Class Time Reconsidered

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Presentation given at the University of Denver Mathematics Department, October 25, 2013. Be sure to check the notes for links about the examples seen in the slides.

Presentation given at the University of Denver Mathematics Department, October 25, 2013. Be sure to check the notes for links about the examples seen in the slides.

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  • See also “The Flipped Classroom FAQ,” http://www.cirtl.net/node/7788.
  • The traditional approach to structuring learning in and out of class, using Eric Mazur’s terminology. Class time is spend transferring information from professor to student, typically via lecture. After class, students assimilate that information by working through problem sets. Note that this framework has the most resonance with math, science, and engineering courses, although it’s often used in lecture-based courses in other disciplines, too.
  • As Mazur argues, the assimilation step is the harder of the two, so why not shift that to class time, when everyone (instructors and students) is around to help? This requires shifting the transfer step before class, typically by having students read textbooks or watch lecture videos. Note that lecture videos might be created by the instructor, but they might also be ones created by other instructors. This approach has come to be called the “flipped” or “inverted” classroom. (See http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/teaching-guides/teaching-activities/flipping-the-classroom/ for some of the history of these terms.)
  • The flipped classroom usually refers to an actual classroom, but the ideas translate just as well to online education, as long as you think of the “classroom” as synchronous activities that involve all the students.
  • Recently, there’s been some useful critique of the notion that the learning process should start with “transfer” activities, like reading textbooks and watching lecture videos. See http://news.stanford.edu/news/2013/july/flipped-learning-model-071613.html for some initial research on this issue. Instead of “transfer,” perhaps it’s better to think of the before class activities in the flipped approach as “first exposure” to the content of the day. Barbara Walvoord and Virginia Johnson Anderson use this term in the book Effective Grading. Instead of “assimilate,” let’s be slightly more concrete and say “practice and feedback,” since we know that’s critical to student learning.
  • Finally, we should acknowledge that rarely does the learning process end when the bell rings. Students usually need time for further exploration with a topic after class is over. This can include tackling harder problems, studying for exams, and applying knowledge through papers and projects, among other options.There you have it: the flipped classroom framework for structuring student learning.
  • This example taken from the statistics course I taught in 2012. See http://derekbruff.org/blogs/math216/ for more information.
  • Also from http://derekbruff.org/blogs/math216/.
  • Screenshot from my first-year writing seminar blog: http://derekbruff.org/blogs/fywscrypto/
  • More info: http://derekbruff.org/?p=1894
  • More info: http://derekbruff.org/?p=2081
  • “Spiral out, keep going,” Tawcan, Flickr (CC)
  • Derek’s Diigo group: https://groups.diigo.com/group/math-216
  • More info: http://chronicle.com/blogPost/Motivating-Students-with/24780/
  • More info: http://derekbruff.org/?p=2118
  • More info: http://derekbruff.org/?p=1599
  • I haven’t blogged about this, but I hope to do so soon!

Transcript

  • 1. Class Time Reconsidered Derek Bruff Vanderbilt University @derekbruff / derekbruff.org
  • 2. Warm-Up Considering that a tiny acorn can grow into a mighty oak tree, which of the following contributes the majority of the mass of the tree? A. Soil B. Air C. Water D. Sunlight
  • 3. Times for Telling (Schwartz & Bransford, 1998)
  • 4. The Flipped Classroom
  • 5. Before Class Class Time After Class Transfer Assimilate Traditional Approach
  • 6. Class Time After Class Transfer Before Class Assimilate Traditional Approach Transfer Assimilate Flipped Approach
  • 7. Before Class Class Time After Class (Asynchronous) (Synchronous) (Asynchronous) Transfer Assimilate Traditional Approach Transfer Assimilate Flipped Approach
  • 8. Before Class Class Time After Class (Asynchronous) (Synchronous) (Asynchronous) Transfer Assimilate Traditional Approach First Exposure Practice & Feedback Flipped Approach
  • 9. Before Class Class Time After Class (Asynchronous) (Synchronous) (Asynchronous) Transfer Assimilate Traditional Approach First Exposure Practice & Feedback Flipped Approach Further Exploration
  • 10. AN EXAMPLE
  • 11. First Exposure – Pre-Class Reading
  • 12. Practice & Feedback – Clicker Questions Three cards are placed in a hat—one card is blue on both sides, one is red on both sides, and one has a blue side and a red side. A card is drawn at random from the hat and you see that one side is blue. What’s the probability that the other side is blue? A. B. C. D. 1/3 1/2 2/3 3/4
  • 13. Further Exploration – Problem Sets The historical probabilities that a birth event results in identical or fraternal twins are about 1/300 and 1/125, respectively. Given that Elvis Presley had a twin brother who died at birth, what is the probability that Elvis was an identical twin? Assume that boys are as likely to be born, in general, as girls. (Hint: This is the same probability that a birth event results in identical twin boys given that we know it results in twin boys.)
  • 14. First Exposure (Walvoord & Anderson, 2009)
  • 15. Screencasts Grand Valley State University Math Department
  • 16. Textbooks
  • 17. Connections Points Scaffolding
  • 18. Pre-Class Reading Quizzes
  • 19. Reading Response Essays
  • 20. Practice & Feedback (aka Sense-Making)
  • 21. Instructor Poses Question (<1 Min) Students Answer Independently (1-3 Min) Peer Instruction Instructor Views Results (<1 Min) If Most Answer Correctly, Briefly Discuss Question (1-3 Min) If Most Answer Incorrectly, Backtrack (5+ Min) If Students Are Split, Have Students Discuss in Pairs and Revote (1-5 Min) Instructor Leads Classwide Discussion (2-15 Min)
  • 22. Misconception Questions Your sister calls to say she’s having twins. Which of the following is more likely? (Assume she’s not having identical twins.) A. Twin boys B. Twin girls C. One girl and one boy D. All are equally likely.
  • 23. Application Questions Adam Lucas, Mills College
  • 24. Synthesis Questions True or False: If A is an m x n matrix, then the dimension of the row space of A plus the dimension of the nullspace of A equals n. 27% 32% 18% 23% A. B. C. D. True – High Confidence True – Low Confidence False – Low Confidence False – High Confidence Actual response data from last week!
  • 25. Doodles + Camera Phones
  • 26. Rubrics + Google Docs
  • 27. All-Skate
  • 28. Further Exploration
  • 29. Q&A via Piazza
  • 30. Social Bookmarking via Diigo
  • 31. Application Projects
  • 32. Application Projects
  • 33. Social Pedagogies (Bass & Elmendorf, 2009)
  • 34. The unFlipped Classroom
  • 35. Derek Bruff @derekbruff / derekbruff.org derek.bruff@vanderbilt.edu Flickr (CC) Photo Credits • "Oak Tree," MunstiSue • “mentos + diet coke,” the Cobras • “final exam” (flipped), dcJohn • “Super 8,” Eric Hart • “Stats,” Derek Bruff • “Numbers,” Luis Argerich • “Chain of Addiction,” Evan Leeson • • • • • • “College Halls,” Derek Bruff “Little Shredder,” clappstar “IMG_9936e2,” Abby Bischoff “Skates,” marythom “Spiral out, keep going,” Tawcan “The Calm After the Show,” Thomas Hawk