Teaching with Clickers for Deep Learning


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Presentation given to the Vanderbilt ophthalmology department, January 17, 2014

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  • “skates,” marythom, Flickr (CC)
  • “IMG_9936e2,” Abby Bischoff, Flickr (CC)
  • “29 Valley,” Simon Williams, Flickr (CC)
  • “Questions,” Oberazzi, Flickr (CC)
  • “IMG_9936e2,” Abby Bischoff, Flickr (CC)
  • Often, conceptual understanding of the underlying ideas is necessary to translate between various ways of representing those ideas, and so asking students clicker questions that require them to make those translations can be a useful way of assessing their conceptual understanding. The question in Example 4.4 from Barbara Reisner, who teaches chemistry at James Madison University, is such a question. This question requires students to translate from an equation representing a chemical process to a molecular-level graphical representation of that same process. Similar representation translation questions can be asked in other disciplines.
  • Application questions ask students to take those concepts and use them in particular situations.Application questions can also be used to ask students to apply course material to situations in their own lives, helping them connect to the course content.Prediction questions are also useful—asking students to predict the outcome of a scientific experiment or the outcome of a subsequent opinion question.
  • Upper right quadrant. It’s the slightly lighter fuzzy thing near the neck.
  • “Macbook X-Ray,” Jason de Villa, Flickr (CC)
  • Correct answer: D.
  • http://www2.coloradocollege.edu/ats/events/2012showcaseposters/DKillian2012.pdfFirst Day of Class: 47% Yes, 42% No, 11% Not SureLast Day of Class: 44% Yes, 56% No
  • “Questions,” Oberazzi, Flickr (CC)
  • 22 radiology residents, randomly assigned (stratified by year) into two groups, lecture topic: solid pediatric renal masses, identical lecture material, post-lecture quiz, quiz again after three months
  • See also “The Flipped Classroom FAQ,” http://www.cirtl.net/node/7788.
  • The traditional approach to structuring learning in and out of class, using Eric Mazur’s terminology. Class time is spend transferring information from professor to student, typically via lecture. After class, students assimilate that information by working through problem sets. Note that this framework has the most resonance with math, science, and engineering courses, although it’s often used in lecture-based courses in other disciplines, too.
  • As Mazur argues, the assimilation step is the harder of the two, so why not shift that to class time, when everyone (instructors and students) is around to help? This requires shifting the transfer step before class, typically by having students read textbooks or watch lecture videos. Note that lecture videos might be created by the instructor, but they might also be ones created by other instructors. This approach has come to be called the “flipped” or “inverted” classroom. (See http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/teaching-guides/teaching-activities/flipping-the-classroom/ for some of the history of these terms.)
  • The flipped classroom usually refers to an actual classroom, but the ideas translate just as well to online education, as long as you think of the “classroom” as synchronous activities that involve all the students.
  • Recently, there’s been some useful critique of the notion that the learning process should start with “transfer” activities, like reading textbooks and watching lecture videos. See http://news.stanford.edu/news/2013/july/flipped-learning-model-071613.html for some initial research on this issue. Instead of “transfer,” perhaps it’s better to think of the before class activities in the flipped approach as “first exposure” to the content of the day. Barbara Walvoord and Virginia Johnson Anderson use this term in the book Effective Grading. Instead of “assimilate,” let’s be slightly more concrete and say “practice and feedback,” since we know that’s critical to student learning.
  • Finally, we should acknowledge that rarely does the learning process end when the bell rings. Students usually need time for further exploration with a topic after class is over. This can include tackling harder problems, studying for exams, and applying knowledge through papers and projects, among other options.There you have it: the flipped classroom framework for structuring student learning.
  • Teaching with Clickers for Deep Learning

    1. 1. Teaching with Clickers for Deep Learning Derek Bruff, PhD – Center for Teaching – Vanderbilt University
    2. 2. Your sister calls to say she’s having twins. Which of the following is more likely? (Assume she’s not having identical twins.) 0% A. Twin boys 0% B. Twin girls 0% C. One boy and one girl 0% D. All are equally likely
    3. 3. Instructor Poses Question (<1 Min) Students Answer Independently (1-3 Min) Peer Instruction via Clickers Instructor Views Results (<1 Min) If Most Answer Correctly, Briefly Discuss Question (1-3 Min) If Most Answer Incorrectly, Backtrack (5+ Min) If Students Are Split, Have Students Discuss in Pairs and Revote (1-5 Min) Instructor Leads Classwide Discussion (2-15 Min)
    4. 4. Agile Teaching
    5. 5. Good Questions, Deep Learning
    6. 6. Traxoline is a new form of zionter. It is montillated in Ceristanna. The Ceristannians gristerlate large amounts of fevon and then bracter it to quasel traxoline. Traxoline may well be one of our most lukized snezlaus in the future because of our zionter lescelidge. Based on this information, how is traxoline quaselled? 0% 0% 0% 0% A. B. C. D. Via gristerlation Via bracteration Via lukization Via montillation
    7. 7. Factual Recall Question When you hear the term “water boarding,” what comes to mind? 1. Olympic Event 2. Fraternity Initiation 3. Interrogation Technique 4. Surfing 5. Torture John Jameson, History, Kent State University
    8. 8. PLNs in Action
    10. 10. Concept Questions Your sister calls to say she’s having twins. Which of the following is more likely? (Assume she’s not having identical twins.) A. Twin boys B. Twin girls C. One girl and one boy D. All are equally likely. “IMG_9936e2,” Abby Bischoff, Flickr (CC)
    11. 11. Concept Questions Adam List, Chemistry, Vanderbilt University
    12. 12. Concept Questions Suppose that (1) earlobe attachment is dictated by a single gene, (2) unattached earlobes dominate, and (3) attached earlobes are recessive. From this information, you can conclude: A. Attached earlobes are seen less frequently than unattached earlobes in a population. B. Attached earlobes are seen more frequently than unattached earlobes in a population. C. Either phenotype could be seen more frequently in a population: you need more information. Jennifer Knight, Biology, Univ. Colorado-Boulder
    13. 13. Times for Telling Schwartz & Bransford (1998)
    14. 14. Representation Questions Which solution best represents HF disassociation in solution? (What does the equilibrium picture look like?) HF(aq) H+(aq) + F-(aq) K = 6.8 10-4 A B Barbara Reisner, Chemistry, James Madison University C
    16. 16. Application Questions Consider the view of the northeastern horizon shown at a certain date and time. Which of the following best describes the positions of these constellations 24 hours later? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Slightly lower in the sky, closer to the NE horizon. Exactly the same place Slightly higher in the sky, farther up from the NE horizon Somewhere just above the SW horizon Not visible at all above the horizon Patrick Len, Astronomy, Cuesta College
    17. 17. Application Questions Consider two mice from the same inbred strain. These mice have identical MHC II alleles. For MHC I: • Mouse X has two alleles each of B, F and G. • Mouse Z has a mutation in one of its MHC I genes, and has two B and F alleles and one G and one H. If you transplant skin from one mouse to the other: A. X can accept a transplant from Z and Z can accept from X B. X can accept from Z, but Z will reject tissue from X C. Z can accept from X, but X will reject tissue from Z D. Neither mouse can accept a transplant from the other mouse Molecular, Cellular, & Dev. Biology, CU-Boulder
    18. 18. Application Questions C. Leon Partain, Radiology Vanderbilt U. B. C.C. Where is the primary abnormality? A. D. D. A. B.
    19. 19. Formative Assessment Angelo & Cross (1998)
    20. 20. Which of the following is NOT an example of formative assessment? 0% 0% 0% 0% A. B. C. D. Clicker question Reading quiz Minute paper Final exam
    21. 21. Confidence Questions Actual response data from Fall 2013!
    23. 23. Critical Thinking Questions RR, a patient diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes, comes in for follow-up. He brings his SMBG log book and you see that most of his pre-breakfast numbers have been high, around 200. After questioning RR, he says he has been waking in the middle of the night with a lot of sweating. The most likely reason for his high AM sugars is: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Dawn phenomenon Poor dinner choices Not enough insulin in the evening Somogyi effect Incorrect use of BG meter Stuart Beatty, Pharmacology, Ohio State University
    24. 24. Critical Thinking Questions • • • • • 17-year-old male Pruritic foot rash Severe joint pain High fevers to 104°F CT abdomen requested What is the most helpful radiologic study? A. Ultrasound B. Angiography C. Hepatobiliary Scan D. Sulfur colloid scan Stephanie Spottswood, Radiology,
    25. 25. Critical Thinking Questions You are a triage nurse in a pediatric urgent care clinic and the following patients are waiting. A. 3-year-old female with a FUO and T=40°C who is riding a tricycle in the waiting room B. 6-week-old term male, cc: fussy breast, T=38.6°C C. 14-year-old male with hx of epilespy who had a seizure at home lasting ~1 minute about 30 min. ago Who would you triage first? Jean Farley, Nursing, G eorgetown Univ.
    26. 26. Open-Ended Questions
    27. 27. Ethical Questions A couple wants to have a daughter because they already have 5 sons and wish to have a daughter. In this case, should this couple be allowed to use biotechnology to select the sex of their child? A. Yes B. No C. Not willing to form an opinion yet. Darrell Killian, Biology, Colorado College
    28. 28. Which of these question types seems most promising for your teaching? 0% 0% 0% 0% A. B. C. D. Concept Questions Application Questions Critical Thinking Questions Something else…
    29. 29. Questions?
    30. 30. Why Clickers? Stowell & Nelson (2007) – Undergraduate psychology lectures, clickers vs. response cards vs. hand-raising Hand-Raising 98% 92% Response Cards Clickers 82% 60% % Correct During Lecture 52% 60% % Correct on Post-Quiz
    31. 31. Why Clickers? Rubio, Bassignani, White, & Brant (2008) – Midday residential lectures in radiology, with and without clickers Clickers Control 76% 60% 58% 28% % Correct on Post-Quiz % Correct 3 Months Later
    32. 32. The Flipped Classroom
    33. 33. Before Class Class Time After Class Transfer Assimilate Traditional Approach
    34. 34. Class Time After Class Transfer Before Class Assimilate Traditional Approach Transfer Assimilate Flipped Approach
    35. 35. Before Class Class Time After Class (Asynchronous) (Synchronous) (Asynchronous) Transfer Assimilate Traditional Approach Transfer Assimilate Flipped Approach
    36. 36. Before Class Class Time After Class (Asynchronous) (Synchronous) (Asynchronous) Transfer Assimilate Traditional Approach First Exposure Practice & Feedback Flipped Approach
    37. 37. Before Class Class Time After Class (Asynchronous) (Synchronous) (Asynchronous) Transfer Assimilate Traditional Approach First Exposure Practice & Feedback Flipped Approach Further Exploration
    38. 38. Derek Bruff Email: derek.bruff@vanderbilt.edu Web: cft.vanderbilt.edu Twitter: @derekbruff Flickr Photo Credits – “Skates,” marythom – “Drew & Katie,” Abby Bischoff – “29 Valley,” Simon Williams – “Questions,” Tim O’Brien – “Ear,” Travis Isaacs – – – – “Mentos + Diet Coke,” Michael & DeEtta Cobra “Macbook X-Ray,” Jason de Villa “Choices,” Derek Bruff “Final Exam,” dcjohn