CCE-EDUSAT SESSION FOR COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS Date  : 31.08.2007 Session : Chapter 8 Topic  : Memory Units Faculty  : Annap...
CONTENTS <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>RAM,ROM,PROM,EPROM </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Storage Devices-Magnetic Ta...
 
Memory
1. Introduction <ul><li>Memory  Devices  (RAM,ROM,PROM,EPROM) </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Devices  (Auxiliary Storage Device...
 
Characteristics of Storage Devices <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Volatility </li></ul><ul><li>Access method </li></ul><u...
Basic Units Of Measurement <ul><li>Bit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi nary digi t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest unit of me...
Small Units Of Measurement (Processor And Memory Speed) Millisecond ( ms ) – a thousandth of a second (1/1,000 = 10 -3 ) M...
Large Units Of Measurement  (Memory, Storage) <ul><li>Note: powers of two are used because computer memory and storage are...
Large Units Of Measurement  (Memory, Storage) <ul><li>Gigabyte (GB)  – a billion (1,073,741,824 = 2 30 ) </li></ul><ul><ul...
Large Units Of Measurement  (Memory, Storage) <ul><li>Terabyte (TB)  – a trillion (1,099,511,627,776 = 2 40 ) </li></ul><u...
CONTENTS <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>RAM,ROM,PROM,EPROM </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Storage Devices-Magnetic Ta...
<ul><li>Memory Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory: Is one or more sets of chips that store data/program instructions, ei...
RAM,ROM,PROM,EPROM <ul><li>Memory Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two most important are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RAM ...
RAM <ul><li>RAM  is packaged as a chip. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic storage unit is a  cell  (one bit per cell). </li></ul><ul...
Nonvolatile Memories(ROM) <ul><li>DRAM  and  SRAM  are volatile memories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose information if powered...
Nonvolatile Memories(ROM) <ul><li>Types of ROMs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmable ROM ( PROM ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Memory
3. Storage Vs. Memory <ul><li>Memory (e.g., RAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the information for a shorter period of time  (usu...
3. Storage Vs. Memory <ul><li>Storage (e.g., Hard disk) </li></ul><ul><li>The information is retained longer (non-volatile...
CONTENTS <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>RAM,ROM,PROM,EPROM </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Storage Devices-Magnetic Ta...
Categories Of Storage <ul><li>Magnetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zip disks </li></ul><...
Magnetic Storage <ul><li>Exploits duality of magnetism and electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts electrical signals i...
<ul><li>Magnetic Drives </li></ul>
Magnetic Disk <ul><li>Flat, circular platter with metallic coating that is rotated beneath read/write heads </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Magnetic Drives: Storage Capacities </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy disks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 1 MB </li></ul></ul><ul...
Floppy Disks A floppy disk is a portable, inexpensive storage medium that consists of a thin, circular, flexible plastic d...
Structure Of Floppy Disks <ul><li>Initially Floppy disks were 8-inches wide, they then shrank to 5.25 inches, and today th...
Hard Disks <ul><li>Another form of auxiliary storage is a hard disk. A hard disk consists of one or more rigid metal plate...
sectors each track is divided into  pie-shaped wedges cluster two or more sectors combined tracks data is recorded in conc...
Optical Mass Storage Devices <ul><li>Store bit values as variations in light reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Higher areal den...
<ul><li>Optical Drives </li></ul><ul><li>CD's (Compact Disk) </li></ul><ul><li>~ 700 MB storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-R...
Compact Discs (CD) <ul><li>A compact disk (CD), also called an optical disc, is a flat round, portable storage medium that...
<ul><li>DVD-ROM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 4 GB storage (varies with format) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD- ROM (read onl...
Blu-ray Technology <ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from the blue-violet laser used to read and write data. </li></u...
Blu-ray Technology Cont . <ul><li>Data capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because Blu-ray uses a blue laser(405 nanometers) in...
Blu-ray Technology Cont. <ul><li>BD-ROM (read-only) - for pre-recorded content  </li></ul><ul><li>BD-R (recordable) - for ...
Summary <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>RAM,ROM,PROM,EPROM </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Storage Devices-Magnetic Tap...
CCE-EDUSAT SESSION FOR COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS Date  : 31.08.2007 Session : Chapter 8 Topic  : Memory Units Faculty  : Annap...
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Chapter1 9-07

  1. 1. CCE-EDUSAT SESSION FOR COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS Date : 31.08.2007 Session : Chapter 8 Topic : Memory Units Faculty : Annapurna P Patil Department of CSE M S Ramaiah Institute of Technology Bangalore E mail: [email_address] [email_address]
  2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>RAM,ROM,PROM,EPROM </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Storage Devices-Magnetic Tape, Hard Disk, Floppy Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Disks: CD-R Drive,CD-RW disks,DVD,Blue ray Discs. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Memory
  4. 5. 1. Introduction <ul><li>Memory Devices (RAM,ROM,PROM,EPROM) </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Devices (Auxiliary Storage Devices-Magnetic Tape, Hard Disk, Floppy Disk .Optical Disks: CD-R Drive,CD-RW disks,DVD,Blue ray Discs) </li></ul>
  5. 7. Characteristics of Storage Devices <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Volatility </li></ul><ul><li>Access method </li></ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul><ul><li>Cost and capacity </li></ul>
  6. 8. Basic Units Of Measurement <ul><li>Bit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi nary digi t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest unit of measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two possible values 0 1 </li></ul></ul>on off OR <ul><li>Byte </li></ul><ul><li>8 bits </li></ul>
  7. 9. Small Units Of Measurement (Processor And Memory Speed) Millisecond ( ms ) – a thousandth of a second (1/1,000 = 10 -3 ) Microsecond ( μs ) - a millionth of a second (1/1,000,000 = 10 -6 ) Nanosecond ( ns ) – a billionth of a second (1/1,000,000,000 = 10 -9 )
  8. 10. Large Units Of Measurement (Memory, Storage) <ul><li>Note: powers of two are used because computer memory and storage are based on the basic unit ( bit ). </li></ul><ul><li>Kilobyte (KB) – a thousand bytes (1,024 = 2 10 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Megabyte (MB) - a million (1,048,576 = 2 20 ) </li></ul>
  9. 11. Large Units Of Measurement (Memory, Storage) <ul><li>Gigabyte (GB) – a billion (1,073,741,824 = 2 30 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ A complete set of encyclopedias requires about 700 MB of storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 30 minutes of video (1/4 of the information stored on a typical DVD) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Large Units Of Measurement (Memory, Storage) <ul><li>Terabyte (TB) – a trillion (1,099,511,627,776 = 2 40 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 20 million four-drawer filing cabinets full of text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 200 DVD’s of information </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. CONTENTS <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>RAM,ROM,PROM,EPROM </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Storage Devices-Magnetic Tape, Hard Disk, Floppy Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Disks: CD-R Drive,CD-RW disks,DVD,Blue ray Discs. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Memory Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory: Is one or more sets of chips that store data/program instructions, either temporarily or permanently . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is critical processing component in any computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCs use several different types </li></ul></ul>2. RAM,ROM,PROM,EPROM
  13. 15. RAM,ROM,PROM,EPROM <ul><li>Memory Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two most important are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RAM (Random Access Memory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROM (Read-only Memory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They work in different ways and perform distinct functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU Registers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache Memory </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. RAM <ul><li>RAM is packaged as a chip. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic storage unit is a cell (one bit per cell). </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple RAM chips form a memory. </li></ul><ul><li>R andom A ccess M emory </li></ul><ul><li>Volatile </li></ul><ul><li>Used for temporary storage </li></ul><ul><li>Typical ranges 256 MB - 4 GB </li></ul><ul><li>Random Access means direct access to any part of memory </li></ul>
  15. 17. Nonvolatile Memories(ROM) <ul><li>DRAM and SRAM are volatile memories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose information if powered off. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonvolatile memories retain value even if powered off. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic name is read-only memory ( ROM ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misleading because some ROMs can be read and modified. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Nonvolatile Memories(ROM) <ul><li>Types of ROMs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmable ROM ( PROM ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eraseable programmable ROM ( EPROM ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrically eraseable PROM ( EEPROM ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory (used in portable digital devices) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firmware (Program instruction used frequently) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program stored in a ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boot time code, BIOS (basic input/output system) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>graphics cards, disk controllers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Memory
  18. 20. 3. Storage Vs. Memory <ul><li>Memory (e.g., RAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the information for a shorter period of time (usually volatile) </li></ul><ul><li>Faster </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive </li></ul>
  19. 21. 3. Storage Vs. Memory <ul><li>Storage (e.g., Hard disk) </li></ul><ul><li>The information is retained longer (non-volatile) </li></ul><ul><li>Slower </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper </li></ul>
  20. 22. CONTENTS <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>RAM,ROM,PROM,EPROM </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Storage Devices-Magnetic Tape, Hard Disk, Floppy Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Disks: CD-R Drive,CD-RW disks,DVD,Blue ray Discs. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Categories Of Storage <ul><li>Magnetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zip disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard drives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid state storage devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USB Key (a very common form of solid state storage) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Magnetic Storage <ul><li>Exploits duality of magnetism and electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts electrical signals into magnetic charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captures magnetic charge on a storage medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later regenerates electrical current from stored magnetic charge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polarity of magnetic charge represents bit values zero and one </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Magnetic Drives </li></ul>
  24. 26. Magnetic Disk <ul><li>Flat, circular platter with metallic coating that is rotated beneath read/write heads </li></ul><ul><li>Random access device; read/write head can be moved to any location on the platter </li></ul><ul><li>Hard disks and floppy disks </li></ul><ul><li>Cost performance leader for general-purpose on-line secondary storage </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Magnetic Drives: Storage Capacities </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy disks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 1 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~80 – 500 GB (TB is possible but very rare) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Floppy Disks A floppy disk is a portable, inexpensive storage medium that consists of a thin, circular, flexible plastic disk with a magnetic coating enclosed in a square-shaped plastic shell.
  27. 29. Structure Of Floppy Disks <ul><li>Initially Floppy disks were 8-inches wide, they then shrank to 5.25 inches, and today the most widely used folly disks are 3.5 inches wide and can typically store 1.44 megabytes of data. </li></ul><ul><li>A folly disk is a magnetic disk, which means that it used magnetic patterns to store data. </li></ul><ul><li>Data in floppy disks can be read from and written to. </li></ul><ul><li>Formatting is the process of preparing a disk for reading and writing. </li></ul><ul><li>A track is a narrow recording band that forms a full circle on the surface of the disk. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Hard Disks <ul><li>Another form of auxiliary storage is a hard disk. A hard disk consists of one or more rigid metal plates coated with a metal oxide material that allows data to be magnetically recorded on the surface of the platters. </li></ul><ul><li>The hard disk platters spin at a high rate of speed, typically 5400 to 7200 revolutions per minute (RPM). </li></ul><ul><li>Storage capacities of hard disks for personal computers range from 10 GB to 120 GB (one billion bytes are called a gigabyte). </li></ul>
  29. 31. sectors each track is divided into pie-shaped wedges cluster two or more sectors combined tracks data is recorded in concentric circular bands
  30. 32. Optical Mass Storage Devices <ul><li>Store bit values as variations in light reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Higher areal density & longer data life than magnetic storage </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized and relatively inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: read-only storage with low performance requirements, applications with high capacity requirements & where portability in a standardized format is needed </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>Optical Drives </li></ul><ul><li>CD's (Compact Disk) </li></ul><ul><li>~ 700 MB storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM (read only) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-R: ( r ecord) to a CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-RW: can write and erase CD to reuse it ( r e- w ritable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD(Digital Video Disk) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Compact Discs (CD) <ul><li>A compact disk (CD), also called an optical disc, is a flat round, portable storage medium that is usually 4.75 inch in diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>A CD-ROM (read only memory), is a compact disc that used the same laser technology as audio CDs for recording music. In addition it can contain other types of data such as text, graphics, and video. </li></ul><ul><li>The capacity of a CD-ROM is 650 MB of data. </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>DVD-ROM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 4 GB storage (varies with format) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD- ROM (read only) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many recordable formats (e.g., DVD-R, DVD-RW; ..) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are more highly compact than a CD. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special laser is needed to read them </li></ul></ul>DVD (Digital Video Disk)
  34. 36. Blu-ray Technology <ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from the blue-violet laser used to read and write data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association with more than 180 members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sony </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LG </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 37. Blu-ray Technology Cont . <ul><li>Data capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because Blu-ray uses a blue laser(405 nanometers) instead of a red laser(650 nanometers) this allows the data tracks on the disc to be very compact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This allows for more than twice as small pits as on a DVD. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 38. Blu-ray Technology Cont. <ul><li>BD-ROM (read-only) - for pre-recorded content </li></ul><ul><li>BD-R (recordable) - for PC data storage </li></ul><ul><li>BD-RW (rewritable) - for PC data storage </li></ul><ul><li>BD-RE (rewritable) - for HDTV recording </li></ul>Formats
  37. 39. Summary <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>RAM,ROM,PROM,EPROM </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Storage Devices-Magnetic Tape, Hard Disk, Floppy Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Disks: CD-R Drive,CD-RW disks,DVD,Blue ray Discs. </li></ul>
  38. 40. CCE-EDUSAT SESSION FOR COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS Date : 31.08.2007 Session : Chapter 8 Topic : Memory Units Faculty : Annapurna P Patil Department of CSE M S Ramaiah Institute of Technology Bangalore E mail: [email_address] [email_address]
  39. 41. Thank You

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