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Information Intermediaries
 

Information Intermediaries

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Information intermediaries for government linked data

Information intermediaries for government linked data

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    Information Intermediaries Information Intermediaries Presentation Transcript

    • Information intermediaries for government linked data
      Dave Reynolds, Epimorphics Ltd
    • Governments around the world are releasing data
    • Why?
      transparency, openness, it’s public data
      tap creativity, enthusiasm of web developersstimulate applications for citizens & commerce
      track crime in your area
      understand where funding is going
      plan travel
      choose a school
    • Theme for this talk
      how to accelerate this uptake?reduce cost of exploiting public data?stimulate an ecosystem of value added services?
      data dump and information intermediaries
      linked data approach
      intermediaries for a linked data world
    • Traditional publication approach:data dumps
      publish individual datasets – typically CSV
      easy for publisher
      consumer has complete control
      no complex formats or query languages
      manage data as they want to
      familiar technology stack
      growing set of intermediaries web services to help you work with datasets
      not specific to public sector data
    • Intermediary services
    • Intermediary services
    • Intermediary services
    • Limitations to data dumps
      Silo design pattern
      each application does its own data integration
      hard to share or reuse efforts between applications
      Static
      local stores which require management and update
      *http://www.flickr.com/photos/zoomzoom/
    • Linked data : public sector data web
      How:
      URIs to identify things described
      dereference to RDF (& other formats)
      SPARQL endpoints for query
      vocabularies and patterns for
      statistics, versioning, provenance ...
      standard URI sets
      time periods, regions, departments, schools ...
    • Public sector data web
      DCSF
      AdminGeography
      Edubase
      Schools
      TimePeriods
      Ofsted
      Gov.Bodies
    • Benefits of linked data approach
      integrated (linked!) data
      standard identifiers enables linking other sets
      seed connections between third party sets
      fine grain addressing of data
      annotations (e.g. provenance)
      fine grained programmatic access
      consume live or cache, not forced to use static
      data model directly linked from data
    • But ...
      barrier to entry too high - “just give us CSV”
      alien data model
      alien query methods
      alien representation formats
      overall mismatch to typical web developer tool kit
    • Solution
      middleware to provide web-friendly access
      run at publisher end or as an intermediary
      publish as linked data -> automatic API
      configure automatically from ontology
      customize configuration (e.g.URI patterns)if needed
    • Linked data API
      Access
      RESTful API design
      serve lists of resources or individual resources
      automatic sorting, paging of lists
      simple web API to control filtering, viewing
      Formatting
      developer-friendly JSON & XML
      retain resource-centric model
      remove round-tripping requirements
      rooted graph
    • Structure
      request
      SELECT ?item
      WHERE { ... }
      GET /doc/schools/district/Oxford.json ? min-capacity=1200
      Data source
      SPARQL
      endpoint
      selector
      viewer
      DESCRIBE <x> <y>
      formatter
      cache
      response
      Endpoint
      API specification
      vocabulary of data set
    • Operation
      /doc/schools/district/Oxford.json ? min-capacity=1200
      Matchendpoint
      /doc/schools/district/{d}
      Retrievematches
      SELECT ?r WHERE {
      ?r a school:School;
      school:district [rdfs:label ‘Oxford’];
      school:capacity ?c .
      FILTER (?c >= 1200)
      } OFFSET 0 LIMIT 10
      buildresponse
      metadata: query and configuration
      List
      page N-1
      page N
      page N+1
      select format:
      JSON
      school i
      school i
      school i
    • JSON serialization
      "results":[
      {
      "_about":"http://.../district/Oxford?min-schoolCapacity=1200&_page=0",
      "first":"http://.../district/Oxford?&min-schoolCapacity=1200&_page=0",
      "isPartOf":"http://.../district/Oxford?&min-schoolCapacity=1200",
      "page":0, "pageSize":10,
      "type":"http://www.epimorphics.com/vocabularies/api#Page",
      "contains":[
      {
      "_about":"http://education.data.gov.uk/id/school/123242",
      "label":"Peers School",
      "districtAdministrative":{
      "_about":"http://statistics.data.gov.uk/id/local-authority-district/38UC",
      "label":"Oxford“ },
      "phaseOfEducation":{
      "_about":"http://education.data.gov.uk/def/school/PhaseOfEducation_Secondary",
      "label":"Secondary” },
      "schoolCapacity":1220,
      "type":[
      {
      "_about":"http://education.data.gov.uk/def/school/School",
      "label":"School” },
      }, ...
    • Linked data API : outcomes
      lowers barrier to entry
      very positive reception
      build linked data applications with e.g. jQuery
      no need to for full RDF stack
      stepping stone to linked data world
      retain concept of resources with URIs
      retain schema-less model
      look at the SPARQL you made, look at API config
      open specification (Epimorphics, Talis, TSO)
      multiple implementations, including open source
      http://code.google.com/p/linked-data-api/
    • What other mediators are needed for a linked data world?
    • Conclusions
      intermediary services, such as LD access API, can make the power and flexibility of linked data available to broader range of developers
      meet public sector goals of stimulating network of value added applications for citizens and business
      lots more to do ...