Threats to Coral Reefs
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Threats to Coral Reefs

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    Threats to Coral Reefs Threats to Coral Reefs Presentation Transcript

    • http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/ mccarty_and_peters/coral/C-intro.htm Threats to Coral Reefs http://tools.coralreef.org/content/ objects/view.acs?object_id=545
    • Importance of Coral Reefs
      • 0.2% of world’s oceans
      • Habitat for 1/3 of marine fishes
      • Habitat for tens of thousands of other animals
      • The rainforests of the oceans
    • Importance of Coral Reefs
      • PROTECTION TO COASTLINES
      • ECONOMIC RESOURCES
      • BIODIVERSITY
      • NATURAL BEAUTY
    • Importance of Coral Reefs
      • PROTECTION TO COASTLINES
        • absorb energy of ocean waves
        • reduce erosion of shoreline
        • storm damage
        • flooding
    • Importance of Coral Reefs
      • ECONOMIC RESOURCES
        • Fisheries for food
        • Fisheries for jobs
        • Tourism
        • Building materials
        • Aquarium trade
    • Importance of Coral Reefs
      • BIODIVERSITY
        • The rainforests of the sea
        • Genetic diversity
        • Pharmaceuticals
    • Importance of Coral Reefs
      • NATURAL BEAUTY
      http://sustainableseas.noaa.gov/missions/ florida2/background/coralspawning.html
    • $375 billion in environmental goods and services Reefs at Risk 1998 (http://www.wri.org/powerpoints/reefswww/sld011.htm
    • Caribbean reef values (annual net benefits in 2000)
      • Fisheries: $310 million
      • Dive tourism: $2.1 billion
      • Shoreline protection: $0.7-2.2 billion
      • Total: $4.1-4.6 billion
    • REEFS WORLDWIDE ARE THREATENED
      • 11% of reefs have been lost
      • 16% of reefs severely damaged
      • ~60% of studied reefs threatened by human activities
      • No pristine reefs left
    • CARIBBEAN REEFS DECLINING
      • 1970s: ~50% coral cover
      • Present: ~10% coral cover
      • =80% reduction in coral cover over last 30 years
      Gardner et al. 2003 Science 301: 958-960
    • Threats to coral and coral reefs:
      • 1) Natural
      • 2) Anthropogenic
        • of human origin
    • Natural disturbances that affect corals and coral reefs?
      • Hurricanes
      • Tsunamis
      • Volcanoes
      • Earthquakes
      • Predators & competitors
      • Bleaching
      • Pathogens
    • Hurricanes
      • Physical damage
      http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/ 1989hugo.html
      • Destruction of other ecosystems upon
      • which coral reefs depend
      • Freshwater poisoning
      • Smothering
    • Tsunamis
      • Physical damage
      • Possible disruption of reproduction and recruitment
      • Erosion
    • Volcanoes
      • Depends upon where volcano occurs
      http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/ current_volcs/montserrat/montserrat.html
      • smothering and sedimentation
      • Heat
    • Earthquakes
      • Little direct impact
      • coastal landslides
      • Indirect impacts
      • triggers tsunamis
    • Predators
      • crown of thorns starfish
      • snails
      • parrotfish
      • butterflyfish
      http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/reflib/ cot-starfish/pages/cot-q07.html http://www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov/pgallery/pgflower/living/fg_living.html
    • Competitors
      • algae
      http://catbert.er.usgs.gov/african_dust/algae.html
      • Loss of zooxanthellae
      • causes
        • higher than usual ocean temperature
        • sharp changes in salinity
        • heavy UV light exposure
      Bleaching http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/ mccarty_and_peters/coral/Bleach.htm
    • http://orbit-net.nesdis.noaa.gov/orad/coral_bleaching_index.html
    • Pathogens
      • Diseases on the rise
        • new pathogens (8+)
        • land pathogens ( Aspergillus )
        • occurring at all depths
        • More susceptible when stressed
      http://ourworld.compuserve.com/ homepages/mccarty_and_peters/ coral/Bbd.htm
    • Threats to coral and coral reefs:
      • 1) Natural
      • 2) Anthropogenic
        • of human origin
    • Anthropogenic threats to coral reefs:
      • Overfishing
      • Development
      • Mining and dredging
      • Recreation
    • Overfishing
      • Ecological imbalance
      http://tools.coralreef.org/content/objects/view.acs?object_id=545 http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/reef/reef2570.htm
    • Overfishing
      • Ecological imbalance
      http://catbert.er.usgs.gov/african_dust/events.html
    • http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/students/coral/coral5.htm http://www.wri.org/indictrs/rrcyanid.htm Overfishing
      • Destructive fishing practices
    • Development
      • Sediment  smothering
      • Freshwater input
      • Pollutants & nutrients (sewage, pesticides, fertilizer, heavy metals, pathogens)
    • http://www.wcmc.org.uk/marine/data/coral_mangrove/coral.danger.html http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/mccarty_and_peters/coral/c-intro.htm Development
    • Development http://www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov/scied/science/habitat/influences.html
    • Mining for construction materials and dredging
      • Destruction of reef structure
      • stirs up sediment
    • Recreation
      • Anchors, boats, flippers, hands, feet
      • Kill animal tissue
      • Skeleton breakage
      http://www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov/scied/science/habitat/influences.html
      • interaction of natural changes & human activity
      • multiple insults
      Synergistic effects
    • Global climate change
      • Reduced reef building
      • Increase in frequency and intensity of hurricanes
      • Increases in bleaching
      • Increased in disease
    • CORAL DOMINATED ALGAL DOMINATED Synergistic effects