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Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
Threats to Coral Reefs
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Threats to Coral Reefs

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  • 1. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/ mccarty_and_peters/coral/C-intro.htm Threats to Coral Reefs http://tools.coralreef.org/content/ objects/view.acs?object_id=545
  • 2. Importance of Coral Reefs
    • 0.2% of world’s oceans
    • Habitat for 1/3 of marine fishes
    • Habitat for tens of thousands of other animals
    • The rainforests of the oceans
  • 3. Importance of Coral Reefs
    • PROTECTION TO COASTLINES
    • ECONOMIC RESOURCES
    • BIODIVERSITY
    • NATURAL BEAUTY
  • 4. Importance of Coral Reefs
    • PROTECTION TO COASTLINES
      • absorb energy of ocean waves
      • reduce erosion of shoreline
      • storm damage
      • flooding
  • 5. Importance of Coral Reefs
    • ECONOMIC RESOURCES
      • Fisheries for food
      • Fisheries for jobs
      • Tourism
      • Building materials
      • Aquarium trade
  • 6. Importance of Coral Reefs
    • BIODIVERSITY
      • The rainforests of the sea
      • Genetic diversity
      • Pharmaceuticals
  • 7. Importance of Coral Reefs
    • NATURAL BEAUTY
    http://sustainableseas.noaa.gov/missions/ florida2/background/coralspawning.html
  • 8. $375 billion in environmental goods and services Reefs at Risk 1998 (http://www.wri.org/powerpoints/reefswww/sld011.htm
  • 9. Caribbean reef values (annual net benefits in 2000)
    • Fisheries: $310 million
    • Dive tourism: $2.1 billion
    • Shoreline protection: $0.7-2.2 billion
    • Total: $4.1-4.6 billion
  • 10. REEFS WORLDWIDE ARE THREATENED
    • 11% of reefs have been lost
    • 16% of reefs severely damaged
    • ~60% of studied reefs threatened by human activities
    • No pristine reefs left
  • 11. CARIBBEAN REEFS DECLINING
    • 1970s: ~50% coral cover
    • Present: ~10% coral cover
    • =80% reduction in coral cover over last 30 years
    Gardner et al. 2003 Science 301: 958-960
  • 12. Threats to coral and coral reefs:
    • 1) Natural
    • 2) Anthropogenic
      • of human origin
  • 13. Natural disturbances that affect corals and coral reefs?
    • Hurricanes
    • Tsunamis
    • Volcanoes
    • Earthquakes
    • Predators & competitors
    • Bleaching
    • Pathogens
  • 14. Hurricanes
    • Physical damage
    http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/ 1989hugo.html
    • Destruction of other ecosystems upon
    • which coral reefs depend
    • Freshwater poisoning
    • Smothering
  • 15. Tsunamis
    • Physical damage
    • Possible disruption of reproduction and recruitment
    • Erosion
  • 16. Volcanoes
    • Depends upon where volcano occurs
    http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/ current_volcs/montserrat/montserrat.html
    • smothering and sedimentation
    • Heat
  • 17. Earthquakes
    • Little direct impact
    • coastal landslides
    • Indirect impacts
    • triggers tsunamis
  • 18. Predators
    • crown of thorns starfish
    • snails
    • parrotfish
    • butterflyfish
    http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/reflib/ cot-starfish/pages/cot-q07.html http://www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov/pgallery/pgflower/living/fg_living.html
  • 19. Competitors
    • algae
    http://catbert.er.usgs.gov/african_dust/algae.html
  • 20.
    • Loss of zooxanthellae
    • causes
      • higher than usual ocean temperature
      • sharp changes in salinity
      • heavy UV light exposure
    Bleaching http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/ mccarty_and_peters/coral/Bleach.htm
  • 21. http://orbit-net.nesdis.noaa.gov/orad/coral_bleaching_index.html
  • 22. Pathogens
    • Diseases on the rise
      • new pathogens (8+)
      • land pathogens ( Aspergillus )
      • occurring at all depths
      • More susceptible when stressed
    http://ourworld.compuserve.com/ homepages/mccarty_and_peters/ coral/Bbd.htm
  • 23. Threats to coral and coral reefs:
    • 1) Natural
    • 2) Anthropogenic
      • of human origin
  • 24. Anthropogenic threats to coral reefs:
    • Overfishing
    • Development
    • Mining and dredging
    • Recreation
  • 25. Overfishing
    • Ecological imbalance
    http://tools.coralreef.org/content/objects/view.acs?object_id=545 http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/reef/reef2570.htm
  • 26. Overfishing
    • Ecological imbalance
    http://catbert.er.usgs.gov/african_dust/events.html
  • 27. http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/students/coral/coral5.htm http://www.wri.org/indictrs/rrcyanid.htm Overfishing
    • Destructive fishing practices
  • 28. Development
    • Sediment  smothering
    • Freshwater input
    • Pollutants & nutrients (sewage, pesticides, fertilizer, heavy metals, pathogens)
  • 29. http://www.wcmc.org.uk/marine/data/coral_mangrove/coral.danger.html http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/mccarty_and_peters/coral/c-intro.htm Development
  • 30. Development http://www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov/scied/science/habitat/influences.html
  • 31. Mining for construction materials and dredging
    • Destruction of reef structure
    • stirs up sediment
  • 32. Recreation
    • Anchors, boats, flippers, hands, feet
    • Kill animal tissue
    • Skeleton breakage
    http://www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov/scied/science/habitat/influences.html
  • 33.
    • interaction of natural changes & human activity
    • multiple insults
    Synergistic effects
  • 34. Global climate change
    • Reduced reef building
    • Increase in frequency and intensity of hurricanes
    • Increases in bleaching
    • Increased in disease
  • 35. CORAL DOMINATED ALGAL DOMINATED Synergistic effects

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