Mental models

4,862 views
4,457 views

Published on

An overview of mental models, based on the work of Peter Senge in the Fifth Discipline.

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,862
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
219
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Iceberg diagram – emotions/behaviours
  • Observe: lateData: didn’t say whyMeanings:Assumptions: knew the starting time/deliberately lateConclusions: Always comes lateBeliefs: John’s unreliableActions
  • For the next bit draw a line down your page.
  • Draw a line down the page.Right hand side = actual conversation had or going to have.Left hand side = thoughts and assumptions that went along with that conversation
  • Not to be used verbatim … put into own words.An illustration to give you idea’s about how to steer a conversation
  • Mental models

    1. 1. Mental Models<br />Ladders of Inference, Advocacy & Inquiry<br />
    2. 2. 2<br />
    3. 3. the challenge of dialogue<br />3<br />Truman show<br /> is life as I experience it real/true?<br />Life<br /> assume my perspective of life is real<br /> every point of view is a view from a point<br />
    4. 4. 4<br />
    5. 5. 5<br />
    6. 6. 6<br />
    7. 7. 7<br />
    8. 8. 8<br />
    9. 9. 2 primary skills<br />9<br />Reflection<br /> slow down my thinking process -> become aware of formation of thoughts<br />(Advocacy)/Inquiry<br /> conversations that examine assumptions (mine & others)<br />
    10. 10. New ground …<br />10<br /><ul><li>Prepare for strong emotions
    11. 11. Listen for frustration</li></li></ul><li>Ladder of inference<br />11<br />
    12. 12. 12<br />
    13. 13. 13<br />
    14. 14. Left column<br />14<br />
    15. 15. Left column<br />15<br />
    16. 16. Left column<br />16<br />Think of a problem, or a tough interpersonal difficulty you have been dealing with recently.<br /> <br />Examples:<br />You can’t reach agreement with a close associate.<br />Someone is not pulling their weight.<br />You believe you are being treated unfairly.<br />You point of view is not being taken seriously.<br /> <br />Describe the situation briefly:<br /> <br />
    17. 17. Left column<br />17<br />Right column:<br /> actual dialogue or series of events<br />Left column:<br /> assumptions & thoughts<br />
    18. 18. Opening Lines<br />18<br />When…<br />Strong views are expressed without any reasoning or illustrations …<br />The discussion goes off on an apparent tangent …<br />You doubt the relevance of your own thoughts …<br />Two members pursue a topic at length while others observe …<br />Several views are advocated at once …<br /><ul><li>… you might say …</li></ul>“You may be right, but I’d like to understand more. What leads you to believe … ?”<br />“I’m unclear how that connects to what we’ve been saying. Can you say how you see it as relevant?”<br />“This may not be relevant now. If so, let me know and I will wait.”<br />“I’d like to give my reaction to what you two have said so far, and then see what you and others think.”<br />“We now have three ideas on the table [say what they are]. I suggest we address them one at a time …”<br />
    19. 19. Opening Lines<br />19<br />When…<br />You perceive a negative reaction in others …<br />You perceive a negative reaction in yourself …<br />Other appear un-influenceable …<br /><ul><li>… you might say …</li></ul>“When you said [give illustration] ... I had the impression you were feeling [fill in the emotion]. If so, I’d like to understand what upset you. Is there something I’ve said or done?”<br />“This may be more my problem than yours, but when you said [give illustration] … I felt … Am I misunderstanding what you said or intended?”<br />“Is there anything that I can say or do that would convince you otherwise?”<br />
    20. 20. Listening tips (respect)<br />20<br /><ul><li>Stop talking: to others and to yourself. Learn to still the voice within. You can’t listen if you are talking.
    21. 21. Imagine the other person’s point of viewpoint. Picture yourself in her position, doing her work, facing her problems, using her language, having her values, experiencing her experiences.
    22. 22. Look, act and be interested. Don’t read your mail, doodle, shuffle papers or fiddle while others are talking.</li></ul> <br />
    23. 23. Listening tips (concentrate)<br />21<br /><ul><li>Observe non-verbal behaviour, like body language to glean meanings beyond what is being said.
    24. 24. Don’t interrupt. Sit still past your tolerance level.
    25. 25. Listen between the lines for implicit meanings as well as explicit ones. Listen for what is not being said, and ask questions.</li></ul> <br />
    26. 26. Listening tips (suspend)<br />22<br /><ul><li>Speak only affirmatively. Resist the temptation to offer explanations or evaluations, even agreement.
    27. 27. To build understanding, reflect back the key points. Assume you don’t understand, rather than that you do.
    28. 28. Stop talking.</li></li></ul><li>Advocacy & Inquiry<br />23<br /><ul><li>Advocacy (plural advocacies)</li></ul>the profession of an advocate<br />the act of arguing in favour of, or supporting something<br />the practice of supporting someone to make their voice heard<br /><ul><li>Inquiry (plural inquiries)</li></ul>The act of inquiring; a seeking of information by asking questions; interrogation; a question or questioning.<br />Search for truth, information, or knowledge; examination of facts or principles; research; investigation; as, physical inquiries.<br />
    29. 29. Advocacy & inquiry<br />24<br />Dialogue:<br />Suspending, facilitating space <br />for collective thinking.<br />Interviewing:<br />Exploring others point of view<br />and reasons.<br />asking<br />generating<br />Skillful discussion:<br />Balancing advocacy & <br />inquiry, genuinely curious. <br />Clarifying:<br />What is the question we are trying to answer?<br />Politicking:<br />Giving impression of balancing <br />while being close-minded.<br />(dysfunctional)<br />Interrogating:<br />Why can’t you see you are wrong?<br />(dysfunctional)<br />advocacy<br />Explaining:<br />The world works like …<br />Bystanding:<br />Comments re process by not content.<br />Asserting:<br />What I say is …<br />Sensing:<br />Not commenting but keenly aware.<br />Dictating:<br />I don’t care what you think …<br />(dysfunctional)<br />(dysfunctional)<br />Withdrawing:<br />Mentally checking out.<br />(dysfunctional)<br />observing<br />Testing:<br />I say …, but what do you think?<br />telling<br />inquiry<br />
    30. 30. Protocols for balancing advocacy and Inquiry<br />25<br />Protocols for Improved Advocacy<br />Make your thinking process visible (walk up the ladder of inference slowly).<br />What to do<br />What to say<br />State your assumptions, and describe the data that led to them.<br />Explain your assumptions.<br />Make your reasoning explicit. <br />Explain the context of your point of view: who will be affected by what you propose, how they will be affected, and why. <br />Give examples of what you propose, even if they're hypothetical or metaphorical.<br />As you speak, try to picture the other people’s perspectives on what you are saying. <br />"Here's what I think and here's how I got there." <br />"I assumed that. . ." <br />"I came to this conclusion because. . ." <br />"To get a clear picture of what I'm talking about, imagine the you're a customer who will be affected. . ." <br />
    31. 31. Protocols for balancing advocacy and Inquiry<br />26<br />Protocols for Improved Advocacy<br />Publically test your conclusions and assumptions<br />What to do<br />What to say<br />Encourage others to explore your model, your assumptions, and your data.<br />Refrain from defensiveness when your ideas are questioned. If you're advocating something worthwhile, then it will only get stronger by being tested.<br />Reveal where you are least clear in your thinking. Rather than making you vulnerable, it defuses the force of advocates who are opposed to you, and invites improvement.<br />Even when advocating, listen, stay open, and encourage others to provide different views. <br />"What do you think about what I just said?" or "Do you see any flaws in my reasoning?" or "What can you add?" <br />"Here's one aspect which you might help me think through. . ." <br />"Do you see it differently?" <br />
    32. 32. Protocols for balancing advocacy and Inquiry<br />27<br />Protocols for Improved Inquiry<br />Ask others to make their thinking process visible<br />What to do<br />What to say<br />Gently walk others down the ladder of inference and find out what data they are operating from. <br />Use unaggressive language, particularly with people who are not familiar with these skills. Ask in a way which does not provoke defensiveness or "lead the witness.”<br />Draw out their reasoning. Find out as much as you can about why they are saying what they're saying.<br />Explain your reasons for inquiring, and how your inquiry relates to your own concerns, hopes, and needs. <br />"What leads you to conclude that?" "What data do you have for that?" "What causes you to say that?" <br />Instead of "What do you mean?"  or "What's your proof?"  say, "Can you help me understand your thinking here?" <br />"What is the significance of that?" "How does this relate to your other concerns?" "Where does your reasoning go next?" <br />"I'm asking you about your assumptions here because. . ." <br />
    33. 33. Protocols for balancing advocacy and Inquiry<br />28<br />Protocols for Improved Inquiry<br />Compare your assumptions to theirs<br />What to do<br />What to say<br />Test what they say by asking for broader contexts, or for examples. <br />Check your understanding of what they have said. <br />Listen for the new understanding that may emerge. Don't concentrate on preparing to destroy the other person's argument or promote your own agenda. <br />"How would your proposal affect. . .?" "Is this similar to. . .?" "Can you describe a typical example. . .?”<br />"Am I correct that you're saying. . .?" <br />
    34. 34. Protocols for balancing advocacy and Inquiry<br />29<br />Protocols for facing a point of view with which you disagree<br />What to do<br />What to say<br />Again, inquire about what has led the person to that view. <br />Make sure you truly understand the view.<br />Explore, listen, and offer your own views in an open way.<br />Listen for the larger meaning that may come out of honest, open sharing of alternative mental models.<br />Use your left-hand column as a resource.<br />Raise your concerns and state what is leading you to have them. <br />"How did you arrive at this view?" "Are you taking into account data that I have not considered?" <br />"If I understand you correctly, you're saying that. .." <br />"Have you considered. . ." <br />"When you say such-and-such, I worry that it means. . ." <br />"I have a hard time seeing that, because of this reasoning. . ." <br />
    35. 35. Protocols for balancing advocacy and Inquiry<br />30<br />Protocols for when you’re at an impasse<br />What to do<br />What to say<br />Embrace the impasse, and tease apart the current thinking. (You may discover that focusing on "data" brings you all down the ladder of inference.) <br />Look for information which will help people move forward.<br />Ask if there is any way you might together design an experiment or inquiry which could provide new information.<br />Listen to ideas as if for the first time. <br />"What do we know for a fact?”<br />"What do we sense is true, but have no data for yet?”<br />"What don't we know?" <br />"What do we agree upon and what do we disagree on?" <br />
    36. 36. Protocols for balancing advocacy and Inquiry<br />31<br />Protocols for when you’re at an impasse<br />What to do<br />What to say<br />Consider each person's mental model as a piece of a larger puzzle.<br />Ask what data or logic might change their views. <br />Ask for the group's help in redesigning the situation.<br />Don't let the conversation stop with an "agreement to disagree.”<br />Avoid building your "case" when someone else is speaking from a different point of view. <br />"Are we starting from two very different sets of assumptions here? Where do they come from?" <br />"What, then, would have to happen before you would consider the alternative?”<br />"It feels like we're getting into an impasse and I'm afraid we might walk away without any better understanding. Have you got any ideas that will help us clarify our thinking?" <br />"I don't understand the assumptions underlying our disagreement." <br />
    37. 37. Advocacy & inquiry<br />32<br />Dialogue:<br />Suspending, facilitating space <br />for collective thinking.<br />Interviewing:<br />Exploring others point of view<br />and reasons.<br />asking<br />generating<br />Skillful discussion:<br />Balancing advocacy & <br />inquiry, genuinely curious. <br />Clarifying:<br />What is the question we are trying to answer?<br />Politicking:<br />Giving impression of balancing <br />while being close-minded.<br />(dysfunctional)<br />Interrogating:<br />Why can’t you see you are wrong?<br />(dysfunctional)<br />advocacy<br />Explaining:<br />The world works like …<br />Bystanding:<br />Comments re process by not content.<br />Asserting:<br />What I say is …<br />Sensing:<br />Not commenting but keenly aware.<br />Dictating:<br />I don’t care what you think …<br />(dysfunctional))<br />Withdrawing:<br />Mentally checking out, not paying<br />attention.<br />(dysfunctional)<br />observing<br />Testing:<br />I say …, but what do you think?<br />telling<br />inquiry<br />

    ×