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http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/ mccarty_and_peters/coral/C-intro.htm Threats to  Coral Reefs http://tools.coralr...
Importance of Coral Reefs <ul><li>0.2% of world’s oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat for 1/3 of marine fishes </li></ul><ul>...
Importance of Coral Reefs <ul><li>PROTECTION TO COASTLINES </li></ul><ul><li>ECONOMIC RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>BIODIVER...
Importance of Coral Reefs <ul><li>PROTECTION TO COASTLINES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>absorb energy of ocean waves </li></ul></...
Importance of Coral Reefs <ul><li>ECONOMIC RESOURCES  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fisheries for food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Importance of Coral Reefs <ul><li>BIODIVERSITY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rainforests of the sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Importance of Coral Reefs <ul><li>NATURAL BEAUTY </li></ul>http://sustainableseas.noaa.gov/missions/ florida2/background/c...
$375 billion in environmental goods and services Reefs at Risk 1998 (http://www.wri.org/powerpoints/reefswww/sld011.htm
Caribbean reef values (annual net benefits in 2000) <ul><li>Fisheries: $310 million </li></ul><ul><li>Dive tourism: $2.1 b...
REEFS WORLDWIDE ARE THREATENED <ul><li>11% of reefs have been lost </li></ul><ul><li>16% of reefs severely damaged </li></...
CARIBBEAN REEFS DECLINING <ul><li>1970s: ~50% coral cover </li></ul><ul><li>Present: ~10% coral cover </li></ul><ul><li>=8...
Threats to coral and coral reefs: <ul><li>1) Natural  </li></ul><ul><li>2) Anthropogenic  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of human o...
Natural disturbances that affect corals and coral reefs? <ul><li>Hurricanes </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunamis </li></ul><ul><li>V...
Hurricanes <ul><li>Physical damage </li></ul>http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/ 1989hugo.html <ul><li>Destruction of other ecosystem...
Tsunamis <ul><li>Physical damage  </li></ul><ul><li>Possible disruption of  reproduction and recruitment </li></ul><ul><li...
Volcanoes <ul><li>Depends upon where volcano occurs </li></ul>http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/ current_volcs/montserra...
Earthquakes <ul><li>Little direct impact  </li></ul><ul><li>coastal  landslides </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect impacts </li></...
Predators <ul><li>crown of thorns starfish  </li></ul><ul><li>snails </li></ul><ul><li>parrotfish </li></ul><ul><li>butter...
Competitors <ul><li>algae </li></ul>http://catbert.er.usgs.gov/african_dust/algae.html
<ul><li>Loss of zooxanthellae </li></ul><ul><li>causes  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>higher than usual ocean temperature  </li></...
http://orbit-net.nesdis.noaa.gov/orad/coral_bleaching_index.html
Pathogens <ul><li>Diseases on the rise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new pathogens (8+) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>land pathogens ...
Threats to coral and coral reefs: <ul><li>1) Natural  </li></ul><ul><li>2) Anthropogenic  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of human o...
Anthropogenic threats to coral reefs: <ul><li>Overfishing </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Mining and dredg...
Overfishing <ul><li>Ecological imbalance </li></ul>http://tools.coralreef.org/content/objects/view.acs?object_id=545 http:...
Overfishing <ul><li>Ecological imbalance </li></ul>http://catbert.er.usgs.gov/african_dust/events.html
http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/students/coral/coral5.htm http://www.wri.org/indictrs/rrcyanid.htm Overfishing <ul><li>Destruct...
Development <ul><li>Sediment    smothering </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater input </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutants & nutrients  (...
http://www.wcmc.org.uk/marine/data/coral_mangrove/coral.danger.html http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/mccarty_and_p...
Development http://www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov/scied/science/habitat/influences.html
Mining for construction materials and dredging <ul><li>Destruction of reef structure </li></ul><ul><li>stirs up sediment <...
Recreation <ul><li>Anchors, boats, flippers, hands, feet </li></ul><ul><li>Kill animal tissue  </li></ul><ul><li>Skeleton ...
<ul><li>interaction of natural changes & human activity </li></ul><ul><li>multiple insults  </li></ul>Synergistic effects
Global climate change <ul><li>Reduced reef building </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in frequency and intensity of hurricanes </...
CORAL DOMINATED  ALGAL DOMINATED Synergistic effects
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Threats to Coral Reefs

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Transcript of "Threats to Coral Reefs"

  1. 1. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/ mccarty_and_peters/coral/C-intro.htm Threats to Coral Reefs http://tools.coralreef.org/content/ objects/view.acs?object_id=545
  2. 2. Importance of Coral Reefs <ul><li>0.2% of world’s oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat for 1/3 of marine fishes </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat for tens of thousands of other animals </li></ul><ul><li>The rainforests of the oceans </li></ul>
  3. 3. Importance of Coral Reefs <ul><li>PROTECTION TO COASTLINES </li></ul><ul><li>ECONOMIC RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>BIODIVERSITY </li></ul><ul><li>NATURAL BEAUTY </li></ul>
  4. 4. Importance of Coral Reefs <ul><li>PROTECTION TO COASTLINES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>absorb energy of ocean waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce erosion of shoreline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>storm damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flooding </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Importance of Coral Reefs <ul><li>ECONOMIC RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fisheries for food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fisheries for jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquarium trade </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Importance of Coral Reefs <ul><li>BIODIVERSITY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rainforests of the sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmaceuticals </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Importance of Coral Reefs <ul><li>NATURAL BEAUTY </li></ul>http://sustainableseas.noaa.gov/missions/ florida2/background/coralspawning.html
  8. 8. $375 billion in environmental goods and services Reefs at Risk 1998 (http://www.wri.org/powerpoints/reefswww/sld011.htm
  9. 9. Caribbean reef values (annual net benefits in 2000) <ul><li>Fisheries: $310 million </li></ul><ul><li>Dive tourism: $2.1 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Shoreline protection: $0.7-2.2 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Total: $4.1-4.6 billion </li></ul>
  10. 10. REEFS WORLDWIDE ARE THREATENED <ul><li>11% of reefs have been lost </li></ul><ul><li>16% of reefs severely damaged </li></ul><ul><li>~60% of studied reefs threatened by human activities </li></ul><ul><li>No pristine reefs left </li></ul>
  11. 11. CARIBBEAN REEFS DECLINING <ul><li>1970s: ~50% coral cover </li></ul><ul><li>Present: ~10% coral cover </li></ul><ul><li>=80% reduction in coral cover over last 30 years </li></ul>Gardner et al. 2003 Science 301: 958-960
  12. 12. Threats to coral and coral reefs: <ul><li>1) Natural </li></ul><ul><li>2) Anthropogenic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of human origin </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Natural disturbances that affect corals and coral reefs? <ul><li>Hurricanes </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunamis </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>Predators & competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Bleaching </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogens </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hurricanes <ul><li>Physical damage </li></ul>http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/ 1989hugo.html <ul><li>Destruction of other ecosystems upon </li></ul><ul><li>which coral reefs depend </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Smothering </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tsunamis <ul><li>Physical damage </li></ul><ul><li>Possible disruption of reproduction and recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul>
  16. 16. Volcanoes <ul><li>Depends upon where volcano occurs </li></ul>http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/ current_volcs/montserrat/montserrat.html <ul><li>smothering and sedimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul>
  17. 17. Earthquakes <ul><li>Little direct impact </li></ul><ul><li>coastal landslides </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect impacts </li></ul><ul><li>triggers tsunamis </li></ul>
  18. 18. Predators <ul><li>crown of thorns starfish </li></ul><ul><li>snails </li></ul><ul><li>parrotfish </li></ul><ul><li>butterflyfish </li></ul>http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/reflib/ cot-starfish/pages/cot-q07.html http://www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov/pgallery/pgflower/living/fg_living.html
  19. 19. Competitors <ul><li>algae </li></ul>http://catbert.er.usgs.gov/african_dust/algae.html
  20. 20. <ul><li>Loss of zooxanthellae </li></ul><ul><li>causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>higher than usual ocean temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sharp changes in salinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heavy UV light exposure </li></ul></ul>Bleaching http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/ mccarty_and_peters/coral/Bleach.htm
  21. 21. http://orbit-net.nesdis.noaa.gov/orad/coral_bleaching_index.html
  22. 22. Pathogens <ul><li>Diseases on the rise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new pathogens (8+) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>land pathogens ( Aspergillus ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>occurring at all depths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More susceptible when stressed </li></ul></ul>http://ourworld.compuserve.com/ homepages/mccarty_and_peters/ coral/Bbd.htm
  23. 23. Threats to coral and coral reefs: <ul><li>1) Natural </li></ul><ul><li>2) Anthropogenic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of human origin </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Anthropogenic threats to coral reefs: <ul><li>Overfishing </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Mining and dredging </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Overfishing <ul><li>Ecological imbalance </li></ul>http://tools.coralreef.org/content/objects/view.acs?object_id=545 http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/reef/reef2570.htm
  26. 26. Overfishing <ul><li>Ecological imbalance </li></ul>http://catbert.er.usgs.gov/african_dust/events.html
  27. 27. http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/students/coral/coral5.htm http://www.wri.org/indictrs/rrcyanid.htm Overfishing <ul><li>Destructive fishing practices </li></ul>
  28. 28. Development <ul><li>Sediment  smothering </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater input </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutants & nutrients (sewage, pesticides, fertilizer, heavy metals, pathogens) </li></ul>
  29. 29. http://www.wcmc.org.uk/marine/data/coral_mangrove/coral.danger.html http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/mccarty_and_peters/coral/c-intro.htm Development
  30. 30. Development http://www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov/scied/science/habitat/influences.html
  31. 31. Mining for construction materials and dredging <ul><li>Destruction of reef structure </li></ul><ul><li>stirs up sediment </li></ul>
  32. 32. Recreation <ul><li>Anchors, boats, flippers, hands, feet </li></ul><ul><li>Kill animal tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Skeleton breakage </li></ul>http://www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov/scied/science/habitat/influences.html
  33. 33. <ul><li>interaction of natural changes & human activity </li></ul><ul><li>multiple insults </li></ul>Synergistic effects
  34. 34. Global climate change <ul><li>Reduced reef building </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in frequency and intensity of hurricanes </li></ul><ul><li>Increases in bleaching </li></ul><ul><li>Increased in disease </li></ul>
  35. 35. CORAL DOMINATED ALGAL DOMINATED Synergistic effects
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