to normal.
there were a period of significant growth in the
broadcast media in Iraq. Immediately, and the ban on
satellite dishes is no longer in place.
Some characteristic ingredients of Iraqi cuisine
include – vegetables.
•Despite the fact that Iraq lies in ruins
as a result of modern violence, it is
still a beautiful ancient city. Since the
war, security has increased to quite an
extent. There are many tourist
attractions in Iraq for those who are
willing to take the challenge and risk
of visiting Iraq.
KADIM AL SAHIR 56
The flag of Iraq has been in use since
1963, although the design has undergone
many changes since then.
The current one uses three bands of red,
white, and black as the background, with
the takbir written on it in green.
Iraqi Airways Company, operating as Iraqi is
the national carrier of Iraq, headquartered on
the grounds of Baghdad International Airport
in Baghdad. One of the oldest airlines in the
Middle East, Iraqi Airways operates domestic
and regional service. Its main base is Baghdad
General Information on Turkey
Official Name: Republic of Turkey
Government Type: Unitary,
parliamentary, constitutional republic
Monetary unit: Turkish Iira
Population: 2013 estimate75,627,384
Area: 302,535 sq mi
Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to
the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the
northeast; Armenia, Iran and the Azerbaijani
exclave of Nakhchivan to the east; and Iraq and
Syria to the southeast.
The Mediterranean Sea is to the south; the Aegean
Sea is to the west; and the Black Sea is to the
north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the
Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish
Straits) demarcate the boundary between Thrace
Anatolia (Turkey in Asia) was occupied in about
1900 B.C. by the Indo-European Hittites and, after
the Hittite empire's collapse in 1200 B.C. , by
Phrygians and Lydians. The Persian Empire
occupied the area in the 6th century B.C. , giving
way to the Roman Empire,
the Ottoman Empire was not only one of the most
powerful empires in the history of the
Mediterranean region, but it generated a great
cultural outpouring of Islamic art, architecture, and
Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of
various elements of the Oğuz Turkic, Anatolian,
Ottoman and Western culture and traditions, which
started with the Westernisation of the Ottoman
Empire and still continues today.
During the first years of the republic, the
government invested a large amount of resources
into fine arts; such as museums, theatres, opera
houses and architecture.
Architectural elements found in Turkey are also
testaments to the unique mix of traditions that have
influenced the region over the centuries.
Turkey won the Eurovision Song
Contestfor the first time with
"Everyway That I Can" by Sertab
Erener in Riga, 2003.
Orhan Pamuk is one of the leading
contemporary Turkish novelists and
the recipient of the 2006 Nobel
Prize in Literature.
The Turkish national basketball team won the
silver medal in the 2010 FIBA World
Championship, losing to the USA in the Final.
The Ottoman era waterfront houses (yalı) on
the Bosphorus also reflect the fusion between
classical Ottoman and European architectural styles
during the aforementioned period.
Türk Telekom Arena is the new home ground of Galatasaray.
rkish pop star
and his 2009
editor of the
He is a famous singer of
turkey and also has cool
personality and dashing
look. He has born in
Germany but then move to
turkey and stays there. He
has won many awards
The flag of Turkey (Turkish: Türk bayrağı,
meaning: Turkish flag) is a red flag with a
white crescent moon and a star in its centre.
The flag is called Ay-yıldız (moon-star) or Al
bayrak (red flag). The Turkish flag is referred to
asAl sancak (red banner) in the Turkish national
General Information on Qatar
Official Name: State of Qatar
Government Type: Unitary, constitutional
Monetary unit: Riyal
Population: 2013 estimate 2,035,136
Area: 4,467.6 sq mi
Located in Western Asia, occupying the small
Qatar Peninsula on the northeasterly coast of
the much larger Arabian Peninsula. Its sole
land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south,
with the rest of its territory surrounded by the
Persian Gulf. A strait in the Persian Gulf
separates Qatar from the nearby island state
Qatar was once controlled by the sheikhs of
Oil was discovered in the 1940s, bringing wealth
to the country in the 1950s and 1960s. About
85% of Qatar's income from exports comes from
Qatar permitted the international forces to use
Qatar as a base during the 1991 Persian Gulf
Qatar introduced its first constitution on June 9,
2005. It guarantees freedom of expression,
assembly, and religion and calls for a 45-seat
The Qatar National Day hosted every 18
December is the day Qataris celebrate their
national identity and history.
The Museum of Islamic Art, opened in 2008,
has quickly come to be regarded as one of the
great museums of the world.
Qatar's media was classified as "not free" in
the 2012 Freedom of the Press report
by Freedom House. Criticism of the Emir in the
media is illegal: according to article 46 of the
press law “The emir of the state of Qatar
shall not be criticized and no statement can
be attributed to him unless under a written
permission from the manager of his office.”
Football is the most popular sport in
Qatar. The Qatar under-20 national
football team finished second in the 1981
FIFA World Youth Championship after a
4–0 defeat to Germany in the final.
Doha, Qatar, is also home to Qatar
Racing Club, a drag racing facility.
Through the Qatar Foundation, the
country has built an “Education City”,
from kindergarten through high school
QATAR ADVENTURE become the leader in Doha, offering
Hotel bookings, Desert safaris, Dhow trips, Water sports,
Fishing Trips, Culture tours, City tours, North of Qatar, Events,
Conferences and Overnight camping.
The Pearl-Qatar, A Riviera-style man-made island developed
in an exclusive environment in Doha,Qatar and the Middle
East's most glamorous address, covering 400 hectares of
reclaimed land, is Qatar's first international urban development
Museum of Islamic Art
The Museum of Islamic Art is dedicated to reflecting the full
vitality, complexity, and diversity of the arts of the Islamic
world. It is a world-class collecting institution, which preserves,
studies, and exhibits masterpieces spanning three continents
Abdullah bin Jassim
Al Thani former emir
rally racer, archer
Thani former ruler
The meaning of Qatar's flag is:
The white colour reflects the internationally recognised symbol of peace
The maroon colour symbolises the blood shed during the several wars
Qatar has undergone, particularly in the second half of the 19th century.
The nine-point serrated line indicates that Qatar is the 9th member of
the "reconciled Emirates" of the Persian Gulf in the wake of concluding
the Qatari-British treaty in 1916.
Qatar's flag is the only national flag having a width more than twice its
Qatar Airways Company Q.C.S.C. , operating
as Qatar Airways, is the state-owned flag
carrier of Qatar. Headquartered in the Qatar
Airways Tower in Doha, the airline operates a huband-spoke network, linking over 100 international
destinations from its base in Doha, using a fleet of
more than 100 aircraft.
The airline has more than 30,000 staff, with 17,000
people employed directly and a further 13,000 in
United Arab Emirates
GENERAL INFORMATION ON
OFFICIAL NAME: EMIRATES OR
CAPITAL: ABU DHABI
GOVERNMENT TYPE: FEDERAL,
MONETARY UNIT: UAE DIRHAM
POPULATION: 2010 ESTIMATE
AREA: 32,278 SQ MI
United Arab Emirates
a country located in the southeast end of
the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf,
bordering Oman to the east and Saudi
Arabia to the south, as well as sharing sea
borders withQatar, Iran and Pakistan.
United Arab Emirates
Originally the area was inhabited by a seafaring
people who were converted to Islam in the 7th
The British withdrew from the Persian Gulf in 1971,
and the Trucial states became a federation called the
United Arab Emirates (UAE). Two of the Trucial
states, Bahrain and Oman , chose not to join the
federation, reducing the number of states to seven.
After the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks on the U.S., the
UAE was identified as a major financial center used
by al-Qaeda in transferring money to the hijackers.
The late Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the
first president of the UAE, oversaw the development
of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into
healthcare, education and infrastructure. Today,
Emirates oil reserves are ranked as the seventhlargest in the world,
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates has a diverse and
multicultural society. Major holidays in Dubai
include Eid al Fitr, which marks the end of
Ramadan, and National Day (2 December), which
marks the formation of the United Arab
Ancient Emirati poetry was
strongly influenced by the
8th-century Arab scholar Al
Khalil bin Ahmed. The
earliest known poet in the
UAE is Ibn Majid.
United Arab Emirates
The Dubai Desert Rock Festival is also another major
festival consisting of heavy metal and rock artists.
The Media of the United Arab Emirates plays an
important role in the region.
Football is a popular sport in the UAE.
Cricket is one of the most popular sports in the UAE
Formula One is particularly popular in the United
Arab Emirates, and is annually held at the
picturesque Yas Marina Circuit. The race is held at
evening time, and is the first ever Grand Prix to start
in daylight and finish at night.
vice president UAE
United Arab Emirates
Elham Al Qasim
first Arab woman to
reach North Pole
United Arab Emirates
It contains the Pan-Arab colors red, green,
white and black, which symbolize Arabian
United Arab Emirates
Etihad Airways is the flag carrier airline of
the United Arab Emirates. Established by Royal
decree in July 2003 and based in Abu Dhabi.
The airline operates more than 1,000 flights per
week to 96 passenger and cargo destinations in
the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia
and the Americas, with a fleet of
85 Airbus and Boeing aircraft
Etihad Airways is the fourth largest airline in
the Middle East and it is the second largest
airline in the United Arab Emirates, after the
Dubai-based airline Emirates.