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Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
Information Intermediaries
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Information Intermediaries

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Information intermediaries for government linked data

Information intermediaries for government linked data

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  • 1. Information intermediaries for government linked data<br />Dave Reynolds, Epimorphics Ltd<br />
  • 2. Governments around the world are releasing data<br />
  • 3. Why?<br />transparency, openness, it’s public data<br />tap creativity, enthusiasm of web developersstimulate applications for citizens & commerce<br />track crime in your area<br />understand where funding is going<br />plan travel <br />choose a school<br />
  • 4. Theme for this talk<br />how to accelerate this uptake?reduce cost of exploiting public data?stimulate an ecosystem of value added services?<br />data dump and information intermediaries<br />linked data approach<br />intermediaries for a linked data world<br />
  • 5. Traditional publication approach:data dumps<br />publish individual datasets – typically CSV<br />easy for publisher<br />consumer has complete control<br />no complex formats or query languages<br />manage data as they want to<br />familiar technology stack <br />growing set of intermediaries web services to help you work with datasets<br />not specific to public sector data<br />
  • 6. Intermediary services<br />
  • 7. Intermediary services<br />
  • 8. Intermediary services<br />
  • 9. Limitations to data dumps<br />Silo design pattern<br />each application does its own data integration <br />hard to share or reuse efforts between applications<br />Static<br />local stores which require management and update<br />*http://www.flickr.com/photos/zoomzoom/<br />
  • 10. Linked data : public sector data web<br />How:<br />URIs to identify things described<br />dereference to RDF (& other formats)<br />SPARQL endpoints for query<br />vocabularies and patterns for <br />statistics, versioning, provenance ...<br />standard URI sets <br />time periods, regions, departments, schools ...<br />
  • 11. Public sector data web<br />DCSF<br />AdminGeography<br />Edubase<br />Schools<br />TimePeriods<br />Ofsted<br />Gov.Bodies<br />
  • 12. Benefits of linked data approach<br />integrated (linked!) data<br />standard identifiers enables linking other sets<br />seed connections between third party sets<br />fine grain addressing of data<br />annotations (e.g. provenance)<br />fine grained programmatic access<br />consume live or cache, not forced to use static <br />data model directly linked from data<br />
  • 13. But ...<br />barrier to entry too high - “just give us CSV”<br />alien data model<br />alien query methods<br />alien representation formats<br />overall mismatch to typical web developer tool kit<br />
  • 14. Solution<br />middleware to provide web-friendly access<br />run at publisher end or as an intermediary<br />publish as linked data -> automatic API<br />configure automatically from ontology<br />customize configuration (e.g.URI patterns)if needed<br />
  • 15. Linked data API<br />Access<br />RESTful API design<br />serve lists of resources or individual resources<br />automatic sorting, paging of lists<br />simple web API to control filtering, viewing<br />Formatting<br />developer-friendly JSON & XML<br />retain resource-centric model<br />remove round-tripping requirements<br />rooted graph<br />
  • 16. Structure<br />request<br />SELECT ?item<br />WHERE { ... }<br />GET /doc/schools/district/Oxford.json ? min-capacity=1200<br />Data source<br />SPARQL<br />endpoint<br />selector<br />viewer<br />DESCRIBE <x> <y><br />formatter<br />cache<br />response<br />Endpoint<br />API specification<br />vocabulary of data set<br />
  • 17. Operation<br />/doc/schools/district/Oxford.json ? min-capacity=1200<br />Matchendpoint<br />/doc/schools/district/{d}<br />Retrievematches<br />SELECT ?r WHERE {<br /> ?r a school:School;<br />school:district [rdfs:label ‘Oxford’];<br />school:capacity ?c .<br /> FILTER (?c >= 1200)<br />} OFFSET 0 LIMIT 10<br />buildresponse<br />metadata: query and configuration<br />List<br />page N-1<br />page N<br />page N+1<br />select format:<br />JSON<br />school i<br />school i<br />school i<br />
  • 18. JSON serialization<br /> "results":[<br /> {<br /> "_about":"http://.../district/Oxford?min-schoolCapacity=1200&_page=0",<br /> "first":"http://.../district/Oxford?&min-schoolCapacity=1200&_page=0",<br /> "isPartOf":"http://.../district/Oxford?&min-schoolCapacity=1200",<br /> "page":0, "pageSize":10,<br /> "type":"http://www.epimorphics.com/vocabularies/api#Page",<br /> "contains":[<br /> {<br /> "_about":"http://education.data.gov.uk/id/school/123242",<br /> "label":"Peers School",<br /> "districtAdministrative":{<br /> "_about":"http://statistics.data.gov.uk/id/local-authority-district/38UC",<br /> "label":"Oxford“ },<br /> "phaseOfEducation":{<br /> "_about":"http://education.data.gov.uk/def/school/PhaseOfEducation_Secondary",<br /> "label":"Secondary” },<br /> "schoolCapacity":1220,<br /> "type":[<br /> {<br /> "_about":"http://education.data.gov.uk/def/school/School",<br /> "label":"School” },<br /> }, ...<br />
  • 19. Linked data API : outcomes<br />lowers barrier to entry<br />very positive reception<br />build linked data applications with e.g. jQuery<br />no need to for full RDF stack<br />stepping stone to linked data world<br />retain concept of resources with URIs<br />retain schema-less model<br />look at the SPARQL you made, look at API config<br />open specification (Epimorphics, Talis, TSO)<br />multiple implementations, including open source<br />http://code.google.com/p/linked-data-api/<br />
  • 20. What other mediators are needed for a linked data world?<br />
  • 21. Conclusions <br />intermediary services, such as LD access API, can make the power and flexibility of linked data available to broader range of developers<br />meet public sector goals of stimulating network of value added applications for citizens and business<br />lots more to do ...<br />

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