• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
I Do Like Mondays
 

I Do Like Mondays

on

  • 617 views

A paper containing the presentation to NHS Employers 2008

A paper containing the presentation to NHS Employers 2008

Statistics

Views

Total Views
617
Views on SlideShare
616
Embed Views
1

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
7
Comments
0

1 Embed 1

http://www.linkedin.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    I Do Like Mondays I Do Like Mondays Document Transcript

    • I do like Mondays A summary of a presentation made to the NHS Employers Conference, November 2008. Professor Derek Mowbray derek.mowbray@orghealth.co.uk
    • We spend a very large amount of time at work, sometimes as much as 210 days a year. Over a 24 hours cycle we allocate our time as illustrated, showing that a third of our time is at work, and the proportion of time not at work, but at leisure, is very small compared to the time we have available to us. Hours at work and at home Work work leisure preparing for sleep sleep preparing for work Proportion of work and leisure p.a. 33% 33% Work Leisure Home 16% Working time, therefore, is a major part of our lives. In theory, at least, work should provide us with the ingredients that make us contented and happy. It is doubly important that work should provide us with positive experiences because we spend so much time at work, and because we 2|Page
    • spend so little seeking the experiences outside of work that should contribute to our general health and wellbeing. Why is work so good for us? • It can provide the things that make us contented and happy: »Good physical health »Clear purpose »Effective relationships »Challenges »Motivation »Confidence »Self esteem These are the reasons why work is so good for us. Work should enable us to maintain good health because it should provide us with a clear purpose in life, provide us with the opportunity for making good and effective relationships with others; it should provide us with the challenges that give us motivation. This, in turn, increases our own confidence to do interesting and exciting things and cope well with the routine of life, and with this comes our self-esteem – making us feel good about ourselves. Research tells us these are the characteristics that make us feel contented and happy. So often, however, work seems to provide the opposite. There is a sustained high level of sickness absence and staff turnover due to psychological distress. The triggers for this distress are many and varied, and for a large number of people work can be a misery – and worse – many people keep this misery to themselves until such time as they cannot cope any longer, and need to escape, despite the provision of employee support service of various kinds, such as employee assistance programmes, and occupational health services. We call this period of misery and unhappiness the ‘Iceberg Effect’, as it is often kept out of sight and beneath the surface. 3|Page
    • At this point I would like you to complete the Health and Wellbeing at Work questionnaire. I should explain that this is not a psychometric instrument, and has, therefore, not been tested for reliability and validity. Completing it is entirely voluntary. I use it as a very quick way of opening a conversation as it provides immediate ideas of how employees currently think about their work. 4|Page
    • Health and wellbeing at work questionnaire We want to find out if you are feeling good about your work, and about your working situation. To help us find out we would like you to complete this questionnaire. It focuses on how you feel now and over the recent past (say a couple of weeks). Please try and complete all the questions. Thank you very much for your co-operation. Have you recently: Been unclear about what you are supposed to do at work? Not at all no more Rather more Much more than usual than usual than usual Found that others have been taking decisions that prevent you Not at all no more Rather more Much more from performing at your peak? than usual than usual than usual Not at all no more Rather more Much more Become irritated by the behaviour of your manager? than usual than usual than usual Not at all no more Rather more Much more Found yourself idling the time away? than usual than usual than usual Been spoken to by someone you thought Not at all no more Rather more Much more than usual than usual than usual was being rude, unhelpful and thoughtless? Found it difficult to get involved in your work? Not at all no more Rather more Much more than usual than usual than usual Felt under pressure at work? Not at all no more Rather more Much more than usual than usual than usual Spent longer than your normal time at work? Not at all no more Rather more Much more than usual than usual than usual Experienced sexual innuendo or verbal abuse at work? Not at all no more Rather more Much more than usual than usual than usual Felt you have been unfairly treated? Not at all no more Rather more Much more than usual than usual than usual Been feeling energized at work? Not at all no more Rather more Much more than usual than usual than usual Taken a decision that has been acknowledged as a major step forward at work? Not at all no more Rather more Much more than usual than usual than usual 5|Page
    • Thank you. It seems that all of you would like to have a conversation with me! Recent research has uncovered the costs of the ‘Iceberg Effect’. Taking the total costs of psychological distress, including the ‘visible’ costs of staff sickness absence and staff turnover, the costs of the ‘Iceberg Effect’ are a staggering 58% of the total costs, with the ‘visible’ costs being a small proportion of the whole. The impact on organisation and personal performance is huge, and in the public sector, is a key area where cost savings are to be found. Costs of the ‘Iceberg Effect’ as a percentage of total costs of psychological distress at work 32% 58% sickness absence ‘Iceberg effect’ 10% staff turnover reduced productivity at work What is stress? It is the stage beyond pressure and strain, and when left un-treated can become a serious physical as well as psychological problem for the sufferer. However, there is a widespread and continuing belief that stress is fairly trivial. It is not! 6|Page
    • What causes psychological distress? There are three main causes with the prime cause being the behaviour we show towards each other, in particular the behaviour that managers show towards their staff. The secondary causes of stress are life events we all experience at some stage. Research shows that these, well recognised, triggers of psychological distress occur to all of us at some time, and are, therefore, foreseeable. Some are constantly present, such as change, and yet the attention needed for different people with different personality types is often not provided. Put simply, a MBTI type J has preferences for an ordered future, planning well in advance and J’s don’t easily cope with uncertainty, whilst P’s can get on a plane without knowing where it is going! I exaggerate, of course! The tertiary causes are categories of events that have been categorised for legal as well as HR purposes – they are identifiable, and can be dealt with under various regulations and procedures. The regulations and procedures can, also, add to the psychological distress. These categories of events tend to emerge from the prime and secondary causes, and they crystallize and possibly camouflage the underlying causes. Tertiary Secondary causes causes Effects Harassment Primary Change Bullying Increased costs causes Adverse life events Autocratic leadership Under performance Mergers Intimidation Leaders High sickness and absence Acquisitions Insecurity Managers High staff turnover Growth and expansion Lack of personal control People Reduced profits Downsizing Job insecurity Poor quality Collapse Fear Lower market share Uncertainty Unexpected events Recruitment difficulties Loss and bereavement Negativity Poor performance Isolation Excess demands There are five main reasons for being concerned about psychological distress at work. These include the requirement to comply with the Health and Safety Management Standards, the possibility of legal action, the interest of insurance companies and the effect of increased premiums, the haemorrhaging of money as well as the misery of individuals. 7|Page
    • Management Standards The Health and Safety Executive Inspection Prosecution under several The Courts and Tribunals Acts Increased premiums for company The Insurance Companies health insurance schemes Haemorrhaging money through The Business sickness, absence and staff turnover The Individual Misery So, what can be done to address the effects of psychological distress at work, and to ensure that we derive the contentment and happiness we should expect from work, leading to improved performance, less errors, more energy and greater achievement? The starting point for me is to establish a framework within which we can develop strategies for addressing the issues. The following framework was developed by me sometime ago to provide a context in which health strategies could be defined. It translates well to a number of different issues, and is presented here in relation to psychological distress. There are five strategies – 1) to prevent and promote 2) to manage stress and reduce its impact 3) the get people back to work 4) to support people with chronic psychological distress and 5) to sustain a psychologically healthy workplace. 8|Page
    • Strategy for health and wellbeing at work Promote Reduce the Psychological impact health and of stress at work wellbeing Sustain Psychological health and wellbeing at Support work Help chronically ill people people back to back to work work Focusing attention on the first strategy – the promotion of psychological health and wellbeing at work. I think most organisations find it useful to see what this means. I have constructed the following characteristics of a psychologically healthy organisation from research into globally successful organisations. Psychologically healthy organisations have: •a clear, unambiguous purpose, expressed as a simple ‘big idea’, an idea which all the staff relate to closely, and are proud to discuss with friends and colleagues. •an atmosphere of confidence, where all the staff are interested in each other, support each other, and project this confidence towards clients and customers. •staff who behave respectfully towards each other, value each other’s views and opinions, work in teams which are places of mutual support, where anything is debated without a hint of humiliation, where the critique of individual and team work is welcomed, discussed and where lessons are learnt and implemented. •staff who ‘go the extra mile’ by providing unsolicited ideas, thoughts, stimulus to each other, and where their interest in their customers offers something more than is expected, beyond courtesy, and beyond service, offering attentiveness and personal interest. •challenges for their staff, that provide opportunities for personal development through new experiences, and which treat everyone with fairness and understanding. •staff who are personally driven towards organisation and personal success - intellectually, financially, socially and emotionally. 9|Page
    • You may think this is like Motherhood and Apple Pie, but let’s see how many of you work in this kind of organisation. Once again, completing this questionnaire is entirely voluntary. It is, however, another very quick way of finding out how employees and managers feel about their workplace and their relationship to it. It provides a pointer towards the kind of organisational dynamic that requires attention. 10 | P a g e
    • Organisation aspirations - assessment Assess your own organisation by marking your answer to each statement on a scale of 1 (we have this aspiration in place) to 5 (we don’t have this aspiration in place anywhere). My organisation is one: 1 2 3 4 5 with a clear, unambiguous purpose, expressed as a simple ‘big idea’, an idea which all the staff relate to closely, and are proud to discuss with friends and colleagues. that has an atmosphere of confidence, where all the staff are interested in each other, support each other, and project this confidence towards clients and customers. where staff behave respectfully towards each other, value each other’s views and opinions, work in teams which are places of mutual support, where anything is debated without a hint of humiliation, where the critique of individual and team work is welcomed, discussed and where lessons are learnt and implemented. where staff ‘go the extra mile’ by providing unsolicited ideas, thoughts, stimulus to each other, where their interest in their customers offers something more than is expected, beyond courtesy, and beyond service, offering attentiveness and personal interest. that challenges staff, provides opportunities for personal development through new experiences, treats everyone with fairness and understanding. where staff are personally driven towards organisation and personal success – intellectually, financially, socially, emotionally. 11 | P a g e
    • Ahrrrr – none of you! Of course, there will be some of these characteristics in your organisation, and, hopefully, all of them. Too often, however, organisations do not measure up completely I hope the following cartoon, which is now quite old, doesn’t ring bells for you. The time has come to press on with the actions that can be taken to promote psychological health and wellbeing at work. I have provided a benchmark against which your current situation can be measured. We will now move on to see how your organisation can achieve that benchmark. In the same way that there are three principal causes of psychological distress, I have identified from research three principal steps to be taken that achieve the prevention of psychological distress and the promotion of psychological health and wellbeing. They are: First, and most significant – the training of managers/leaders in the organisational characteristics and behaviours that promote commitment, trust and engagement. Second - the construction of a context within which behaviour takes place at work – the organisation and its ‘rules’, and how these can be developed to foster a culture of commitment, trust and engagement. Third, the behaviour characteristics required to promote commitment, trust and staff engagement. 12 | P a g e
    • Tertiary steps Secondary steps Manager – Outcomes employee relationships Primary ‘big idea’ steps Architecture Manager encouragement Improved productivity Training and Increased profit development Manager discretion Improved quality Leaders Recruitment Improved market share Pay Employee discretion Managers Performance Lower costs Appraisal Lower sickness and absence People Job satisfaction Career opportunity Improved retention Job security Employee attitude Work life balance Openness Team work Involvement Job challenge At this stage I think most people find it difficult to envisage what is meant by the behaviours needed to promote commitment, trust and employee engagement. Personally I find metaphors useful, so I have chosen the dance as my metaphor. The dance has a context in terms of type of dance, those who take a lead, the ‘rules’ of the dance, the culture of the dance in terms of the music appropriate to the type of dance and the purpose of the dance itself. Finally, the behaviours of the dancers are critical within the context. Communication is essential, and as the dancers get to know the dance and each other, trust, commitment and engagement become the distinguishing features between a fluid and effective demonstration of a dance and a dance where the fluidity does not exist, but the steps are followed. Anyone witnessing Strictly Come Dancing will see before their eyes the gradual growth in commitment, trust and engagement between the contestants over several weeks, until seemingly ordinary dancers, at the beginning, turn into highly effective dancers of almost any type of dance, at the end. Effective communication 13 | P a g e
    • Another metaphor I use is that of the role of conductor of an orchestra or chorus. The conductor has the ‘rules’ – the score; he has the context (organisation) in terms of the range of instruments and choral voices, and his job is to obtain the perfect sound by encouraging the different parts to blend together in an interpretation the conductor creates. The conductor need not know how to play an instrument, nor be able to sing (although it helps), but he does need the skills to engage the performers in the way he wishes them to perform (behaviour). So, what are the skills that leaders and managers require? Research relating to commitment, trust and engagement shows that the following attributes are central to adopting the behaviours needed to promote commitment, trust and engagement: Skills required to create and sustain commitment and trust Someone who addresses Attentiveness individual needs Someone who creates stress Being able to offer and deflates it direction with committed ambition Assertiveness Someone who possesses intelligence Being someone who attracts with psychological status humour The critical attribute is attentiveness. If someone is attentive to you a natural response is for you to be attentive back. This has to be genuine attentiveness – if there is any doubt then the strength of the relationship is broken, and takes time to be re-established. The other attributes are: providing a clear direction with a committed ambition to achieve it; being sufficiently wise (psychological status) that people will defer to your opinion and decisions even if they don’t agree with them personally; intelligence with humour is highly seductive and helps to create a stress free interaction (you cannot feel stressed if you are laughing!); assertiveness that has no signs of aggression but a clear message of what is required; the ability to create degrees of pressure and stress combined with the ability to deflate the stress; and the ability to address individual needs. Of course, the behaviours that demonstrate the attributes are complex. Just how complex is shown in the following slide. We all tend to behave according to how we judge a particular situation and the reaction we anticipate from the behaviour – at least we do this if we are attentive to each other. We can train people to demonstrate the attributes in ways that provide a supportive and positive response. We are constantly adapting to different situations. The classic 14 | P a g e
    • demonstration of this is my presentation today. I don’t do this at home, yet I need to demonstrate the skills and attributes to you as a large audience in order for you to go away thinking about what I am saying. I will behave according to my interpretation of this situation and how I expect you to respond I will also behave according to my interpretation of this situation and how I anticipate you will respond to me Now, let’s see whether you have some of these attributes. The Quick Leadership Q is quick, and provides an instant idea of how you judge yourself. Simply place a cross somewhere along each line, and this will show where you need some training in acquiring the skills and attributes. Of course, you will score yourself more favourably than others will, so we tend to ask people who know you to complete the same questionnaire and then compare the results. Again, completing this is entirely voluntary, but it does start the conversation. Quick Leadership Overall Assessment Q performance © Derek Mowbray 1 Leading change 1 through others 1 Trustworthiness 10 10 10 Intellectual 1 10 Trust 10 1 Collaborative flexibility working and 10 commitment 10 1 Decision making Attentiveness 1 skills 10 10 10 Ability to 1 1 1 = not good empower others 10 = good 1 Humour Effective at influencing 15 | P a g e
    • The process of training people in the skills, attributes and behaviours needs to adopt a triple loop learning process. Simply providing a presentation of ideas hardly ever brings about change. The ideas need to be reinforced at least twice after the presentation in order to bring about change. We, therefore, adopt any learning technique to provide the triple loop learning experience. •Workshops •Learning sets •Action research •Coaching Turning now to the context within which leaders and managers behave towards their employees, it is necessary to construct an environment that promotes commitment, trust and staff engagement. I have developed a simple organisation development framework which helps to map out the features that need reviewing and developing. The framework focuses on four main areas – the purpose of the organisation, its architecture (structure), the ‘rules’ by which the organisation is meant to work, and ‘how to play the game’ – the behaviours that are required to achieve the organisational purpose, whilst following the ‘rules’. Organisation Development Organisation purpose Organisation Organisation Organisation architecture ‘rules’ ‘how to play the game’ Organisation development Derek Mowbray 1994 16 | P a g e
    • The interplay between the different areas is expressed below: The interplay between organisation and psychological wellbeing Purpose Trust Architecture Interaction commitment Psychological Rules between and the wellbeing ‘Playing the Leaders and psychological at work game’ followers contract I have introduced here the concept of the psychological contract. This is the idiosyncratic personal sense of fairness that we all experience at work, which is an essential aspect of engagement. If we feel that we are being treated fairly we tend to be engaged with the organisation. The strength of the engagement is determined by other factors that I have been talking about. Once that sense of fairness is broken, we start to dis-engage. Once dis- engagement starts it is extremely difficult to restore. Drawing everything together can be achieved by following the diagram below. It includes the issues of context, the structure, the ‘rules’ and ‘how to play the game’. Research shows that the items in the diagram are critical in achieving commitment, trust and engagement, and each item has a particular slant that promotes commitment, some of which I have been describing today, others requiring another presentation at another time. 17 | P a g e
    • Factors that influence trust and commitment Purpose The ‘Big idea’ Manager – employee Architecture relationship Employee attitude Structure Manager discretion Employee discretion Attentiveness Rules of the game Management encouragement Job Leadership ability Recruitment Performance appraisal Pay Teamwork Challenge Involvement Secure Openness Communication Work life balance Career opportunity Responsiveness Citizenship How to play Training and Behaviour Procedures the game development Policies By undertaking a systematic approach to organisation and management development, adopting the ideas I have been presenting, organisations will achieve the characteristics of psychological health and wellbeing at work. Instead of the slide about individual misery we can substitute the following slide that shows health and wellbeing at work. 18 | P a g e
    • Whilst I have been focusing on psychological health and wellbeing, the picture is broader than this as there is a direct interplay between physical health and psychological health. Organisations that adopt a programme that achieves psychological health will also find that the physical health and wellbeing of employees improves, and the other way round. Whilst good physical health does have an impact on our ability to cope with psychologically challenging events, it is not the complete answer. There is an urgent need for all organisations to focus on the psychological health and wellbeing of everyone at work, to achieve high performance and effectiveness. Thank you. 19 | P a g e