OpenAccess policies as tools for innovative research and educational challenges.

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Intervention to the International Conference
The future of political science: an international and interdisciplinary conversation, Università degli Studi di Padova, 14-15 december 2012.

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  • I want to thank Dr Indrajit Banerjee, Director Knowledge Societies Division of UNESCO for his impressive talk which give me a useful hook to explain some concepts and ways about Open Access as strategic tool for innovative research and educational challenges
  • The principle that the results of research - that has been publicly funded - should be freely accessible in the public domain is a compelling one.
    Many scientists are convinced of the benefits of an "open” and participatory science, using innovative and collaborative means and not only the materials related to research projects, but also experimental data. Research is pushing, at large-scale, for new forms of solidarity and less individualism, in a more balanced way. Research is pushing, at large-scale, for new forms of solidarity and less individualism, in a more balanced way
  • Open Access due to its social pervasiveness is moving towards alternative economies and is opening new paths in the creation of spaces within the social environment. During 2012 it was Increasingly used worldwide for purposes of support and humanitarian aid, involving people and cultures within social media and social networks by acting as a real catalyst for information.
    Beyond individual rights, a new form of solidarity is gradually taking shape between various groups and generations, based on the voluntary sharing of samples and information and the vision of a "common good," inside a more democratic debate and in a public level management.
  • A specific asset is defined as the "common good" when it is shared by all members of a specific community[1]. There are definitions of the common good in philosophy, ethics, political science, religion and jurisprudence. The American economist Elinor Ostrom, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics from the Academy of Sweden on October 12, in 2009 for the analysis of governance and in particular her work on the "commons“, emphasizes that, although the problems of commons knowledge are not necessarily similar to those that invest the physical environment, the challenge remains that of identifying the similarities between them, and exploring at the same time, what differentiates knowledge as a resource from commons, with regards to natural resources.
    The commons, Ostrom tells us, are a new language, and shared resources subject to social dilemmas, questions and controversies, doubts, and disputes. And while lawyers analyze the legal aspects, economists the cost-effectiveness, philosophers, epistemological issues, sociologists, the behavior of virtual communities, and scientists study the laws of nature, librarians and information technicians deal with the collection, organization and access to information resources, regarded as the intellectual commons.
    [1] Elinor Ostrom, Governing the commons. The evolution of institutions for collective actions, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990
  • One of the most striking example of this openess is the recent discovery regarding stem cell research, by Shinya Yamanaka, the Japanese researcher awarded the Nobel Prize 2012, who in 2006 discovered a way to take adult stem cells back in time, to an embryonic-like state. All papers by Yamanaka and his team have been deposited and are available for open access on a Kyoto repository named KURENAI. Yamanaka’s articles on iPS cells, according to the observations by Thomson Reuters, are among the most cited of the world, and have increased the impact within the scientific community, exponentially.
    In addition, during the four years following his discovery, the technique was perfected, thanks to the fact that Yamanaka and his team had an open sharing of data so that all laboratories of the world could (and still can) work together collaboratively on their research.
  • Open data Movement, like other Open philosophies, aims the goal of making immediately "accessible to anyone the primary research data, without limitation of copyright, patent or other control mechanisms". In addition to open access to scientific data channel, Governments everywhere are opening up their data to the public and third-party developers, useful to improving education, and building tools to solve real world problems as climate changes, urbanization, poverty rate … a sort of driver of economic growth. Kenya for example is the first developing country to have an open government data portal.
    The Kenya Open Data Initiative seeks to foster an innovation eco-system around Government data and is giving developers a chance to interact with the data, be able to use it and create interesting mash up and innovative applications.
  • 6. Research Open Access as bridge towards Open educational resources (OER)
    Paper deposited in OA form an important bridge to facilitate the engagement of potential postgraduate students with the Faculty. Governments, school boards, colleges and universities should make open education a high priority in their policies.
    OER should be freely shared through open licences which facilitate use, revision, translation, improvement and sharing by anyone. OER should be published in formats that facilitate both use and editing, and that accommodate a diversity of technical platforms, accessible also to people with disabilities.
  • By advocating for policies, both at institutional and at governative level, that require the results of research be made openly available and educating those on your campus about the importance of widening access to research results, you can make a real difference in ensuring that students, doctors, researchers, and others aren't locked out of the research they need.
    OA ramifications are having a great impact in the evolution of other collateral "open“ movements: starting from the Open Education Resources (OER) up to the newest models of modern pedagogy within the fascinating world of open courses in online universities, focused on open access and targeted to the masses, the so-called Massively Open online Courses (MOOC).
  • Open Access Week, a global event now entering its sixth year, is an opportunity for the academic and research community to continue to learn about the potential benefits of Open Access, to share what they’ve learned with colleagues, and to help inspire wider participation in helping to make Open Access a new norm in scholarship and research.
  • Costs of scholarly communication are too high. The long-term trend of increases in journal subscription prices is a very real – and growing – problem. While the percentage price increases differ from discipline to discipline, the average increase in journal subscription prices to academic libraries over the past 5 years has averaged between 7% and 11% – each year.
    Economic Imperative: the input/output distortions of the scholarly publishing business (the issue of moral hazard). These are the motivations behind the growth of the world-wide Open Access movement. Even the most well-funded libraries (such as Harvard University and the University of Munich) have had to cancel journal subscriptions because they cannot afford to continue paying the subscription fees.
    OA is compatible with copyright, peer review, revenue (even profit), print, preservation, prestige, quality, career-advancement, indexing, and other features and supportive services associated with conventional scholarly literature.
    The primary difference is that the bills are not paid by readers and hence do not function as access barriers.
  • Open Access is defined by the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI2002) as the free availability and unrestricted access of research results, without financial, legal or technical barriers.
    OA is always free (“gratis”) for the reader
    OA respects research policy and Intellectual Property
    OA to data is indispensable
    According to the revised BOAI recommendations, research results should be made available:
    Without contractual, legal, or licensing restrictions on use or reuse other than integrity and attribution of the author,
    Without technical restrictions which might prevent indexing, mining, searching, filtering and any other automatic processing making research more useful and likely to be connected with related results for the advancement of research,
    When possible, as “libre OA” (which combines free access as well as liberal open licensing) - preferably under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license or equivalent.
  • The two OA publication models, just like the traditional conventional (non-OA) model (with
    financial, legal or technical barriers), are sustainable ways not only to make knowledge
    available, but also to conduct business activity. OA requirements can be fulfilled through
    various publishing models combined with various business models
    both the green and the gold ways are been studded with great successes
    Recent studies have begun to show that open access increases impact. 
  • During 2012 it has been increasingly used worldwide for purposes of support and humanitarian aid, involving people and cultures within social media and social networks by acting as a real catalyst of information.
    These charts illustrate just how dramatic the growth of open access is… over 2000 repositories in the world… very interesting growth rates in every discipline
  • Since 2006 the European Commission has been developing policy and measures on open access for a smart, sustainable and inclusive economy. In August 2008, the European Commission launched the 'Open Access Pilot in the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). Now the Commission has announced the intention to make open access all research findings funded by Horizon 2020, its enormous, €80-billion (US$98-billion) research-funding programme for 2014–20.  Horizon 2020 strategy – which will include both 'Green' and 'Gold' open access measures - underlines the central role of Open Access knowledge as innovation engine in generating growth.
    In such direction it will be strategic, as keys for innovation, the Implications of policy choices within the research programs of the Commission and the European Union and projects of the Digital Innovation which will be taken in promoting open access in the sense of open innovation and in order to resolution of critical issues.
    On 17 July 2012, the European Commission outlined measures to improve access to scientific information produced in Europe in two distinct documents: a Communication and a Recommendation to the Member States. Recent Commission public consultations show that researchers, libraries, research funders and businesses believe that there is a problem with access to scientific information and that this is a key barrier to the optimal circulation of knowledge in Europe, affecting both academic research and industrial uptake of research results.
    In such direction it will be strategic, as keys for innovation, the Implications of policy choices within the research programs of the Commission and the European Union and projects of the Digital Innovation which will be taken in promoting open access in the sense of open innovation and in order to resolution of critical issues.
    Simplifying pan-European licensing for online works  IPR
    Open up public data resources for re-use
    Review the EU data protection rules
  • MedOANet addresses the necessity for coordinated strategies and policies in Open Access to scientific information in Europe. The project will enhance existing policies, strategies and structures for Open Access and will contribute towards the implementation of new ones in six Mediterranean countries: Greece, Turkey, Italy, France, Spain, Portugal. It will also promote national and regional coordination of policies, strategies and structures in these six countries and beyond.
    The consortium comprises organizations from nine countries with key roles in issues of access to, dissemination and preservation of research.
  • First of all the Open Access Movement, landed in Italy to follow the European action named as Berlin declaration
    In November 2004, the CRUI (Conferenza dei Rettori delle Università Italiane) - thought its library commission action - promoted the agreement of the Italian Universities to the "Berlin Declaration to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities", on the occasion of the Messina Conference on "Italian Universities for Open Access: towards open access for scholarly literature", in order to spread the advantages generated by open-access publishing.
    This Group drawn up the guidelines, in order to make the academic community aware of the advantages due to Open Access, and to provide definite indications for the creation of open archives and the actualization of e-publishing initiatives.
    In addition, the group worked on the laws and the ways of publishing Ph.D. dissertations in the archives, on the function that open archives may have in the research assessment procedures, on the best practices for the creation of open access journals. Direct consequence of this line of work was the adoption of mandatory rules - approved with official deliberations of Academic Senate – from several Italian universities (over twenty) which settled up policies on deposit of Ph.D. dissertations[1] in the archives.
    [1] http://www.crui.it/HomePage.aspx?ref=1149
  • We need incisive OA policies because our repositories are empty, not only in Italy but overall in the world
    There are Different levels of policy
    for governments and other research funders
    for Institutional policy-makers
    Policies should explain that copyright is a bundle of rights and that it is possible to retain sufficient of these to be able to disseminate the work as required.
    On the Government side we need new legislations such as specific laws for the scholarship communication. Nowadays the copyright is perceived as a very strong legal barrier for research and teaching, because copyright laws influence in a negative way the dissemination and the consequent impact of intellectual research output, with heavy cultural, social and economic relapses.On the administrative side we have to work inside our Universities. We need different levels of policies which foresee agreements that seek to assure to University and to its authors the ability to use and manage the works in fulfilment of their most important interests. 
  • Scientists should manage their own upstream research assets as global public goods
    There is no "best practice" statement of the benefits of OA or the goals of promoting OA. But there are some mistakes to avoid.
    The overall goal is to persuade policymakers to avoid measures that might further fragment the research environment
    Policymakers should empower the public good functions by rules with a view to stimulate more and better scientific outputs and more downstream commercial applications.
    Intellectual property laws now impede access to scientific literature and data, just at the time when developments in scientific research methods require the use of automated knowledge discovery tools for access and re-use of data for others experiments and for new applications
    The motivations behind the growth of the world-wide open access movement are from one side enhanced transparency, openness and accountability, and public engagement with research; and on the other hand closer linkages between research and innovation, with benefits for public policy and services, and for economic growth
  • The European Commission today (5 December) agreed on a process to ensure copyright is best suited for the digital age with the aim of possible legislative reform in 2014. During a meeting, Commissioners decided to immediately launch a stakeholder dialogue, and to complete market studies, impact assessment and legal drafting work.
    Libraries and digital civil liberties groups provided their views going into today’s meeting (IPW, EU Policy, 5 December 2012).
    The letter argues that keeping information open is important for many reasons, including: access, consumers across borders in the EU Single Market, media pluralism, growth and jobs, access for the visually impaired, research, and cultural heritage.
    The Copyright for Creativity announcement and letter are available here.
  • USA NIH Public Access Policy ensures that the public has access - no later than 12 months after publication - to the results of NIH funded research.
    To help advance science and improve human health the Policy requires scientists to submit final peer-reviewed journal manuscripts to the digital archive PubMed Central upon acceptance for publication [since 2008]
    Research Councils UK  Policy on Open Access
    The Working Group on Expanding Access to Published Research Findings (‘Finch Group’) was set up in October 2011 to examine how UK-funded research findings can be made more accessible
    A new Research Councils U.K. policy encourages researchers to shun science journals that prohibit authors from following the six-month post-publication mandate
    Open-Access of U.K.-Funded Science Papers Will Start in April 2013
    Recommended Gold as preferred
  • There are two basic types of policy: voluntary or mandatory
    A model policy can be worded in order to be adapted and used by institutions, funders and national governments. There are two variants:
    Type 1: immediate deposit with no waiver (“Liège-style” policy)
    Type 2: rights-retention with a waiver
    Type 2(a): Voluntary provision of rights to the institution / funder/government by the author, with waiver (‘Harvard-style’ policy). the policymaker does not already have the rights to the work produced but is prepared to acquire from the creators of the work sufficient rights to make the work Open Access.
    Type 2(b): Retention of rights by the institution/funder/government (‘QUT-style’ policy). the policymaker already has the rights to the work produced or is prepared to make that the case.
    The first university-wide mandatory policy was implemented by Professor Tom Cochrane, Deputy Vice-Chancellor at Queensland University of Technology in Australia, in 2004. Previously there had only been one mandate – at School level, in the School of Electronics & Computer Science at the University of Southampton – so QUT’s mandate was a world first.
    Since then, growing numbers of universities (131) have followed this route, along with research funders such as the European Research Council. 
    In details There are at least six types of university OA policy. Here we organize them by their methods for avoiding copyright troubles.
    The policy grants the institution certain non-exclusive rights to future research articles published by faculty. This sort of policy typically offers a waiver option or opt-out for authors. It also requires deposit in the repository.
    We recommend type #1 in this guide. Most of the good practices collected here are about that sort of policy.
    The policy requires faculty to retain certain non-exclusive rights when they publish future research articles. Whether or not it offers a waiver option for authors, it requires deposit in the repository.
    We do not recommend #2 because it requires faculty to negotiate with publishers in order to retain the needed rights. That is difficult to do. Many faculty are intimidated by the prospect and will not to do it. Even if all tried it, some will succeed and some will fail. Some will get one set of rights and some will get another. That will make access uneven and multiply implementation headaches.
    The policy seeks no rights at all, but requires deposit in the repository. If the institution already has permission to make the work OA, then it makes it OA from the moment of deposit. Otherwise the deposit will be "dark" (non-OA) until the institution can obtain permission to make it OA. During the period of dark deposit, at least the metadata will be OA.
    When type #1 policies are politically unattainable on a certain campus, then we recommend type #3. We put #1 ahead of #3 because it actually provides permission to make articles OA through the repository.
    The policy seeks no rights at all and does not require dark deposits. It requires repository deposit and OA, but only when the author's publisher permits them.
    We do not recommend #4 because it allows recalcitrant publishers to opt out at will. Some institutions believe that a loophole for recalcitrant publishers is the only way to avoid copyright infringement. But that is mistaken. All six approaches listed here, properly implemented, avoid copyright infringement.
    Similarly, some institutions believe that an opt-out for authors, as in #1, is the same as an opt-out for publishers, as in #4. But that is also mistaken. Publishers have reasons or incentives to opt out far more often than authors.
    The policy does not require OA in any sense, but merely requests or encourages it.
    When #1 and #3 are both politically unattainable on a certain campus, we recommend either a type #5 policy or waiting until the community is ready for a type #1 or #3 policy.
    The policy does not require OA in any sense, but asks faculty to "opt in" to a policy under which they are expected to deposit their work in the repository and authorize it to be OA.
    We do not recommend #6 because it is equivalent to no policy at all. Faculty may already opt in to the practice of self-archiving and OA. This sort of policy differs little from #5 except by leaving the impression that asking faculty to opt in to an OA policy is somehow different from requesting or encouraging OA itself.
  • Near the UNESCO policies on OA and OER there is also this guide to good practices for university open-access (OA) policies. It's based on the type of policy adopted at Harvard, Stanford, MIT, U of Kansas, U of Oregon, Trinity, Oberlin, Rollins, Wake Forest, Duke, U of Puerto Rico, Hawaii - Manoa, Columbia, Strathmore, Emory, Princeton, Jomo Kenyatta, Utah State, Bifröst, Miami, California - San Francisco, the U Massachusetts Medical School, Rutgers, and Georgia Tech (listing some but not all, and in chronological order). However, it includes recommendations that should be useful to institutions taking other approaches.
  • In the light of international developments, such as the Declaration of Principles World Summit on the Information Society, it would be useful the definition of a framework of policies first at governative level and second at Institutional level which prevent unfair publishing agreements
    All publicly funded research outputs and educational resources must be made available as open access materials
    The need to support OA policies, access to copyright protected material for education and research purposes must be improved by strengthening existing exceptions and limitations to copyright, and broadening these exceptions to cover uses outside of formal educational and research institutions
    This is essential for the ability to enhance the world economic performance and improve its capacity to compete through knowledge
    Improving the flows of the information and knowledge that researchers produce will also improve efficiency in the research process itself, through increases in the amount of information that is readily accessible, reductions in the time spent in finding it, and greater use of the latest tools and services to organise, manipulate and analyse it increase returns on the investments made in research, especially the investments from public funds.
  • OpenAccess policies as tools for innovative research and educational challenges.

    1. 1. The future of political science: an international and interdisciplinary conversation Rethinking citizenship in global societies: research approaches and educational challenges International and interdisciplinary symposium 14-15th December 2012 Università degli Studi di Padova, Aula Magna, Palazzo Cesarotti Open Access policies as tools for Innovative research and educational challenges Antonella De Robbio CAB Centro di Ateneo per le Biblioteche Università degli Studi di Padova
    2. 2. Open access as a tool for an innovative and shared research • The principle that the results of research - that has been publicly funded - should be freely accessible in the public domain is a compelling one • Many scientists are convinced of the benefits of an "open” and participatory science, using innovative and collaborative means and not only the materials related to research projects, but also experimental data • Research is pushing, at large-scale, for new forms of solidarity and less individualism, in a more balanced way
    3. 3. Elinor Ostrom Nobel Prize 2009 in Economics to “for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons” • “An example of an effective grassroots initiative is that taken by the Public Library of Science, a nonprofit organization of scientists dedicated to making the world’s scientific and medical literature freely accessible “for the benefit of scientific progress, education and the public good.” PLS has so far encouraged over 30,888 scientists from 182 countries to sign its open letter to publishers to make their publications freely available on the web site PubMed Central. Another new collective action initiative is the Creative Commons founded by Lawrence Lessig, James Boyle, and others to promote “the innovative reuse of all sorts of intellectual works.” Their first project is to “offer the public a set of copyright licenses free of charge.”
    4. 4. Research Open Access as a bridge towards Open educational resources (OER) • Paper deposited in OA form an important bridge to facilitate the engagement of potential postgraduate students with the Faculty • Governments, school boards, colleges and universities should make open education a high priority in their policies • OER should be freely shared through open licences which facilitate use, revision, translation, improvement and sharing by anyone. • OER should be published in formats that facilitate both use and editing, and that accommodate a diversity of technical platforms, accessible also to people with disabilities • World Open Educational Resources (OER) Congress Unesco, Paris, June 20-22, 2012 Paris OER Declaration • Massively Open online Courses (MOOC).
    5. 5. You can change things - we already have. By advocating for policies, both on campus and nationally, that require the results of research be made openly available and educating those on your campus about the importance of widening access to research results, you can make a real difference in ensuring students, doctors, researchers, and others aren't locked out of the research they need
    6. 6. OA as compelling idea... • Costs of scholarly communication are too high • Even the most well-funded libraries (such as Harvard University and the University of Munich) have had to cancel journal subscriptions because they cannot afford to continue paying the subscription fees • Economic Imperative: the input/output distortions of the scholarly publishing business (the issue of moral hazard) • OA is compatible with copyright, peer-review, print, preservation, prestige, quality, career-advancement, indexing, and other features and supportive services associated with conventional scholarly literature. • The primary difference is that the bills are not paid by readers and hence do not function as access barriers.
    7. 7. Social and Economic Meanings of Open Access • Open Access is defined by the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI2002) as the free availability and unrestricted access of research results, without financial, legal or technical barriers. • OA is always free (“gratis”) for the reader, as “libre OA” which combines free access as well as liberal open licensing • OA respects research policy and Intellectual Property: without contractual, legal, or licensing restrictions on use or reuse other than integrity and attribution of the author • OA to data is indispensable: without technical restrictions which might prevent indexing, mining, searching, filtering and any other automatic processing making research more useful and likely to be connected with related results for the advancement of research
    8. 8. OA: two channels Green OA designates the self-archival by researchers of their publications in institutional or disciplinary repositories, free of charge to the reader. Most non-OA publishers already authorize an author to deposit in a repository, sometimes after an embargo period. Gold OA designates publishers or journals which distribute their publications free of charge for the reader under a liberal open license (such as the Creative Commons Attribution license). • both the green and the gold ways are been studded with great successes • Recent studies have begun to show that open access increases impact.
    9. 9. the Dramatic Growth of Open Access Directory of Open Access Journals 8,242 titles 330 titles added this quarter growth rate 3.6 titles / day OpenDOAR 2,207 repositories 42 added this quarter growth rate 3.5 / day PubMedCentral: 979 journals immediate free access 51 journals added this quarter growth rate 4 journals / week arXiv: 787,000 documents 20,000 documents added this quarter growth rate 200 documents / day E-LIS: 13,841 documents / 454 added this quarter growth rate 5 documents / day Social Sciences Research Network 360,000 full text papers / 12,000 added this quarter growth rate 130 full text papers / day Internet Archive: 997,158 movies 325,000 added this quarter / growth rate 3,600 / day Bielefeld Academic Search Engine 37 million documents / 950,000 added this quarter growth rate 10 thousand / day
    10. 10. European Union (EU) action for OA • Open Access Pilot in FP7 (2007-2013) • Digital agenda for Europe (2010) • Innovation Union (2010) • Science in Society in FP7 (2012) • Open Aire (Open Acces Infrastructure for Research in Europe) • Open AirePlus (OpenData) • Communication and Recommendation on scientific information: Towards better access to scientific information:Boosting the benefits of public investments in research (2012) • Communication on Access and preservation to scientific raccomandation (2012)
    11. 11. In Italy… • • • • • Open Access Movement landed in Italy to follow the European action named as Berlin declaration in November 2004 by Messina Declaration the CRUI (Conferenza dei Rettori delle Università Italiane) thought its library commission action - promoted the agreement of the Italian Universities to the "Berlin Declaration to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities", At the beginning of 2006, within the CRUI Libraries Commission, the Italian Group for Open Access drawn up a series of guidelines, in order to make the academic community aware of the advantages due to Open Access, and to provide definite indications for the creation of open archives and the actualization of e-publishing initiatives To date: 69 repositories implemented in Universities and Research Institutions and 145 open access journals Policy for PhD thesis as raccomandation inside CRUI framework: 38 universities
    12. 12. There are two different levels of policy: a) governments and other research funders b) Institutional policy
    13. 13. Need to have OA policies • Scientists should manage their own upstream research assets as global public goods • There are no "best practice" statement of the benefits of OA or the goals of promoting OA. But there are some mistakes to avoid. • The overall goal is to persuade policymakers to avoid measures that might further fragment the research environment • Policymakers should empower the public good functions by rules with a view to stimulate more and better scientific outputs and more downstream commercial applications. • Intellectual property laws now impede access to scientific literature and data, just at the time when developments in scientific research methods require the use of automated knowledge discovery tools for access and re-use of data for others experiments and for new applications
    14. 14. European Commission Embarks On Process To ‘Modernise’ Copyright Libraries and digital civil liberties groups provided their views going into a meeting on EU Policy, 5 December 2012) The letter argues that keeping information open is important for many reasons, including: access, consumers across borders in the EU Single Market, media pluralism, growth and jobs, access for the visually impaired, research, and cultural heritage. The Copyright for Creativity announcement and letter are available here.
    15. 15. Governative policies: already settled • • USA NIH Public Access Policy ensures that the public has access - no later than 12 months after publication - to the results of NIH funded research. To help advance science and improve human health the Policy requires scientists to submit final peer-reviewed journal manuscripts to the digital archive PubMed Central upon acceptance for publication [since 2008] • • • • • Research Councils UK Policy on Open Access The Working Group on Expanding Access to Published Research Findings (‘Finch Group’) was set up in October 2011 to examine how UK-funded research findings can be made more accessible A new Research Councils U.K. policy encourages researchers to shun science journals that prohibit authors from following the sixmonth post-publication mandate Open-Access of U.K.-Funded Science Papers Will Start in April 2013 Recommended Gold as preferred OA Gold way
    16. 16. Institutional level two basic types of policy: voluntary or mandatory Type 1: immediate deposit with no waiver (“Liège-style” policy) Type 2: rights-retention with a waiver to Institution • Type 2(a): Voluntary provision of rights to the institution / funder/government by the author, with waiver (‘Harvardstyle’ policy): the policymaker does not already have the rights to the work produced but is prepared to acquire from the creators of the work sufficient rights to make the work Open Access. • Type 2(b): Retention of rights by the institution/funder/government (‘QUT-style’ policy): the policymaker already has the rights to the work produced or is prepared to make that the case. OA Green way
    17. 17. Near the UNESCO policies on OA and OER there is also this guide to good practices for university open-access (OA) policies
    18. 18. Conclusions • In the light of international developments, such as the Declaration of Principles World Summit on the Information Society (UNESCO), it would be useful the definition of a framework of policies first at governative level and second at Institutional level which prevent unfair publishing agreements • The need to support OA policies, access to copyright protected material for education and research purposes must be improved by strengthening existing exceptions and limitations to copyright • Improving the flows of the information and knowledge that researchers produce will also improve efficiency in the research process itself, through increases in the amount of information that is readily accessible • This is essential for the ability to enhance the world economic performance and improve its capacity to compete through knowledge

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