• Product Introduction: The Products I am going to investigate are the design of the latest American Football helmets, which have been certiﬁed for the 2011- 2012 season and downhill/ off road mountain bike full face helmets.• The primary functions are predominately the same for both types of product. This is to protect the head from sudden blows from different directions The development timeline of American football helmets The popularity of American Football is Downhill mountain biking is a relatively new sport. The ﬁrst downhill time-trial race took on October 22, 1976 on a ﬁre-road in Fairfax California and ten riders made the obviously great in the USA. However, it has 1300 feet descent in about 5 minutes. The road was named Repack Road after the been making a breakthrough in other event because it was necessary to repack the single rear hub brake after each descent continents, especially in Europe (where of the road. The bikes used were based on beach cruisers, which had a single rear there was an NFL until 2007). In England brake that worked by pedalling backwards and it always had to be ﬁlled with grease. This was to prevent a “metal to metal” brake from snatching. The heavy use of the there are now several leagues (Youth, brake during the descent caused the brake to over-heat, which melted the grease Junior, Adult, University and Flag) all of until it drained from the hub and then it required repacking. The ﬁrst bikes used for which have several divisions and a Brit Bowl descending were known as "klunkers" or "paperboy bikes" - coaster brake cruisers using balloon tires and were ﬁrst imported to America by Ignatz Schwinn. at the end of it. Also, the NFL itself has been bringing international league games to Charlie Kelly and Gary Fisher, who were two of the race organisers and also Wembley and 2011’s game will be the ﬁrst competitors of the Repack Downhill, founded their company in 1979 and gave the sport the name of Mountain Biking. The sport grew enormously during the 1980s and where the teams will hold a talent camp for downhill riders continued to use either rigid or limited suspension travel bicycles. 16 - 19 year olds, which gives UK talent the The development timeline of Purpose made downhill bikes were not manufactured until the 1990s and opportunity to attend high school or college incorporated innovations in their design such as dual crown suspension forks and in the USA on a scholarship. full faced downhill biking disc brakes, as well as very elaborate frame suspension designs. helmets Riders from all disciplines of cycling started to focus on downhill and many BMX The appeal of the helmet itself is more racers made the crossover to Mountain Biking, including champions such as John materialistic. Helmets are coloured and Tomac (Team Tomac Bikes) and Brian Lopes. They inﬂuenced the increased difficulty of the design of many courses, especially in the design of the big jumps and drops styled to team speciﬁcations and usually aspects of downhill. Downhill biking came into its own when the sport was included come in four sizes. Another appeal is the at the ﬁrst UCI Mountain Bike Championship, which was held in 1990 in Durango, feel that the user can get of being Colorado. “invincible” or “large” when combined with Protective clothing for the safety of the riders had to be improved as the bike the shoulder pads. However, this can technology developed and this included the helmets. The latest helmet design evolved from the traditional road bike helmet. As the tracks started to develop in sometimes be a problem, as the main areas like the hilly forests (e.g. Wistler, Canada) and urban favelas (e.g. Rio de purpose is to protect the player’s head. Janeiro, Brazil) the protective requirements changed. Due to obvious problems with potential facial and head injuries, it was decided that the certiﬁed helmet had to be “full-faced”. This would absorb more impact and enables full customisation by the The league (NFL) is currently investigating user , for example either with vinyls, stickers, sponsors logos or any other desired the reasons for the current average of eight add-on. concussions a season per player, to help However, wearing the helmet does not necessarily prevent the user from incurring prevent them and also make youth games concussions or any other impact related injury and the technology behind the helmet Original safer in the future. It is also thought to be “hairnet” is continuously being investigated and improved. linked to advanced signs of Alzheimer’s in “661” is one of the leading companies behind downhill biking and motocross ex-players. protective clothing and have some of the best helmet technology in the world.
Product Specification: Schutt Ion 4D Function:Materials and Components: • To protect the user’s entire head from continuous Form:• The majority of the helmet exterior is made of a hard polycarbonate composite alloy blows from all angles Over the years, the shape of the helmet has been developed for the following- • To glance off blows so that impacts are not direct, the shell is offset to the internalMaterials, • To reduce the initial force of impact components of the helmet, with a mall gap in bet ween to dissipate the impact energy• ThermoPlastic polyUrethane (TPU) Crown Cushioning and AiR Maxx (TPU) Jaw Pads inside helmet- • To look aesthetically pleasing in terms of team design further • First elastomer to be made using thermoset methods and effectively sales based on these professional • Large offset/ standoff shell to allow more and bigger TPU to fit inside the helmet and users wearing it also to absorb more of the force from impacts • Comes in a wide range of hardness grades • To be suited to players of all ages (in terms of head • The shape is very aerodynamic and looks “cool” which adds to popularity of sales and • outstanding abrasion resistance, size and shape) and position (in terms of face cage effectively the speed of a player (including breaking through tackles with the sleeker • good low temperature flexibility, needed) shape) • oil resistant, • Face cage needs to be able to block and players hands • Team customisation is another great aspect of this helmet. There are over 50 different from entering from the front, without the sacrifice colour options, which come in either pro gloss, kandy, pearl and metal flake accent. In • great load-bearing capability of loss off vision addition to this, professional and college players have their team logo and other designs • Additives can improve dimensional stability and heat resistance, reduce friction, and increase painted onto their helmets, but these are usually stuck on with 3 mm thick vinyl cut to flame retardancy, fungus resistance, and weatherability shape via a CAD/ CAM process. This makes them durable enough to withstand at least a season of collisions. Award decals are also custom ordered by teams for players with an • Resulting in- better Heat Management, resiliency and hygienics Picture showing how close the outstanding performance.Components, brain is to the surface of a • The shell is made from a desired mixture of polycarbonate alloy, which is fed in pellet• Titanium face cage- form into an injection moulderTitanium face cages are nearly 50% lighter than normal face cages and stronger than stainless steel., and regular helmet, therefore the • All of the components need to be anthropometrically suited to a human headare just as affordable. The normal carbon steel blends of face cages are also available force of the impact will directly • Shell is lacquered after it has been painted, to protect the finish and make the shell moreComponents, affect the brain without any durable. It also adds to the aesthetics• Moisture Management Pad- reduction or absorption or force • Made from a variety of moisture absorbing materials, placed in layers around an inflatable bladder• SUREFIT Air Liner-The t wo-piece air liner has t wo inflation ports, which gives a precise custom fit and is made from a soft, butdurable anti-microbial material, that fits on to the forehead pad• Valve Attachment System- Performance Requirements:A hook and loop attachment system locks the inflation valves of the inflatable bladders (attached to the • ShellTPU) into place, • Must be highly durable to continuous impacts (i.e. not crack or shatter• Quarter Turn Release- • Must be lacquered to add protection to the surface finish and also to waterproof it and make it easy toThe attachment system for the face cage maintain• Energy Wedge face cage- • TPU -The Energy Wedge face cageface cage acts as a shock absorber for the ION 4D • must be resistant for day to day use with minimal maintenance• Chin Strap Attachment- • SUREFIT Air Liner-Because the Energy Wedge face cage is stronger than traditional face cages, the chin strap can be attached • To increase the user’s comfort, by removing sweat from the headthrough the face cage. Other attachment methods, such as the 4-Point High, can still be used as the ION 4D • Valve Attachment System-is pre-scored for the installation of chin strap snaps. A hard or soft cup chin guard can be chosen • so there is no struggle to keep the valve aligned to the helmet shell• Nose Bumper- • Quarter Turn Release- • Made from ABS, with either the Schutt logo or custom logo imprinted, it also holds the top of the face cage in place • which locks it into place, but if needed a simple quarter turn of the screw releases the face cage for the quick and easy access in an injury situation, without too much head movement• A neck bumper- Made from ABS, with either the Schutt logo or custom logo imprinted • Energy Wedge face cage-• Large Ventilation Holes- • absorbing up to 15% more impact from direct frontal impacts than traditional face cage. It is stronger• Fasteners- There are at least 4 snap fasteners to attach the chin cup straps to, made from either a than traditional face cages and gives a wide, unobstructed view of the entire field of play nickel/ brass alloy or ABS. These are paired at either a low, high or back position. These are also used to Illustration on • To protect the user’s face from heavy impacts attach the jaw pads as their sizes can vary. how • Energy Wedge must not jam when compressed during impact concussions • Nose Bumper- using regular, • This not only keeps the face cage aligned with the helmet, but it also helps to absorb frontal impact to none cushioned the forehead helmets occur • Neck Bumper- TPU • Is vital to prevent neck injuries from the thin edge of the base of the helmet Cushioning • Ventilation- System and • To compensate for the removal of the sweat to cool the user Sureﬁt Air liner • Six crown vent holes provide maximum air flow for better heat management
Product Specification: Schutt Ion 4D An example of a helmet with a Scale of Production and Cost: poor attachment system and • All components must be mass produced, to deal with An example of the countless the high popularity and consequent sales, especially too much ﬂexibility in its shell to serious high school and college teams, who will bulk number of collisions during the material buy custom designs and also buy regularly to replace sport, which can affect the damaged or overused helmets, which need to be reconditioned users head • Retails at £400 when first produced, now £240 after 2 years (some slight changes made, but still top of the range)Quality:• Exterior Shell- • Must be completely smooth and untarnished • Logos must be right colours and not smudged (if painted) or lumpy (if vinyl) Another example of a poor • Edges must be rounded with a wide radius due to health and safety if the edges on the neck helmet design, causing the User Requirements:• Snap Fasteners- player to be susceptible to • Needs to protect the head from blows from all angles, which would consequent in severe head injury or • Must be able to withstand repeated use sever facial injuries concussion• Chin cup- • Hard, the cushioning must be unused/ indented and fit the right sized hard • To feel comfortable cup, with its edges completely rounded • To be affordable • soft, stitching must be sealed to the synthetic leather and not loose • Needs to fit typical head sizes and player positions• Face cage- • Must have its joins smoothed and rounded and be symmetrical • Parts are easy to replace • User can customise helmet in terms of graphics/vinyl• TPU- stickers • Must be the right shape for the helmet and not be cut roughly • Machine screws/bolts are of an ISO metric screw• Whole helmet- • Must be tested with various impacts at critical angles to deduce the quality thread which conforms to all helmets of absorption • Helmet can be removed easily in case of injury • Open cage with three horizontal bars, no vertical bar above the nose – enables better visibility Manufacture: • The shell is injection moulded using pellets of a The New York specified polycarbonate alloy A cross section of the Ion 4D, Giants No. 27 • TPU is reaction product of a di-isocyanate and long and showing the TPU cushioning, short chain polyether, polyester, or caprolactone Running Back glycols the bladder, the jaw pads, the Brandon Jacobs • Face cage is made my extruded titanium wire, which is bumers and the shell wearing his bent and welded by automated machine and then coated in a cellulose paint and hardened in an oven at Schutt Ion 4D, various stages to make it chip resistant, but without making him stand getting rid of the small flex out in the ﬁeld • Face Cage- the Titanium is extruded into 10mm wire and then MIG Welded to the required design. It is then with the sleek and painted by an electroplating process warrior like design • Snap Fasteners- the male part is always made from a nickel and brass alloy, but on the chin cup straps an alternative ABS female half can be used • All parts are batch or mass produced to keep up with the high demand and different order styles • All components are put together on a production line
Product Specification: 661 2011 Evo Carbon Full Face Downhill/ Off-road Bike Helmet Materials and Components: Form:Materials, The design of a downhill bike helmet stems from the• Carbon fibre mesh positioned “Hairnet.” However, the needs of downhill biking being a thrill seeking high speed sport mean more impactwithin fibreglass shell protection is needed as well as a stylish look. •for lighter weight. • To glance off blows, so that impacts are not direct • The 3K Carbon weave pattern increases the strength, whilst reducing the weight • The shape is very aerodynamic and looks “cool” which • Intake and vent holes are integrated into the shell design to help keep the adds to popularity of sales and effectively the speed of airflow constant the user, which is essentially the purpose of downhill racing • whilst the removable and washable Coolmax liner wicks moisture away and • Customisation is unique for every user. Professionals keeps heat to a minimum tend to have hand painted shells based on their own • Waterproof, therefore it is easy to clean drawings, meaning that ordinary buyers can order a Antonio Leiva takes • Vinyls can be applied easily replica or go for a default company design. However, the stairs stickers made from 1mm vinyl can be purchased fromComponents, the company, or from a mountain biking magazine or shop (or any other sticker) and placed on where ever• FHVS (Full helmet venting system) helps desiredkeep a constant airflow for heat management, without compensating for off road safety • The shell is made from a desired mixture of carbonby having venting holes fibre weave mesh placed within a fibreglass shell• Galvanised steel mesh across vent holes, which gives good corrosion resistance and • All of the components need to be anthropometrically durability suited to a human head• EPS and EPP foam inner liner conforms to users head shape, creating a custom fit, • Shell is lacquered after it has been painted, to protect making it safer as it won’t be loose during use the finish and make the shell more durable. It also adds to the aesthetics• A movable visor is attached Function:• An air filter is positioned in front of the mouth • To protect the user’s entire head from• Aluminium screws and bolts for attachment of visor primarily a single blow to the head• ABS nut/ tightener for adjustment of pitch for the visor followed by smaller more general• Steel buckle system for fixing in place on users head blows from all angles• Synthetic leather for chin strap • To look aesthetically pleasing in terms of design of shape and• Aluminium rivets effectively sales based on• Nylon tag on buckle system, for ease of finding the buckle an also a safety feature if professional users wearing it user has had an accident and someone else needs to find the buckle to remove the • To be suited to players of all ages helmet (in terms of head size and shape) • Air filter needs to keep the users airway completely clear • Whilst having a long life • Being easy to replace EPP foam helmet mould • Act as a shock absorber by creating flexibility in the front of the helmet, which acts similarly to a crumple zone Me wearing the helmet, showing the different angles of fit
Product Specification: 661 2011 Evo Carbon Full Face Downhill/ Off-road Bike Helmet User Requirements: Scale of Production and• Needs to protect the head from blows from all angles, Cost: which would consequent in severe head injury or The general components of the helmet concussion Performance Requirements: (i.e. the shell) need to be mass• To feel comfortable produced to comply with the high • FHVS (Full helmet venting system) demand. However, this isn’t possible for• To be affordable • Must keep a constant airflow for heat management, without all components• Needs to fit typical head sizes compensating for off road safety by having venting holes • Shell-• Needs o be light and partially flexible, without • Galvanised steel mesh • Carbon fibre mesh, needs to be compensating for strength placed on a mass produced mould • Must prevent foreign objects entering the helmet, with and shaped by hand on a• To feel fully custom with a unique look compensating the airflow production line, to get the perfect Process flow diagram for the • must be able to withstand long term usage shape (no dents e.t.c.) and to keep moulding process of carbon fibre up with demand • EPS and EPP foam inner liner • Fibreglass Exterior, is vacuum • Must conform to most head sizes, without being loose formed over the carbon fibre base • Must be able to be cleaned easily and joined with a thermosetting resin, placed in between • Visor • Aesthetics, Lacquer is sprayed by • Must be able to block Sunlight, dirt and other foreign objects, machines, with which would impair the users vision • Must not break easily on impact with other objects Diagram of formation • Must be able to be adjusted for all user preferences of carbon fibre layersA small selection of different • Air Filterdesign schemes for the helmet • Must purify the air from dust and insects before it reaches the Manufacture: user Ben Byoko goes down hard • The shell/ visor is made by hand • Must be easy to replace after three attempts off a 22 foot drop in Saalbach 2006 • The carbon fibre mesh is coated • Aluminium screws and bolts after winning the qualifier in resin, which is then placed on • Must not shear from blows which could potentially pull the shel a mould of the helmet in several off, exposing the user’s head layers, offset at 60o • ABS nut/ tightener for adjustment of pitch for the visor • It is then layered with more • Must keep visor in a secure position mesh as required • It is the placed in an oven to .... • Must not break from pressure or knocks • It is then coated in a similar • Steel buckle system for fixing in place on users head way, but with fibreglass Why these helmets are • Must secure helmet to user’s head • It is then hand painted or useful... • Synthetic leather robotically painted depending on • Must not scuff easily design and lacquered for added durability and strength • Aluminium rivets • Galvanised steel mesh is made with • Must keep vital safety features in place (e.g. the chin strap, the extruded steel wire, which is then interior padding and the shell itself) galvanised in... • Nylon tag • Aluminium fixings are machined by a • To help user find buckle system and also for emergency help to CNC lathe take hemet off easily • EPS and EPP Foam
Team Helmets and kit A view from all sidesA view from all sides Lining up on the scrimmage Helmet in use A front view with visorTeam helmets in play blocking sun on a sunny day Helmet absorbing impact on ground, therefore protecting my head and neck from serious How the helmet prevented me breaking my neck vertebrae by injury stopping my neck going over itself
Quality Control: Injection Moulding of the Shell Start NO? Yes? Finish Start Form Mould Initial Designs NO? NO? Check for Evaluate the Check that the measurements correct in structural defects, which will impact on suitability of each design and choose the relation to the final design quality of product, in terms of shape final design and finish e.t.c. Injection Moulding NO? Yes? Yes? Yes? Draw final design Coat inside of mould with Check the quality of theMould Design NO? water based lubricant mould Check all relevant detail NO? is present and that it will work with the moulding process Check that an Check the quality of the even layer has been applied to the entire product (i.e. the shape, the finish, structural mould and that it has not been used to Yes? defects, e.t.c.) an excess Input the design into CAD NO? Yes? Yes? NO? Close the two halves of the Eject the Product Check dimensions are mould together correct and then create a contour line for tolerance when milled NO? Yes? Check the pressure is Check whether it has reached a sufficient enough to keep a tight seal and have no reasonable temperature to eject from the mould Export to CNC Milling Machine leaks NO? NO? Yes? Yes? When cut, check dimensions with a computerised probe Feed pellets of the specified sensor polycarbonate alloy into the hopper Allow the product to cool Yes? NO? Finish the mould with various tools (i.e. Emery cloth, water jets) Check that all of the pellets have been melted into a NO? consistent liquid and that the temperature Check that the die is full is correct Check that there are no defective cracks NO? with an ultrasound machine Yes? Allow the hydraulic ram to push the molten polycarbonate into the mould cavity via the sprue Start
Quality Control: Main Quality Standards Identification and description on main quality standards:Injection Moulding of the Shell BS EN 201:2009 Injection moulding, Moulding (process), Moulding equipment, Plastics and rubber technology, Plastics, Plastics-working machinery, Rubber, Occupational safety, Equipment safety,Raw Material: Hazards, Electrical safety, Accident prevention, NoiseDocumentation of the following should be provided with the granules of the (environmental), Gases, Dust, Machine guards, Interlocks,Polycarbonate to be used: Safety devices, Safety measures, Temperature-rise limit,• Quantity Clamps (mechanical), Anthropometric characteristics,• Size Instructions for use, Verification, Test equipment.• Properties (i.e malleability or flammability)• Testing results (i.e thermal expansion value, the shrinkage value and the impact BS EN ISO 10724-1:2001 strength) Plastics, Injection moulding, Particulate materials,• Information to show that the product adheres to national standards such as the Thermosetting polymers, Test specimens, Moulding (process), CE mark or the Kite mark. Plastics and rubber technology, Specimen preparation, Sampling methods, Moulding equipment, Testing conditions,Tooling: Equations, Volume, Area, Dimensions, Shape, Melting point,CMM and computerised optical equipment is used to make sure that the injection Stages of the Temperature measurement, Marking, Moulding compounds.moulding machine mould is 100% dimensionally correct. This is to-• Make sure that the shell is the right size and shape for the other components to mould itself BS EN ISO 10724-2:2001 fit together with Plastics, Injection moulding, Particulate materials,• The structure of the shell itself is will not be impaired and made defective, Thermosetting polymers, Test specimens, Moulding (process), therefore endangering the user when used Moulding compounds, Plastics and rubber technology, Size,• To make sure it is durable enough to withstand constant use for mass production Shape, Thickness, Preferred sizes, Dimensions, Test• To make sure it allows the product to be ejected quickly and easily without equipment, Volume, Specimen preparation, Welded joints, distortion (in terms of heat dissipation and intake) Tensile testing, Mechanical testing, Marking.• To produce a perfectly smooth finish, so that minimal manual input is needed to finish each helmet before assembly The influence of quality standards during the productionHeated Polycarbonate Alloy: BS EN 201:2009The polycarbonate alloy needs to be consistently monitored. This is in order to The injection moulding press, equipment and plastics usedprimarily control the fluidity of the molten material. However, it is also for the must adhere to this BSI standard. Also, the method in whichfollowing- the product is manufactured is affected in the sense that• To make sure that it is heated up only for the needed time. This stops the manufactures carrying out the work must wear dust masks as fossil fuels used to heat it up to be wasted well as being protected against loud noises.• To make sure the production time is efficient to gain the maximum possible turnover (i.e. if the alloy is overheated it will take longer to cool down, BS EN ISO 10724-1:2001 therefore increasing the production time) This quality standard means that when testing the• To prevent the alloy becoming deformed and losing its required properties to thermosetting polymers used in injection moulding the withstand high impacts and absorb them manufacturer should adhere to specific test equipment,• To measure the before and after temperatures to prevent the product being including the equipment used for testing, volume of product removed prematurely being tested, thickness of product and other sizingthat it is not removed prematurely. specifications.Finished Mould: BS EN ISO 10724-2:2001When the shell has cooled, it has to be inspected- This is where manufactures must adhere to using specific• Visual, The finished product of materials whilst testing, as well as only being allowed to • For quality of finish, excess flash/ roughness use certain volumes, sizes and tensile values whilst • Structural defects, cracks the injection moulding testing. Also, the equipment used for testing must have • Shape defects, dimples/sink marks particular welded joints. process• Computerised and other electronic methods, • Ultrasound, to for any microscopic cracks, which would impair the performance of the shell • Dimensions of the helmet are measured by a machine Granules of a • The weight is measure to the nearest 100th of a gram within 0.05mm of the specified weight, so that the players neck is not harmed polycarbonate alloy A typical injection Injection moulding moulding machine machine components
Batch Production: A single production line can be used to produce a range of components which will be manually assembled at the end of production, to form the helmet. Batch production will offer versatility in making a certain number of helmets to a particular specification for example: the vinyl/graphics, face cage and colour. It allows for the customisation of an order of helmets to make them exactly the same, without the adjustmentScale of Production of machines in between. Advantages of Batch Production: Batch production can reduce the initial capital outlay because a single production line can be used to produce nearly every single product as the only variations on the product are colour (as face cages are a separate order) and size, meaning the interior and attachment systems (bolts and chin strap e.t.c.) are exactly the same so the labourers on the production line just have to fit their assigned component to every helmet that passes them. If a retailer buys a batch of the product and they don’t sell, then Schutt can adjust their production levels accordingly. Batch production is also useful for the factory as the helmets can sell more seasonally. This makes it harder for the manufacturer to forecast the demand as peoples habits can change easily, for example a different sport may become more popular so no less helmets are needed or the NFL may brand Schutt as the official helmet manufacturer for the league instead of Riddell. However, the general theme is that more helmets sell during the winter as it is most players pre season or actual season and also the NFL season is occurring. Batch production is also useful for trial runs of new designs (usually to a very small number of people initially for safety reasons) and for products that have a high profit margin and therefore the number of products needed to be produced adjusted. Disadvantages of Batch Production: Batch production also has disadvantages. There are inefficiencies associated with batch production as equipment must be stopped, re-configured, and its output tested before the next batch can be produced. This idle time between batches is known as downtime. This has to occur because of the high
Quality Assessments- Safety Standards Schutt Ion 4D 661 2011 Evo Carbon NOCSAE: The National Operating Committee on Standards for CPSC- The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission is Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) is the absolute necessity for an charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of american football helmet to be allowed to be sold and used. injury or death from thousands of types of consumer products Helmets selected to be tested (about 3 from a batch of 50) are under the agencys jurisdiction. The CPSC is committed to mounted on an instrumented head model (similar to that of a protecting consumers and families from products that pose a crash dummy) and tested with various drop and impact tests ﬁre, electrical, chemical, or mechanical hazard or can injure (reproducing real life situations) before and after reconditioning children. The CPSCs work to ensure the safety of consumer in accordance with the NOCSAE Standard and NAERA By- products - such as toys, power tools, cigarette lighters, and Laws. The testing includes various impact energies, standard and household chemicals. It has contributed signiﬁcantly to the 30 random locations under controlled environmental conditions. percent decline in the rate of deaths and injuries associated with Acceleration measurements are taken to determine if the helmet consumer products over the past 30 years. meets an established Severity Index (SI) requirement. SI is a CE: 1078- The letters "CE" are the abbreviation of French phrase scientiﬁcally accepted measurement of human injury tolerance. "Conformité Européene" which means "European Conformity." CE Some required impacts are equivalent to running in excess of 12 Marking is now used in all EU Products that are legally sold. 1. CE Marking on a product is a manufacturers declaration that the MPH into a ﬂat surface, which stops a player’s head suddenly. product complies with the essential requirements of the relevant Some players run faster than this (the fastest being Tennessee European health, safety and environmental protection legislation. Titans Wide Receiver Chris Johnson at over 26 mph) but seldom 2. *Product Directives contains the "essential requirements" and/or if ever experience an impact as violent as the NOCSAE test. The "performance levels" and "Harmonized Standards" to which the test covers a variety of tests, which have to be passed in order to products must conform. Harmonized Standards are the technical be awarded the ofﬁcial seal. The NOCSAE covers all of the speciﬁcations (European Standards or Harmonization Documents) which are established by several European standards safety tests and requirements that would have to be individually agencies (CEN, CENELEC, etc). CEN stands for European certiﬁed in the EU. Committee for Standardization. CENELEC stands for European ASTM- The American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM) Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization. is the American equivalent of the British Standards Institute 3. CE Marking on a product indicates to governmental ofﬁcials that the product may be legally placed on the market in their country. (BSI). It has since become an international standards agency 4. CE Marking on a product ensures the free movement of the that is used as an alternative to the BSI. Originally a voluntary product within the EFTA & European Union (EU) single market standard, an ASTM certiﬁcation now has been endorsed by the (total 28 countries), and CE Marking on a product permits the American government and the National Football League (NFL) as withdrawal of the non-conforming products by customs and a recognisable certiﬁcation, required nationally for products enforcement/vigilance authorities. designed to be used as safety equipment. the ASTM does not The number (1078) indicates the type of test used. In this case it is one of the toughest in the world, where various high impact and durability tests always carry the test out itself, but instead acts as a moderator are used on each component of the helmet. to make sure that the product actually deserves the certiﬁcation of being “safe.” AS/NZS 2063- AS/NZS stands for the Australian/New zealand standard. Again this is basically the health and safety standard required for a product to be sold in these countries. The number also relates to the test used to certify the product for sale.
Preparation: Processing:The polycarbonate alloy will be checked QC inspectors take random samples offor correct expansion and shrinkage helmet shells pieces at certain timevalue as well as looking for the intervals (about 3-5 per batch) andcorrect impact strength and tensile check to ensure that they meet setstrength values. Batches for non- specifications for size, shape, andprofessional teams in particular will consistency (using veneer callipershave their colour checked, as they will and other gauges) The colour can benot be manually painted and detailed, checked for consistency, shade, styletherefore the colour must be accurate and also that it does not run or rubfor the given order. off the shell by touch. Assembly: During assembly (done by hand on a production line) each part is reinspected visually for flash or other visual and safety impeding deformities on the helmet shell. Also, for each batch every single custom part is visually inspected for design, colour, decals/ vinyl logos and finish according to an order to make sure that a batch all look the same and that they are what the client has customised their order to.Finishing:After shells have been manually fitted withinterior components and attachment systems,they are packed in bubble wrap and paper thinfoam and placed in boxes only just biggerthan the helmet. A small helmet pump andnozzle lubricant for the inflatable bladders,a warranty pamphlet and Manual for fitting toa users head and how to get the helmetreconditioned over time and both the hard and After-sales:soft chin cup options are also placed in the The product is given a guarantee of at leastbox. Batch orders are then placed into larger one full season or either a replacement orboxes and moved to a separate part of the money back offer is given to the client.factory to be shipped via a logistics company This is due to the high safety requirementto the individual user or the teams club. Theother basic one colour helmets are then and the importance of the players safety.shipped in a similar way, but in larger, For team orders a discount is offered andmixed batches to be resold by a company/ team customisation is available.business who specialise in sport. In orderfor the helmets to reach the correctdestination,
Name of Material Description Advantages Disadvantages Alternatives and Why Sustainability Issues Part • It is a much more widely used material in safety helmets as it has the ability to be formed in a variety Shell • • High impact resistance Light Weight • Requires high temperatures in of ways (e.g. injection moulded, vacuum formed and rotational • The need for high temperatures means more fossil fuels are needed, therefore releasing • When carbon is bonded to Polycarbonate • Good dimensional stability (i.e. order to make it suitable for moulded). It is easy to work with more carbon emissions into the atmosphere three oxygen atoms, tensile strength e.t.c) moulding • ABS due to its flexibility to be formed in • The gases produced in the processes contribute Alloy polycarbonate is formed • High durability due to it not being • Prone to stress cracking a variety of ways, which not only make it cheaper to produce (due to to global warming Hard Chin easy to break down biologically mass production), but also cheaper as a material in the first place as • Excess material is not organic and therefore not biodegradable. Cup not many materials have to be put into it. This is helped further as it has the normal plastic properties.Analysis: Materials • Comes in a wide range of hardness Crown grades • outstanding abrasion resistance, • Polyester/ cushioning • good low temperature flexibility, • Aside from being cheap due • TPU is a derivative of chemical reactions from • oil resistant, • Replacement Crown cushioning is foam/cotton to ease of production, these a crude oil base. It is widely known that not System ThermoPlastic • First elastomer to be made • great load-bearing capability fairly expensive to buy as it is an hexagonal materials help create comfort only the process of fractional distillation to • Additives can improve dimensional end product of the initial crude oil (the foam contained within extract the right alkane, but also the intense polyUrethane using thermoset methods stability and heat resistance, liner a polyester and cotton usage of the products of crude oil is (TPU) reduce friction, and increase flame • Jaw pads could split at the seem • High Density sheath). It also helps wick contributing to global warming. Also, it is Air Maxx retardancy, fungus resistance, and between the hard TPU and softer Polythene away moisture as cotton is apparent that oil is running out and therefore weatherability very absorbent needs to be conserved Jaw Pads • Resulting in- better Heat (HDPE) Management, resiliency and hygienics • A more denser version of • Can be tricky, especially for new • A property of both materials allows Surefit • Polyurethane • Helps fit the helmet properly to it to become foamed and flexible. a bladder found inside users, to inflate to right size to fit This would reduce the need for blow • The generation of heat required for the blow user’s head Vinyl Bladder most sports balls, the helmet properly (this is easier • Polyvinyl- moulding and its resultant energy moulding uses fossil fuels, which release Airliner reinforced and covered in • • Helps to absorb the force of impact Easily inflated/ deflated than most helmets as the TPU chloride (PVC) needs. It is also cheap as with other plastics due to ease of manufacture harmful gases into the atmosphere cushioning is involved) a 2mm thick vinyl layer on a large scale • Light Weight • Expensive due to complicated and • Corrosion resistant therefore difficult extraction • It is cheaper than most other metals • Extruded to 9mm thick • Carbon Steel due to abundance and common • Due to high temperatures needed for casting, Titanium • High impact resistant process called the Kroll process Face Cage and arc welded to shape • Highly durable • Expensive to cast due to extremely • Stainless use. It can be extruded to to its ductility and can be hardened and more fossil fuels will be needed to create the needed heat, therefore releasing more carbon Wire • good tensile strength high temperatures needed to turn it Steel tempered to stop the risk of it emissions into the atmosphere molten bending or snapping under impact. • Schutt’s patented • N/A • It is impact resistant, so will not • Significantly reduces the force of • The Kroll process to extract the Titanium ore Energy ABS/Rubber/ technology, allowing the impact that the user receives, in • Made by one manufacturer at a set price • Alternative to break when impacted so will ensure the face cage is held in place is very expensive and requires a lot of fuel for face cage to flew therefore comparison to the face cage on its the energy securely. It also would make the machinery and workers, which is harmful to Wedge Titanium absorbing more energy own • Only works with this type of helmet wedge itself is a removal of the face cage simpler due to simple quarter turn screw on all the environment (including litter and exhaust fumes and scars on the landscape) from impacts simple static sides particularly under impact • High impact resistance ABS fixing • This could be engineered to be • Absorbs energy from top • Light Weight made softer and more flexible • The processes used to form the bumpers of face cage • Slight flexibility without • Polycarbonate to absorb impact, whilst still Bumpers ABS • Prevents shell from compensating for strength • Does not completely reduce injury if head is forced back on itself Alloy keeping some of its rigid properties, therefore helping to (injection moulding and possibly pressing/ stamping, contribute to global warming as • Good absorption of impact cutting into users neck protect the users neck and they require fossil fuels to run • Good aesthetics for small cosmetic components forehead • This has basically the same • The process of () to extract the nickel and • The metal allows long term use, Nickel - Brass • Allows quick release properties as abs and the nickel Snap • Easy to replace and which is useful as players • ABS may crack from a direct hit • Brass alloy/ brass alloy. However, it uses brass ore is very expensive and requires a lot of fuel for machinery and workers, which is Alloy or ABS repeatedly take their helmets off the brass nickel alloy as the Fasteners alternative • adjust manually absorbs side impacts and put them on again during a • Expensive to extract/ fraction ABS permanent helmet fixture and the abs as the snap on part for harmful to the environment (including litter and exhaust fumes and scars on the game the chinstrap landscape)
Name of Description Production Process Advantages Disadvantages Alternatives and Why Environmental Factors Part The main body of the helmet. It Process(es) provides the main aesthetic look • Minimal finishing is required • Vacuum forming less Complex geometry and features • The cost of producing the components ie no Shell of the helmet and contains the • mould to be used is high as Archimedes screw, no interior components and can be produced spark erosion needed for it needs to be thoroughly mould just mdf, so • The hydraulic press has been found to fixings • multiple machines only need one checked for precise cheaper set up cost. As the waste a lot of energy in terms of sound operator, therefore they are • Vacuum shell is a spherical shape it measurements and an and heat from the system itself Holds the helmet to the users cheaper to run after initial Forming can be vacuum formed or unblemished finish. This is compression moulded. head. Comes in either a hard or installation cost • Injection Moulding to make sure minimal However, webbing is more • The time for one cycle of the • Compression • A high amount of energy used to Chin Cup soft cup. It can be fixed in a finishing of the end product likely to occur, whichAnalysis: Production injection moulding process is Moulding mean a high quantity of produce the heat in the hopper, which variety of ways, from high or is required and that the only a few seconds, therefore the product would not pass means more fuel is required to sustain low fixings product can be made on a large quality of the mould after visual inspection. Also a repeated use remains at a lot of energy is required to the process, which tends to be fossil Help protect the users neck and scale quickly and also in create the heat or high standard. fuels which are running out and Bumpers keep the face cage in place batches if required hydraulic force compression moulding releasing pollutants into the world not always accurate due to Snap Allow the chin cup to be be put flow of plastic before sudden moulded Fasteners on or taken off instantly special foams (i.e. EPS) required • Webbing can easily form • The inside surface for the liner, large sheets of foam unless constantly tended can be textured to are die-cut to size. Then, the vinyl to by a manual labourer promote aesthetics • A lot of heat is required to make the encasement is die-cut to size. A • Low cost tooling as requires low and safety, but materials more elastic in property. This piece of vinyl is loaded into a heat • Large scale production does not create any • Vacuum forming means a lot of fuel is required, which Surefit vacuum former. The pieces of the takes longer than other • Rotational natural surface effects the environment as this tends to Airliner die-cut foam are put into the vinyl • It is as precise as the mould used processes Moulding finish so has to be • die cutting be fossil fuels which are running out and thermoformed to make an treated further to and also produce harmful gases and airtight seal. Another layer of • It is time efficient • The designs have to be prevent pollutants vinyl is placed on top of the relatively shallow in order deterioration. A lot thermoform and the process is to reduce the risk of of energy is repeated. bubbling, warping or required for the webbing heating and • Produces very detailed and • The arc vaporises some of the metal • Manual labour is not required • Does require highly defined parts (reduces the need to • Extrusion weld individual extruded wire), lots being used into oxides, but can also for joining as it is done using detailed quality control • Die casting Prevents objects hitting the • Arc Welding of moving parts, metal deposits build create carbon monoxide and ozone, Face Cage user’s face machines with jigs checks on the weld spots for up due to pressure build up therefore more maintenance, spark erosion of which are not only damaging to the mould requires more energy and • It is the fastest jloining method strength and shape of the time high heat, material can be tempered after/ hardened carbon environment but also the worker’s making it highly cost effective face cage itself needs to be cleaned health • Simple ABS • Easy to make on large scale Energy Acts as a shock absorber to fixtures with using a variety of methods, • Reduces the amount of aluminium needed • N/A(it is patented technology • N/A(it is patented technology • N/A(it is patented reduce the force of impact on the machined such as the ones previously • Reduces the harmful chemical waste from Wedge user’s head by Schutt) by Schutt) technology by Schutt) aluminium bolts mentioned. Needs high skill the lubricants used to machine aluminium are used waste material defined Helps reduce the force of impact • Very few ingredients needed • N/A (the TPU has been patented for Crown on the user’s head. It also • Mass/ Emulsion (i.e. rubber derivative and • Auto acceleration could Schutt’s use only within the NFL • Crude oil is used as the base of all Polymerisation and other american football leagues, polymers. This is running out and cushioning promotes a consistent air flow • Continuous vulcanisation additive) occur, which can be very therefore there is no alternative at when burnt releases pollutants and is for ventilation, whilst not • Turns “useless” crude rubber dangerous due to the free System compensating for safety into a stronger more elastic radicals continuing to present) also not biodegradable product react and the product’s • Many of the required design structured can be altered • N/A (the TPU has been patented for • Mass/ Emulsion Schutt’s use only within the NFL • Crude oil is used as the base of all Air Maxx Provide protection for the user’s Polymerisation can be made repeatedly with the and other american football leagues, polymers. This is running out and jaw same mould • Produces a strong chemical Jaw Pads • Continuous vulcanisation • Requires minimum labour due odour therefore there is no alternative at when burnt releases pollutants and is • Vacuum Forming present) also not biodegradable to good self finish
Production ProcessesComponent Process Process Name of Process Quality Control Safety Name Number ★ 5 strips of ply need to be cut to shape against the grain (to allow 1 maximum ﬂexibility to remove the need for steaming) ★ The edges need to be ﬁled and sanded down to remove the burr 2 created by cutting against the grain ★ Glue should be applied evenly across one side of each strips surface 3 and placed on top of each other ★ The layered ply should then be placed in a mould with 3 sash clamps 4 and a G- clamp to create an even force of the mould ★ After 8 hours the formed ply should be removed 5 ★ The ply should be trimmed with a band saw and sanded ﬂat, making 6 sure any gaps are ﬁlled with ﬁller ★ Alignment of the strips of ply ★ Hair must be tied back along with when in the mould need to be any loose items of clothing when ★ Then, using a jig, the centre mark for the hole where the light bulb visually checked that they are using the orbital sander and the ﬁxture will be placed and the curve for the lampshade is marked with 7 within 2mm whole saw, as they may get caught a centre punch and scribe/pencil (respectively) 1 - 6 Laminating ★ A try square can be used to check ★ Goggles must be worn when using ★ Using a 25mm radius hole saw drill the hole for the light ﬁxture 8 that it is perpendicular after it has the orbital sander and hole saw toArm Support 7 - 9 Preparation for Joining been adjusted after it has been prevent any excess material getting ★ Using the orbital sander, curve the edges of the arm support to the formed into eyes 10. Joining 9 marked line ★ Measurements should be checked ★ Fingers must be kept away from the ★ When ﬁnished attach the lamp shade as seen in step 22 10 more than once before cutting or moving parts of the machinery and changing the part (both visually also the sharp objects used to ★ Then using a ruler, ﬁnd the centre line of the base of the arm support and with a rule) measure (i.e. the divider) 11 and draw a vertical line ★ Using the aluminium face plate as a jig, mark two holes using a centre 12 punch for the bolts to ﬁt through ★ Use a pillar drill with a 7mm drill bit to drill out the holes 13 ★ Mark out two holes on the main support for the electrical cable to ﬁt 14 through using a pencil, try square and rule ★ Drill out these holes on a pillar drill with a .5mm. bit and place a 15 grommet in each ★ Finish by sanding down all the edges making sure that all gaps are 16 ﬁlled, there are no marks and everything is smooth
Production ProcessesComponent Process Process Name of Process Quality Control Safety Name Number 17 ★ The required shape needed should ﬁrst be designed ★ The design should then be made using a block of MDF to exact 18 dimensions 19 ★ The mould must be completely ★ The shape should then be sanded and ﬁnished ass if an actual product smooth to prevent the formed HIPS being deformed ★ A few holes should be drilled and also the edges chamfered to allow the easy removal of the product afterwards 20 ★ The mould must be tapered to allow easy removal of the shade ★ Hands and loose items of clothing ★ The Mould should be placed in the centre of the vacuum former and (including hair) must be kept away the required HIPS plastic placed on the plinth above 21 ★ When the vacuum is turned on, from the heating element the user needs to use a cloth/ ★ The element should then be placed above the HIPS and turned on. It towel to push down around the ★ Hair must be tied back and loose should be heated until elastic to touch 22 mould to prevent the HIPS 11 -18 Vacuum Forming items of clothing tied back so they webbing (without burning don’t get caught in the hole saw or ★ When ready, quickly force the mould into the HIPS and turn the themselves)Lamp Shade suction on 19- 21 Preparation for Joining power drill 23 ★ Measurements need to be checked 22 Joining/ Finishing ★ Goggles must be worn when using ★ When cool, the mould can be removed and the lamp shade has been several times using a rule or the hole saw to prevent excess completely formed and just has to be ﬁnished (i.e removing excess veneer callipers 24 material getting into eyes material from the edges ★ Edges must be smooth without ★ Hands must be kept away from ★ Using a jig a centre mark is made with a scriber compensating too much on the 25 moving parts of machinery depth of the shade ★ A hole saw 25mm radius is then used to cut the hole for the light bulb and ﬁxture 26 ★ The temperature of the vacuum former’s element must be checked ★ 2 more holes are then marked half way between the larger hole and the with a digital thermometer before edge with a scriber opposite each other and drilled with a power drill the forming process starts 27 and a (dimensions) drill bit ★ When the arm support has been ﬁnished, the lamp shade is attached with 2 2mm screws and 2 washers 28
Production ProcessesComponent Process Process Name of Process Quality Control Safety Name Number ★ An aluminium rod is placed in the headstock of the metal lathe 29 ★ The end is faced off using a facing in the tool post 30 ★ Dimensions need to be constantly checked for best accuracy using the measuring tools on the lathe ★ Using a 3mm drill bit in the tailstock a pilot hole is drilled to get the 31 and also the veneer calliper centre of the rod ★ Hair and loose items of clothing ★ When facing off, knurling and must be tied back when using the 23 - 24 Facing off parting, the tool in the tool post lathe must be moved across the 25 - 26 Drilling aluminium rod at a constant ★ Goggles must be worn when using ★ Using a 5mm drill bit and a (name) bit in the tailstock, a hole is 32 steady rate to create an even ﬁnish the lathe to prevent swarf getting drilled (depth) slowly, pulling out every so often to break the swarf 27 Knurling into eyes Knurled ★ The tap and plug must go into theLocking Nuts ★ Then, using a knurling tool in the tool post knurl just over 15mm of 28 Parting whole completely straight to ★ Make sure lathe guard is down the rod prevent cross threading with the 33 29 - 30 Tapping bolt ★ Make sure chuck key is removed before turning lathe on 31 Finishing ★ The plug and tap must be turned ★ Then, using the parting tool, part the end of the rod, with the hole backwards half a turn every 2 ★ Make sure other people are outside and knurled exterior, at 15mm turns to clear any debris that may designated operating area 34 be stuck ★ The ﬁnish of the ends of the nuts ★ Next, using a tapping plug and wrench, a bolt thread is created in the bust be completely ﬂat hole 35 ★ To ﬁnish the socket thread a tap is used 36 ★ To ﬁnish the ends of the locking nut either wet and dry paper can be used with the option of polish or it may be possible to place it back in the lathe and face it off again and then repeated 1 more time 37
Production ProcessesComponent Nameknurled Locking Nuts Place the aluminium rod Using a centre bit in the Do the same afterwards Keep an eye on the Using a 3mm bit in the into the chuck of the tail stock, gently mark using a 5mm bit, depth gauge, making tailstock, make a pilot lathe and tighten ﬁrmly the centre of the making sure you use sure that it goes the hole 10mm deep using the chuck key aluminium rod coolant as you go correct depth Face off the end of the Using the knurling Using a veneer Now face off the rod sticking out to tool in the tool post, The main part of the calliper measure out What it should look aluminium at the ensure it is smooth knurl the rod just over knurled locking nut is over 15mm and mark like 15mm mark, using and has a ﬂat surface the mark made complete it coolant as you go to work with previously Replace the nut in the chuck Now use the tap and plug to and face off the burr on the create the screw thread in the Inside the ﬁnished piece Top of ﬁnished piece end that has just been faced hole of the nut off
Production ProcessesComponent Process Process Name of Process Quality Control Safety Name Number ★ Taking a block of beech cut it to 100mm x 100mm using a band saw 84 ★ Use a rule and pencil to join the diagonals of the block to ﬁnd the 85 centre ★ Using a divider, mark a circle of 50mm radius 86 ★ Use the orbital sander to create the round proﬁle in relation to the ★ check by eye and by a divider that ★ Goggles must be used on the band circular marking 87 the block remains circular. A lathe saw and other machinery to may also be used prevent objects getting into eyes ★ Measure the depth of the counter Base Band Saw/ Orbital Sander bore using the end of a vernier ★ Loose clothing and hair must be tied back when using machinery ★ Using various density glass paper and a sanding block smooth any calliper. bumps out of the circular block 88 ★ Hands must be kept away from ★ Make sure the block is completely moving parts smooth ★ Using the centre point as a guide, place the face plate in the centre of the base and mark the position of the two holes with a centre punch 89 ★ Use a pillar drill and a 7mm bit to drill out these holes 90 ★ On the underneath of the base, use a Forstner bit to create a counterbore hole at a depth of 15mm 91
Production ProcessesComponent NameBase The ﬁnished The ﬁnished top bottom
Production ProcessesComponent Process Process Name of Process Quality Control Safety Name Number ★ Using a length of 20mm transparent acrylic rod the end should be 71 faced of using a lathe ★ Then using a 7mm drill bit in the stock of the lathe, drill through the rod as far as possible 72 ★ Then using a veneer calliper measure 10mm and mark with a non indelible marker pen 73 ★ Then using a parting tool in the tool post, the 10mm section should be ★ All loose clothing and long hair 74 separated should be tied back when using the lathe and bufﬁng machine as they could get caught in the moving ★ 3 more should be done ★ All measurements should be 75 parts thoroughly checked before alterations can be made using a ★ Goggles should be worn when vernier calliper using lathe and the bufﬁng ★ Using a ﬁle, remove any rough areas on the faces of the acrylic discs machine to prevent anything (due to the melting of the acrylic from the high heat formed by the 76 ★ Correct equipment dimensions (i.e. Forming (on lathe) getting in the user’s eyes lathe) the drill bits) should be checked using a vernier calliper) Finishing ★ Hands must be kept well away Feet ★ Wet and dry the discs until smooth from the moving parts of the 77 ★ A reasonable constraint should be Bufﬁng machinery and also the saw adhered to (e.g. when ﬁling and ★ Using the polish on polish off technique on the bufﬁng machine, wet and drying, the feet should Sawing ★ Make sure lathe guard is down polish the discs so that they become transparent all the way around 78 remain at a speciﬁed size without being deformed) ★ Make sure chuck key is removed ★ Then choose any colour of acrylic rod 5mm diameter and push into a before turning lathe on disc until ﬂush with one face. With the other end of the rod, push ★ All scratches and dents in the through the acrylic faceplate (to be mounted on the underneath of the acrylic should be removed and 79 ★ Make sure other people are outside wooden base) buffed out designated operating are ★ Mark on the rod with non indelible marker pen where the rod should ★ The user must be careful not to be cut to be ﬂush with the other side of the face plate ingest the tensol 12 80 ★ Using a junior hacksaw, cut where this line is, then repeat for the other 3 discs 81 ★ Finish by ﬁling and wet and drying smooth 82 ★ Attach the now feet to the face plate using Tensol- 12 and its ability to have capillary action 83
Production ProcessesComponent NameFeet Remember to keep Use cooling lubricant Use various grades of moving the bit in and to prevent the acrylic wet and dry paper to out from time to time Apply Vonax polish to Start drilling out about completely deforming make the surface of the to remove the ﬂash the “on” wheel of the 20mm of the rod when parting the foot acrylic completely caused by the high bufﬁng machine. from the rest of the smooth without any friction of the drill bit rod. blemishes melting the acrylic Repeat these steps 3 more times and insert a 4mm Lightly touch the foot Touch the foot on the polish off coloured acrylic dowel and Place the foot on a cut wheel to give it a shiny attach it to the acrylic face on the bufﬁng wheel off dowel to make it transparent look. It may be plate. Then use a junior with polish on and necessary to repeat this process a hacksaw to cut off the end of easier to buff few times completely coat it the dowel so that it is ﬂush with the foot and then wet and dry and buff as necessary
Production ProcessesComponent Process Process Name of Process Quality Control Safety Name Number ★ With a piece of MDF (100mm x 100mm x 10mm), its corners should be joined with a rule and pencil 38 ★ Where the lines intersect each other is its centre point. So now using a divider use the furthest possible radius to mark a circle on the MDF. 39 ★ Take another piece of MDF with the same dimensions and glue it together with the other piece, securing it with wood tacks 40 ★ Use an orbital sander to shape the MDF to the shape of the marked circle 41 ★ Place the circular piece of MDF at the bottom of the drag 42 ★ Compact it with red sand, making sure there is minimal air in the sand 43 ★ Do the same with the cope, but with nothing in it 44 ★ Remove the MDF template and mark a start and end point. Then create smooth trenches between these points and the mould. Finally ﬁnish the start and end point 45 by pushing a sprue into both points ★ Dimensions of template must be slightly bigger than desired ★ place the cope on top of the drag 46 ★ Hands must be kept well away product to allow changes during ★ When the aluminium in the furnace has turned molten, carefully pour the aluminium ﬁnishing from the moving parts of into the start point at a constant rate, until it starts to appear at the end point and 47 machinery (orbital sander, milling leave it to cool ★ Sand must be compacted ﬁrmly to machine and band saw) 48 prevent air bubbles distorting the ★ Use a band saw to cut away any excess material from the main body of the circle 32 - 35 Creating the template cast ★ Full body protection must be worn ★ Using various half round ﬁles, smooth out the rough edges and complete by using to prevent when handling the 49 36 - 41 Sand CastingAluminium emery and wet and dry paper to create a satin ﬁnish ★ The top layer of the molten molten aluminium and the furnace Face Plate ★ Using a milling machine, ﬁnd the deepest part of the aluminium that has become aluminium must be removed as (googles, visor, leather apron and 44 + 46 Milling concave. With that as a set point, mill the surface at that depth to face it off. Then 50 they are impurities that will affect leather sleeves) repeat on the other side the quality and ﬁnish of the 42 - 43 + 45 - 46 Finishing product ★ No one must be within the ★ Use a lathe if necessary to turn the face plate in order to get a completely smooth and circular shape 51 cordoned area of the milling ★ When ﬁnishing the cast, the machine, band saw or furnace ★ Using a V gauge and a set square ﬁnd the centre of the face plate and mark it lightly dimensions must be constantly when someone is using it for their with pencil 52 checked to create a smooth and own safety ★ Use a ruler to mark 25mm either side (in line) with this mark and centre punch it 53 round ﬁnish without a distorted shape ★ Using the pillar drill, ﬁrst create a pilot hole with a 3mm bit, then go over it with a 7mm bit 54 ★ Emery, then wet and dry the faces as done before with the edges to get the satin ﬁnish 55 ★ Finally, when everything is complete use tripoli polish on a buffer machine until the 56 desired ﬁnish has been created ★ Then attach to the base by placing the bolts through the holes 57
Production ProcessesComponent NameAluminium Face Plate
Production ProcessesComponent Process Process Name of Process Quality Control Safety Name Number ★ On 2D design software draw a circle (dimensions) 58 ★ On this circle draw 4 lines, which intersect the origin and forming 8 equal sized segments 59 ★ At (dimensions) from the origin, mark a hole (dimensions) and repeat every other line so that there are four 60 ★ On the remaining four lines, mark a hole (dimensions) (dimensions) 61 from the origin ★ Before sending the CAD design to ★ Remove the lines so that the holes are the only the holes are the CAM machine, check all of the 62 constraints of the design so that remaining in the circle they are correct (computer is highly accurate so no other ★ Now choose any design wanted (in this case the MIT Beaver, AKA, method is needed) 63 “the Brass Rat”) ★ The computer does not need any ★ Make sure the bit of the CAM major health and safety machine has been zeroed to the Roland CAD/ CAMAcrylic Face ★ Paste an image of it onto the circle start point of the machine and that ★ Make sure the machine is off when 64 Plate the acrylic sheet to be cut is placed handling objects inside Finishing at the starting point ★ Make sure the safety cover is placed ★ Now remove the colour by choosing the vectorise bitmap option 65 ★ The acrylic must be secured to the over he machine moving bed of the machine with bolts in each corner and double sided tape underneath ★ Go to colour options and change the outline to solid black 66 ★ Make sure that the machine cuts on the outside of the shape ★ Then send to output (Stika MX-54) and check the rotate option then click send 67 ★ With the acrylic circle now cut, use a scraper to smooth any cut marks 68 on the perimeter ★ Use wet and dry paper to further smoothen it 69 ★ Now use the polish on polish off technique on the bufﬁng machine to 70 get a shiny ﬁnish
Production ProcessesComponent NameAcrylic Face Plate Make sure that the bit is going down Place a sheet of acrylic 250mm x Make sure that the tool plane is about 2-3mm at a time per layer until it 250mm onto the load tray and bolt correct and start the output design cuts out the entire shape down at the corners Use Tensol- 12 to attach the feet to the ﬁnished plate
Production ProcessesComponent Process Process Name of Process Quality Control Safety Name Number ★ Thread 2 bolt screws through the beech base 71 ★ Place the aluminium face plate on top 72 ★ Make sure the components ﬁt each other without adding stress to materials ★ Make sure the product works ★ Place the support arm on top of this 73 ★ Make sure that any blemishes or scratches have been touched up or corrected ★ Be sure any other ﬁnishes have ★ Be careful not to break the bulb by been done force in case of cuts when inserting ★ Then tighten these together with the knurled locking nuts and washers 74 ★ Make sure locking nuts are able to ★ Make sure all edges have been be screwed and unscrewed smoothed and rounded (and do the repeatedly with deforming theAssembly Assembly and ﬁnishing screw thread or breaking the bolt same with all other potentially dangerous parts) ★ Make sure the lightbulb is easy to ★ Attach the lamp shade to the support arm using 2 ﬂat head screws and a washers 75 ★ Make sure that all the wiring has replace without the potential of been PAT tested for safety and breakage quality ★ make sure that the lamp (when fully assembled) is generally in a state where it is unlikely to break ★ Insert and tighten the bulb holder of the electrical wiring 76 from use and that the components are at a quality where they could last for a long time ★ Make sure that all the wiring has been PAT tested for safety and ★ Attach the acrylic face plate the the underneath of the beech base using 4 cross head 77 quality screws in the countersunk holes ★ Insert the bulb and the product has been ﬁnished! 78
Production ProcessesComponent Process Process Name of Process Quality Control Safety Name Number 79 ★ Measure out a length of electrical cable (about 1.5metres) and cut it with wire snippers 80 ★ Next, work out where the switch will be placed and then cut the cable again with wire snippers ★ Take the end of the wire where the plug will be placed and strip the outer white sheath (about 20mm) and then the inner wire sheaths 81 (about 15mm) using a wire stripper. Make sure to twist the ends of the exposed wire to prevent it breaking and also to make it easy to wire ★ Length of cable must be double ★ Open the plug and push the exposed wire into the respective parts of checked before cutting and that it the plug (make sure the earth, neutral and live are correctly placed). is long enough in relation to Secure them in place by screwing the screws down, then place the 82 product and socket using a tape plug cover over them and screw down (making sure the white sheath measure is inside as well so that the wire won’t pull out and there is no risk of electrical shock ★ make sure that bare wire ends are ★ Users must be careful of hands with Sizing an electrical cable tidied up and not frayed before ★ Do the same thing as in step... to the two ends that will be connected wire cutters and other similar tools ﬁxing in place 83 Wiring to the switch Wiring a plug ★ Users must be careful with the bare ★ Make sure cable is clamped down ★ In a similar way to the plug, place the relative wires in the correct wire not to prick self or get any Wiring a switch securely at junctions places (so that they match i.e. brown to brown, blue to blue, e.t.c.) and broken ends in eyes 84 screw down the cover making sure the white sheath is secured inside ★ Be sure that the wires are in their correct positions and correspond ★ Thread the wire through the holes created in step... and then repeat to a matching wire step... on the last end 85 ★ Double check that all bare wire is ★ Join the exposed wire to the relative projections in the light socket and not exposed to touch secure them by twisting them around the holes 86 ★ Place a light bulb in the socket 87 ★ The lamp is complete! 88
Production Processes Component Name Wiring Screw fastener to attach to support arm Make sure fuse is connected Make sure wires are connected to the corresponding terminals ( blue negative, brown live) Make sure that the positive and negative wires are connected to the right terminals Optional cable tidy Make sure that the electrical cable is between the cable gripper and inside the main housing to prevent electrical shock Wiring cover for main bulb holder Make sure that the negative is on this side of the switch and that the linked terminal is also the same colour (blue) Make sure that the electrical cable isbetween the cable gripper and inside the main Make sure that the positive is on this side of housing to prevent electrical shock the switch and that the linked terminal is also the same colour (brown)
Production Processes Component Name Finished Product!
Introduction Situation: In the world of diving and swimming, there are many sights that are truly unimaginable as they are kept far from human contact. But, you can never capture these things as a memory as you’re waterproof camera ﬁlls with water as the pressure of being at such a depth defeats it or you and your dive buddy want a picture of both of you but there is no one else to take the picture. The most annoying thing, however, is when you are just about to take aProblems: picture and one of 2 things happen: you get the dreaded black screen of death as your battery life ends or your • Regular video cameras can be hefty (especially HD cameras with memory card runs out of space as you dont have a preview screen and end up taking endless pictures of the a sound boom for best quality) surface of the water. A gap in the camera market has emerged to combat these. OLLI Derham Solutions has partnered with well-known helmet camera manufacturer Contour to design a camera to resolve the following • Helmet cameras are the most durable and most appropriate for issues. continuous outdoor use, however, many require a separate waterproof case, have no view ﬁnder, are hard to keep in place and have a very poor battery life (especially the high end 6mp ones) • Low battery life means after videoing hundreds of attempts, the battery tends to die at the perfect moment • The perfect shot is too far for the users to ﬁlm themselves • The video quality can be extremely poor if on a low budget • Damage to the internal parts is too easy after a simple accidental drop • Dirt (i.e. sediment) can get into the shutter, which creates friction and potential destruction of the camera • Extras are very expensive and tend to be necessary for them to be the best quality. Even still, these extras tend to be the same old boring cases and straps Design Brief: After much thought, I have come up with a few ideas on how to solve these issues. The camera itself will be within a compact shell. This shell will be able to effectively swim using a form of ECO friendly propulsion. It will follow the user in order to get complete footage of events. It will do this using infrared sensors to navigate past obstacles and using a partner sensor on the user to follow at a speciﬁed distance. The shell itself will be made of several materials in order to protect the internal parts from impact damage and also it will be completelyDesign Requirements: watertight, up to 30m. With all these requirement the product itself will be made • To obtain the best shots from places humans cannot get to easily light enough by minimising unneeded parts. This will mean it can be carried without being cumbersome and not have the potential to injure the user. The • To withstand all weather conditions including deep sea dives overall shape itself will also be within constraints, which make the product able • Have a long lasting battery life to ﬁt in a small bag • Have a high resolution • To withstand impacts • Be easy to maintain • Potentially have optional extras (i.e. GPS) • Be easy to transport, just like a normal video camera • Be completely waterproof/ watertight • Have good hydrodynamics for smooth shots and efﬁcient movement
PRODUCT RESEARCH GOPRO HAS BECOME THE WORLD’S BEST HELMET CAMERA MANUFACTURING COMPANY,LIQUID IMAGE IS A COMPANY SPECIALISING IN “MASK CAMS.” WITH HUNDREDS OF PROFESSIONALS USING THEM. ITS LATEST PRODUCT HAS PUSHEDTHERE SCUBA RANGE IS OF PARTICULAR INTEREST FOR A FEW REASONS. THEIR TOP OF THE RANGE MODEL IS THE THE BOUNDARIES. IT IS THE GOPRO HD HERO 2. THE FOLLOWING ARE ITS KEY FEATURES:SCUBA SERIES HD 1080P. THE FOLLOWING ARE ITS KEY FEATURES: • Professional 11MP Sensor • 2x Faster Image Processor• WIDE ANGLED LENS • 2X Sharper Glass Lens• PRE PACKAGED 2GB MICRO SD CARD (WITH THE ABILITY TO EXPAND TO 32 GB (ABOUT 16 HOURS OF FOOTAGE) • Professional Low Light Performance• LED LIGHTS INSIDE THE MASK INDICATE THE MODE TO THE USER. THE BUTTONS ARE POSITIONED ALONG THE • Full 170º, Medium 127º, Narrow 90º FOV in 1080p UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF THE FRAME AND ARE EASY TO ACCESS. TAKING A PICTURE OR STARTING A FILM • 120 fps WVGA, 60 fps 720p, 48 fps 960p, 30 fps 1080p Video REQUIRES THE USER TO JUST PUSH THE MAIN SHUTTER BUTTON • Full 170º and Medium 127º FOV Photos• THE GOGGLE LENSES ARE MADE OF TEMPERED GLASS AND HAVE INTEGRATED CROSSHAIRS THAT HELP YOU TO • 10 11MP Photos Per Second Burst LINE UP SHOTS• THE MASK CAN BE USED UP TO 40 METRES • 1 11MP Photo Every 0.5 Sec time-lapse Mode• IT RUNS OFF ONLY 4 AAA BATTERIES. THESE WILL LAST FOR 2000 PICTURES OR 2 HOURS OF FOOTAGE. THIS IS • 3.5mm External Stereo Microphone Input MORE THAN ENOUGH FOR ANY DIVE AND FOR MULTIPLE DIVES THE BATTERIES CAN JUST BE CHANGED RATHER • Simple Language-based User Interface THAN HAVING TO WAIT FOR THEM TO CHARGE. • Wi-Fi BacPac™ and Wi-Fi Remote™ Compatible (coming soon) ◦ Long Range Remote Control of up to 50 GoPro CamerasTHERE IS ALMOST NOTHING WRONG WITH THIS CAMERA, FOR SOMETHING THAT WILL BE USED BY AN EVERYDAY ◦ Wi-Fi Video/Photo Preview + Playback + Control via GoPro AppCONSUMER AT AN AFFORDABLE PRICE (£140). ◦ Live Streaming Video and Photos to the Web The best camera sold by contour (owned by VholdR) is the contour+. Contour is the biggest competitor to GoPro as it too is used by many professionals and is around the same size with very similar Subal are a manufacturer of underwater camera housings. The following is the features. The following are its features: speciﬁcations of its canon SLR camera housing. • Full HD - 1920 x 1080 @ 30/25fps • Seawater resistant aluminium alloy, machined from a solid block, extreme surface • Tall HD - 1280 x 960 @ 30/25fps • Action HD - 1280 x 720 @ 60/50 or 30/25fps hardened and corrosion resistant through Hard Coating. All parts manufactured • Photo Mode: Every 3, 5, 10, 30, or 60 seconds from anodised and hard coated aluminium, acid proof stainless steel or high • 5MP Sensor quality plastics. Seals are seamless precision O-rings. O-rings in hard coated • Codec - H.264/AAC / File Type - MOV glands. SUBAL QuickLock latching system. • AAC Audio Compression • 32GB microSD Compatible • W x H x D: • Battery Life: 2-2.5 hrs approx. 225 x 155 x 140 mm • Retailers comments- Instant On-Record Switch, Waterproof to one meter, Built-in Battery, (without ports and handles) Built-in Tripod (1/4" - 20) Mount, Flush Front Lens, Still Photo Mode, Laser Alignment, Low • Flash connectors: Proﬁle Design, USB Output, Internal Mic 2GB microSD Memory Card Included,* Removable Lithium-ion Battery, Easy On Record Switch, GPS Video Mapping, IOS/Android Support via 2 Flash connectors: Optionally Nikonos V, IKELITE or S6 sockets, parallel Bluetooth v 2.1, Connect View Compatible, Connect View Card Included, Live Streaming via connected. TTL mode available ONLY with S6 socket and original Canon ﬂash gun HDMI, External Mic Jack, Wide Angle Lens 170° 135° 170°, Lens Type Custom Six Element or strobes with e-TTL! Glass Lens Rotation 270° 180° 270° Weight 5.1oz 5.2oz 5.3oz Dimensions 100 x 55 x 34 95 x 58 x 34 98 x 58 x 34 Included Mounts Proﬁle Mount, Rotating Surface Mount Proﬁle Mount, • Strobe arm mounts: Rotating Surface Mount Proﬁle Mount, Rotating Surface Mount (2) Included Cables USB USB USB, Mini HDMI, Mic Cable Video/Audio Two 25mm T-plates. TLC or Ultra light bases are available as an option.
Introduction Support arms and Tail and Dorsal AdditionalComponent: Main Body Steering Propulsion Main camera Camera Sensor Support Fin Notes The machined alloy of aluminium looks great and has a high The sensor is just a The wings are highly This is fairly efficient. The camera has a solid Easily removable ﬁlters corrosive resistance, shaped magnetic strip, hydrodynamic. It consists of a 2 spherical shell allow for easy making it great for the As these are welded with an ABS centre However, a problem electrical water jet allowing for a greater maintenance. The only sea water. However, they could be seen as These allow an with a data console in could occur in the pumps that push the depth as the pressure other maintenance this will make the part of the main body. increased distance the centre. This allows joint between the main water out at a range of can be withstood. The would be to rinse theConcept 1: product expensive due body and wings in speeds. These motors Therefore they have camera is Contour’s away from the camera, easy attachment to air propulsion system to it being metal, the same properties as allowing for “the best tanks, but could get in terms of are not bulky, making best and therefore has through with fresh which will need to be the main body shots” to be taken the way of emergency watertightness and it easier to transport the best quality of water to prevent cleaned and treated. processes tank swaps/ also with maintenance due to a reduced size. footage (with a red corrosion of the However, it would be replacements or pipes, of dirt Also, ﬁlter added) working parts very sustainable due making it unsafe. to the ability of being recycled The spherical shape makes the product The steering and propulsion is a new able to withstand technology integrated into a water reasonable impacts environment. It is very efficient as no The sensor is (such as knocking mechanical feature (i.e. a propeller) has to be The camera is completely corrosion This design seems to against rocks or being involver, just the redirection of water ﬂow. This Contour’s best and resistant due to it be hard to ﬁnd a dropped). However, makes it environmentally friendly and reduces therefore has the best being made of silica secure way ofConcept 2: this may not be water disturbance. The main balance/steering N/A quality of footage N/A and ABS. This gives it transporting it due to practical as in order to for the camera function is a gyroscope. This is (with a red ﬁlter a prolonged life and its shape and likely ensure this protection a problem as it could easily slip out of place added) minimal maintenance bulky feel a lot of material would and stop working and therefore require the requirements have to used as an main body to be cut open to ﬁx. However, a impact absorber, microchip with the same function exists and making it more could be used instead. expensive This sensor is very modern and is basically a carribina keychain. The simple push button The propulsion to activate and The main concern is housing is very similar The 2 ﬁns are very The camera is built deactivate the camera the electrical/ data to that of the body of reliable, hence use on into the main body This is all integrated The camera is following makes it housing as the double concept 1. The main submarines (on larger and therefore has no into one body, Contour’s best and simple to the user. locking feature has no body and electrical/ scale). Again the water real unforeseeable therefore making therefore has the best These can be mass fail safe if it cause theConcept 3: data housing is very tightness at the joint problems that could maintenance easy as quality of footage N/A produced due to door to ﬂick open as cheap to manufacture may be a problem and occur, unless the the components won’t (with a red ﬁlter simplicity, therefore a the water will ﬂood the on a mass or batch also with maintenance camera has gaps when get lost. added) way of keeping a steady electronics and battery scale due to it being of dirt ﬁtted income could be to give therefore rendering it a speciﬁc battery life so blow moulded and useless the consumer has to keep buying more sensors at the end of each life
ADDITIONAL NOTES FOR CONCEPT DESIGNS: THE MAIN FEATURE OF CONCEPT 2 IS THE INTERNAL GYROSCOPE. THIS MAY BE TOO HARD TO USE IN REALITY, BUT AN ALTERNATIVE MICROCHIP COULD BE USED. THE SPIRAL GROOVES IN THE PROPULSION SLOT ARE A FEAT OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT BY DYSON. THIS REMOVES THE NEED FOR EXTRA THE MAIN PRODUCTION PROCESS OF THIS DESIGN IS THE COMPONENTS, SPACE AND WEIGHT OF PROPELLERS. IT THEREFORE MAKES IT MACHINED ALUMINIUM BODY. THIS MAKES THE CONCEPT VERY HIGHLY EFFICIENT AND SIMPLE TO MAKE. HOWEVER, IF IT GET JAMMED IT IS HARDER TO UNCLOG AS THE MAIN BODY WOULD LIKELY HAVE TO BE OPENED UP. SLEEK AND HYDRODYNAMIC. IT ALSO MAKES THE PRODUCT EASY TO CLEAN AFTER USE AS THERE ARE NO SIGNIFICANT NOOKS THAT DIRT CAN GET INTO. THE ALUMINIUM ALLOY USED WILL BE VERY SUSTAINABLE AS THE EXCESS MATERIAL CUT USING THE LASER MACHINING TOOL CAN BE MELTED DOWN AND REUSED. THE COOLING FLUID CAN ALSO BE REUSED INSTEAD OF RELEASING IT INTO THE ENVIRONMENT THE FILTRATION SYSTEM CONTAINS A CARBON FILTER AS IT IS EASY TO REPLACE. HOWEVER BEFORE USE THE FILTERS MUST BE RINSED THROUGH IN ORDER TO STOP THE INITIAL EXCESS OF CARBON BEING RELEASED INTO THE SEA. DYSON BLADELESS TECHNOLOGY CONCEPT 3 IS THE MOST SIMPLE DESIGN OF ALL. IT WOULD BE BLOW ,MOULDED IN TWO HALVES AS IT WOULD MAKE IT CHEAPER TO PRODUCE AND THEREFORE MAKE IT MORE AFFORDABLE TO THE CONSUMER. THE PROPULSION SYSTEM IS ALSO BASIC AND WOULD BE SIMILAR TO A MODEL MOTOR SYSTEM. THE MIDDLE PART CONTAINING THE MEMORY CARD, BATTERY AND OTHER SOCKETS HAS A DOUBLE LOCKING SYSTEM TO HELP PREVENT WATER DAMAGE. HOWEVER, THERE WOULD BE NO WAY OF KNOWING WHETHER WATER LASER CNC MACHINING BLOW MOULDING MACHINE HAS GOTTEN INSIDE UNTIL AFTER. ALSO THERE IS NO FAIL SAFE IF THE FLAP DID FLICK OPEN WHILST IN USE.
Component Production Process materials Assembly Quality The main shell will be made from machined Aluminium- as it is: The user will only have to open up the main The CAD measurements must be checked per batch metal to create a waterproof uni body, removing • Lightweight body shell to replace or clean out the ﬁlters before it is sent to the CNC machines. Before the CNC Main • Excellent Corrosion Resistance the need for multiple ﬁxings to hold it together. properly or for any repairs to the electronics or output can be processed the tools must be checked The shape and holes will be created using CAD • Strong at Low Temperatures motors inside. Therefore the two halves are only for wear to prevent wrong measurements.Also the and a CNC machine. The ﬁnish will be left as a • Easy to Work attached by 4 machined screws, countersunk to CNC machine must be checked to make sure that it is • High Reﬂectivity central on the aluminium and suitable coolant ﬂow is Body brush ﬁnish, with the help of a bath of a...bath. A rubber seal and 4 machined screws will be used to ﬁx both halves together to make it as • Easy to recycle • Shock absorbing • Non-sparking the base. In between this is a rubber seal to make sure the electronics stay watertight. the ﬁlters just slot into a groove and only have to be available. The ﬁnish must be checked by a worker by eye to make sure that it looks aesthetically pleasing. The seal must also be checked when the shell is watertight and pressure resistant • Doesnt rust pulled out without any other additional tools. assembled to make sure that it is watertight. • Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/ The wings just slot into an electrical contact • Simple copper wire leads and ﬂat What_are_the_advantages_of_aluminium#ixzz1oB socket to make it easy for the user to handle if connectors TVTWON The sharkskin must be made sure to cover the the wings need to be removed for transport or Wings Patented method recently developed by labs at MIT • Silver conduction strips (more conductive than copper) • patented aerogel technology other purposes. They are then screwed to the walls of the shell and an O ring rubber seal whole wing to keep all the aerogel in. Then the turning ability must be tested by passing currents through the relevant wires placed in between to keep it inside of the shell • sharkskin composite watertightCOMPONENT ANALYSIS The dorsal ﬁn will be a hollow component made The dorsal ﬁn will be MIG welded to the body to A series of vigorous tests for the signal will be of aluminium (so similar to the shell process) keep the body watertight. The tail will be checked in a variety of conditions. The shape Antennae The dorsal ﬁn and tail will be machined and injection moulded respectively and will contain the main antenna. The tail will consist of an transmitter cable moulded within screwed in to the inner wall of the shell, but will also have a rubber O ring seal to prevent water will then be checked for smoothness and also the join between itself and the main body injection moulded silicone getting in checked for watertightness under pressure The camera will sit inside an injection moulded spherical casing. The lens will be . A red ﬁlter We have partnered with GoPro Cameras to use The entire components needs to be tested for will also be included to compensate for the loss their high end camera technology inside our All the components will be ﬁtted on a Camera of colours under water. The lights will be LEDs attached to a simple circuit. As the area stainless steel and chromium alloy to protect it from high pressure and corrosion and the glass production line and then sealed in the shell using split die casting water tightness. Also, the image produced by the camera must be checked that it is of the highest quality becomes dark the camera will try to adapt and for the same effect (and for sharer image) so will switch these on automatically. A zinc-aluminium alloy will be die cast- it is The camera mount consists of two arms and a lightweight and has similar properties to the They will be stress tested to ensure that they Mounts revolving disc. These will all be made out of a metal, with a contrasting ﬁnish to the main body. This shall be done using die casting aluminium shell, but it has a darker contrasting colour and also allow it to be die cast so that the motors, electronics and the camera itself The two arms will be MIG welded to the main body so that it keeps everything watertight can support the noticeable weight of the camera (out and in water) can be assembled The sensor is pretty similar to a modern day The electronics software must be checked and sports watch. It will be injection moulded and Sensor have the main electronics contained in a small central capsule made of another injection Silicon- the strap will be made of silicon as it is waterproof and therefore won’t degrade The electronic capsule component will squeeze into the grooves of the silicone strap also the ﬁnish of all surfaces and the quality of durability of the clasp of the strap need to be tested moulded shell All edges need to be smoothed and rounded to Charging The shell will be injection moulded Acrylic and also the other imported pre made parts: solar panels, charging sockets, LCD This will be best done on a production line in order for all the components to be ﬁtted quickly and efﬁciently. The shell itself will be injection prevent injury. The wireless charging feature needs to be tested and also the LCD screen is not cracked. Also, the rest of the components screen, output sockets and the buttons made of Dock moulded and then once all of the components need to be checked that they work and also the injection moulded silicon ﬁtted screwed shut using 10mm screws metallic sockets that they are grounded and not overly exposed
Design Criteria Problems Modiﬁcations Feedback The device as a whole is now in the shape of a manta ray so To obtain the best shots Being attached to a human or being remotely controlled it ﬁts in aesthetically. It is also now programmed to raise to the surface automatically until it reconnects to the sensor This prevents the user having to worry about losing the can cause problems with manoeuvrability and also it from places humans could possibly lose signal behind objects. It could also attached to the human. It is also programmed to stay a set device. Also it guarantees a great shot of the sea life and distance away from the human to help with not scaring the also its cannot get to easily scare the sea life by being “un-ﬁsh like” sea life, but also manoeuvrability, coupled with the unique aerogel turning system and individual jet propulsion To withstand all weather This reduced the complexity of waterprooﬁng electrical Keeping the device watertight with the charging socket Rubber O rings will be ﬁtted and some components MIG sockets and components containing electrical circuitry, conditions (sea wise) and also the gaps between the external components welded. therefore making it cheaper to produce and easier to use including deep sea dives (as wireless charging base now used) This is a key feature as it prevents the loss of the product Have a long lasting The battery could cut out mid use and then cause the When there is severe low battery it will ﬂoat automatically from power loss. It also makes it easy for the user to battery life device to sink to the surface maintain as a resultDESIGN ANALYSIS 3D recording technology still in the works, but for a ﬁrst The quality can be affected by clarity of the water and A glass lens is used to make the quality as sharp as Have high resolution also the further underwater you go the fewer the colours possible. A red ﬁlter lens is then place behind that to generation product, the design was kept simple, but did footage and images there are make up for the loss of colours not compromise image quality. Therefore high quality camera with the latest technology was created. The ﬁlters can be easily removed and replaced by sliding Feedback from test group (later backed by initial sales the ﬁlters could get clogged up and damage the internal them out, when the shell is opened after removing 4 surveys) highlight how easy the product is easy to clean Be easy to maintain workings of the motors as the water ﬂow will be screws. The shell is made of aluminium, which has its out after use. This is due to it ﬁtting in with the cleaning disrupted. Also the salt water could corrode components own oxide layer, which prevents corrosion. Also the processes of regular scuba kit, without any extra effort silicon used will not corrode (just hose out the ﬁlters and motors e.t.c.) A simple ABS peli case can be custom made for the These give users the potential give the product a device to be carried around. The GPS is also now built in personal feel to the user as they can customise it to make Potentially have optional Ways of attaching extras? to the sensor to remove the possibility of excess weight. it look their own. It is hoped more ideas will come in the extras (i.e. GPS) Other options will be conceptualised in the future after future and also to welcome 3rd party concepts or even initial sales homemade modiﬁcations Be easy to transport just A custom made ABS Peli case can be made as it is This lets the user keep the product and its related like a normal video How to carry it without damaging the wings and camera shockproof, watertight, dust proof and also has a additional extras in one place and also protects it from pressure release valve for use on ﬂights wear and tear from transport and storage camera The majority of the product’s components are now made This minimisation for the need of joins prevents the The change in depth and constant high pressure put from a single material shell. For example the main body is possibility of unnecessary leaks. The welding seals up Be completely upon the product could cause leaks and even complete machined aluminium in the form of a uni body. The any joins that have needed to be made to form the end waterproof/ watertight ﬂooding of the components, causing failure and possible peripherals, such as the camera support arms and the product shape.. Rubber o ring seals are only there as the permanent damage to the product camera mount itself are joined by both MiG welding and wings and the camera mount all involve rotation and a rubber o ring seal therefore need some form of seal Have good Having a large shape to ﬁt all the electronics and propulsion would require a large shape, meaning more Sea life is naturally designed to be hydrodynamic. A hydrodynamics for power would be wasted in trying to move itself. Also, The product will take on the form of a sea creature, in this manta ray is also quite big as well as being very sleek, smooth shots and large shape are not very aesthetically pleasing or portable case a manta ray which adds to the pleasing aesthetic look of the product efﬁcient movement and could scare sea life away
Rough cut initial model, whilst in the development stage: Camera Mount support arms Angled Side Camera body Front Wing with curvatureDorsal fin Upside down. back Main camera mount
gled Side Final model, 3D printed from CAD work (1/2 Underneath scale) Propulsion slots Camera body Front Tail with aerial Dorsal Fin Camera mount Wing with support arm curvature Main camera mount Angled Side Back Filtration grill