Curriculum development

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Curriculum development

  1. 1. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVESHISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OF CURRICULUMOF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT JOCELYN M. GALLEGOSJOCELYN M. GALLEGOS MPES IMPES I
  2. 2. The development of curriculumThe development of curriculum in history is basically founded ofin history is basically founded of five outstanding motives, namely:five outstanding motives, namely: 1. The religious1. The religious 2. The political2. The political 3. Utilitarian. 4. The mass education motive. 5. The motive for excellence in education.
  3. 3.  Traditional schools defined curriculum as aTraditional schools defined curriculum as a group of subjects arranged in a certaingroup of subjects arranged in a certain sequence to the subject field itself for thesequence to the subject field itself for the purpose of instruction.purpose of instruction.
  4. 4.  This definition is based on theThis definition is based on the assumption that the rule ofassumption that the rule of education is to fit the individualeducation is to fit the individual for his place in society.for his place in society.
  5. 5.  Some authors define curriculum as “the totalSome authors define curriculum as “the total effort of the school to bring about desiredeffort of the school to bring about desired outcomes in school and out-of-schooloutcomes in school and out-of-school situation” or ” a sequence of potentialsituation” or ” a sequence of potential experiences set up in the school for theexperiences set up in the school for the purpose of disciplining children and youth inpurpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting.group ways of thinking and acting.
  6. 6. The elements that usuallyThe elements that usually compose of a curriculumcompose of a curriculum are the Following:are the Following: 1. A statement of aims and1. A statement of aims and of specific objectives.of specific objectives.
  7. 7. 2. Some selection and2. Some selection and organization of content.organization of content. 3. Certain patterns of learning3. Certain patterns of learning and teachingand teaching 4. A program of evaluation of4. A program of evaluation of the outcomes.the outcomes.
  8. 8.  Curriculum planCurriculum plan ►► is the advance arrangement ofis the advance arrangement of learning opportunities for a particularlearning opportunities for a particular population of learners. A writtenpopulation of learners. A written curriculum plan is what we known ascurriculum plan is what we known as curriculum guide.curriculum guide.
  9. 9. Curriculum PlanningCurriculum Planning ►►is the process whereby theseis the process whereby these arrangements of curriculum pansarrangements of curriculum pans or learning opportunities areor learning opportunities are created.created.
  10. 10. ►►Is the process of preparing for theIs the process of preparing for the duties of teaching, deciding uponduties of teaching, deciding upon goals and emphases, determininggoals and emphases, determining curriculum content, selectingcurriculum content, selecting learning resources and classroomlearning resources and classroom procedures, evaluating progress,procedures, evaluating progress, and looking toward next steps.and looking toward next steps.
  11. 11. ►►Occurs when the schoolOccurs when the school faculties plan to fit newfaculties plan to fit new programs into existing one, andprograms into existing one, and as a teachers responsible workas a teachers responsible work together and individual totogether and individual to arrange specific learningarrange specific learning situations for he pupils theysituations for he pupils they teach.teach.
  12. 12. Curriculum DevelopmentCurriculum Development ►►Is a cooperative venture amongIs a cooperative venture among teachers, supervisor, curriculumteachers, supervisor, curriculum expert, learners, parents and non-expert, learners, parents and non- school people.school people.
  13. 13. ►►Is defined as the process ofIs defined as the process of selecting, organizing, executing,selecting, organizing, executing, and evaluating learningand evaluating learning experiences on the basis of theexperiences on the basis of the needs, abilities, and interests ofneeds, abilities, and interests of learners and the nature of thelearners and the nature of the society or community. It takessociety or community. It takes into consideration the followinginto consideration the following factors:factors:
  14. 14. 1. The nature of society which includes the1. The nature of society which includes the cultural heritage, the needs andcultural heritage, the needs and demands as well as thedemands as well as the economiceconomic,, social, political, culturalsocial, political, cultural,, moralmoral andand other problems of the peopleother problems of the people 2. The interests, the needs, previous2. The interests, the needs, previous experiences and problems of theexperiences and problems of the learner.learner. 3. Educational and psychological principles3. Educational and psychological principles based on the findings of scientificbased on the findings of scientific studies and experimentation.studies and experimentation.
  15. 15. Curriculum LaboratoryCurriculum Laboratory ►►Is a place or workshop whereIs a place or workshop where curriculum materials are gatheredcurriculum materials are gathered or used by teachers or learners ofor used by teachers or learners of curriculumcurriculum..
  16. 16. Resource UnitResource Unit ►►Is a collection or suggestedIs a collection or suggested learning activities and materialslearning activities and materials organized around a given topic ororganized around a given topic or area which a teacher might utilizearea which a teacher might utilize in planning, developing, andin planning, developing, and evaluating a learning unit. Itevaluating a learning unit. It consists of the following:consists of the following:
  17. 17. 1. Introduction or short explanation1. Introduction or short explanation of the importance of the topic.of the importance of the topic. 2. Objectives or anticipated2. Objectives or anticipated outcomesoutcomes 3. Content of the unit.3. Content of the unit. 4. Unit of activities4. Unit of activities 5. Evaluation5. Evaluation 5. Bibliography of useful materials.5. Bibliography of useful materials.
  18. 18. Master in Physical EducationMaster in Physical Education and Sportsand Sports General ProvisionsGeneral Provisions If the student has not taken undergraduateIf the student has not taken undergraduate courses in a field of specialization, he iscourses in a field of specialization, he is required to take eighteen (18) units ofrequired to take eighteen (18) units of qualifying courses to be determined byqualifying courses to be determined by the Academic Program Chairpersonthe Academic Program Chairperson unless otherwise specified in theunless otherwise specified in the curriculum;curriculum;
  19. 19. The student may take more than theThe student may take more than the prescribed units in any distribution inprescribed units in any distribution in the curriculum to meet his careerthe curriculum to meet his career objective and professional needs;objective and professional needs; Free electives may be chosen fromFree electives may be chosen from among the courses offered which areamong the courses offered which are outside the required subjects in theoutside the required subjects in the student’s curriculum;student’s curriculum;
  20. 20. If the student has completedIf the student has completed courses substantially equivalent tocourses substantially equivalent to the required courses, he maythe required courses, he may waive the latter by application towaive the latter by application to the Dean.the Dean. 
  21. 21. Program DescriptionProgram Description The Master in Physical EducationThe Master in Physical Education and Sports (MPES) is a programand Sports (MPES) is a program tailored to the needs of graduates intailored to the needs of graduates in education and related areas to haveeducation and related areas to have appropriate competencies in physicalappropriate competencies in physical education and sports for professionaleducation and sports for professional and leadership positions in variousand leadership positions in various settings.settings.
  22. 22.  VisionVision The Master in Physical Education and SportsThe Master in Physical Education and Sports envisions to competitively prepare itsenvisions to competitively prepare its graduates for roles in administrative leadershipgraduates for roles in administrative leadership positions in physical education and sports in apositions in physical education and sports in a variety of settings, including private business,variety of settings, including private business, professional and college athletics,professional and college athletics, administration in higher education, research,administration in higher education, research, and community services.and community services.
  23. 23.  MissionMission The program’s mission is to produce graduatesThe program’s mission is to produce graduates for work in the sports industry, as well as infor work in the sports industry, as well as in schools and colleges as teachers, coaches,schools and colleges as teachers, coaches, administrators, and good servants of theadministrators, and good servants of the community.community.
  24. 24. ObjectivesObjectives To enhance the leadership, instructionalandTo enhance the leadership, instructionaland research skills in physical educatin andresearch skills in physical educatin and sports.sports. To advance the curriculum design,To advance the curriculum design, instructional material development andinstructional material development and techniques.techniques. To enhance the competenciesTo enhance the competencies needed in community extension servicesneeded in community extension services
  25. 25. CurriculumCurriculum A. Foundation/Core (12 units)A. Foundation/Core (12 units)  PE 620 Foundations of EducationPE 620 Foundations of Education  PE 621 Educational StatisticsPE 621 Educational Statistics  PE 622 Sports SciencePE 622 Sports Science  RH 600 Methods of ResearchRH 600 Methods of Research
  26. 26. B. Major (18 units)B. Major (18 units) PE 623 Test Construction and EvaluationPE 623 Test Construction and Evaluation in Physical Education and Sportsin Physical Education and Sports PE 624 Facilities, Equipment, andPE 624 Facilities, Equipment, and Supplies in Physical Education andSupplies in Physical Education and SportsSports PE 625 Trends and Issues in PhysicalPE 625 Trends and Issues in Physical Education and SportsEducation and Sports
  27. 27. PE 626 Curriculum and MaterialsPE 626 Curriculum and Materials Development in Physical EducationDevelopment in Physical Education and Sportsand Sports PE 627 Sports Psychology: Athletes,PE 627 Sports Psychology: Athletes, Coaches, and OfficiatorsCoaches, and Officiators PE 628 Management of PhysicalPE 628 Management of Physical Education and Sports with FieldEducation and Sports with Field WorkWork
  28. 28. C. Electives/Cognates (6 units)C. Electives/Cognates (6 units) RH 615 Seminar in Thesis WritingRH 615 Seminar in Thesis Writing Any subject from allied field ofAny subject from allied field of specializationspecialization D. Thesis (6 units)D. Thesis (6 units) RH 620 ThesisRH 620 Thesis
  29. 29. Defining DevelopmentalDefining Developmental EducationEducation Jeanne L. HigbeeJeanne L. Higbee The University of GeorgiaThe University of Georgia
  30. 30. Seven Vectors of College StudentSeven Vectors of College Student DevelopmentDevelopment  Chickering's (1969) seven vectors of collegeChickering's (1969) seven vectors of college student development have withstood the teststudent development have withstood the test of time. Perhaps the most significantof time. Perhaps the most significant addition to the second edition (Chickeringaddition to the second edition (Chickering & Reisser, 1993) is the recognition that a& Reisser, 1993) is the recognition that a theory originally written to address thetheory originally written to address the developmental needs of the traditionally agedevelopmental needs of the traditionally age college students of the 1960s can be equallycollege students of the 1960s can be equally pertinent to students of all ages in thepertinent to students of all ages in the 1990s.1990s.
  31. 31. 1. Developing Competence1. Developing Competence This vector includes intellectual,This vector includes intellectual, physical and manual, andphysical and manual, and interpersonal (previously termedinterpersonal (previously termed social) competence. Reisser (1995)social) competence. Reisser (1995) describes three areas of intellectualdescribes three areas of intellectual competence:competence:
  32. 32. 1.11.1 The acquisition of subject matterThe acquisition of subject matter knowledge, and of skills tied directly toknowledge, and of skills tied directly to academic programs.academic programs. 1.2 T1.2 The growth of intellectual, cultural,he growth of intellectual, cultural, and aesthetic sophistication, expandingand aesthetic sophistication, expanding interests in humanities, performinginterests in humanities, performing arts, philosophy, and history, andarts, philosophy, and history, and increasing involvement in lifelongincreasing involvement in lifelong learning.learning.
  33. 33. 1.31.3 Changes in ways of knowing andChanges in ways of knowing and reasoning; the development of skillsreasoning; the development of skills like critical thinking and reflectivelike critical thinking and reflective judgement; and increasing ability tojudgement; and increasing ability to locate and use new information, tolocate and use new information, to analyze objectively and drawanalyze objectively and draw conclusions from data, to solveconclusions from data, to solve problems, to generate questions Andproblems, to generate questions And answers, to communicate proposals andanswers, to communicate proposals and opinions, and to develop new frames ofopinions, and to develop new frames of reference.reference.
  34. 34. Developmental educatorsDevelopmental educators cancan make significant contributions tomake significant contributions to student growth in intellectualstudent growth in intellectual competence.competence.
  35. 35.  By engaging students more actively in theBy engaging students more actively in the learning process, whether through cooperativelearning process, whether through cooperative learning ventures lithe that described bylearning ventures lithe that described by Myers, modeling behaviors and scaffolding asMyers, modeling behaviors and scaffolding as delineated bydelineated by Caverly and PetersonCaverly and Peterson, providing, providing additional learning opportunities like Stratton'sadditional learning opportunities like Stratton's co-requisite course, or other creative means ofco-requisite course, or other creative means of teaching, developmental educators canteaching, developmental educators can promote the development of critical thinkingpromote the development of critical thinking and problem solving skills while also teachingand problem solving skills while also teaching specific skills in content areas. Collaborativespecific skills in content areas. Collaborative learning also enhances interpersonallearning also enhances interpersonal competencecompetence
  36. 36. 2. Managing Emotions2. Managing Emotions  Chickering and Reisser (1993) expand onChickering and Reisser (1993) expand on Chickering’s(1969) earlier work to include theChickering’s(1969) earlier work to include the trials and tribulations of returning adulttrials and tribulations of returning adult students. Reisser (1995) states, "In the newstudents. Reisser (1995) states, "In the new edition we contended that age does notedition we contended that age does not necessarily correlate with emotional maturity,necessarily correlate with emotional maturity, and we addressed a wider variety of emotionaland we addressed a wider variety of emotional baggage that younger students and returningbaggage that younger students and returning adults bring to college" (p. 507). Chumchal'sadults bring to college" (p. 507). Chumchal's findings certainly support this viewpoint.findings certainly support this viewpoint.
  37. 37. 3. Moving through Autonomy3. Moving through Autonomy toward Interdependencetoward Interdependence One of the primary changes in the secondOne of the primary changes in the second edition ofedition of Education and IdentityEducation and Identity (Chickering(Chickering & Reisser, 1993) is a greater emphasis on& Reisser, 1993) is a greater emphasis on interdependence, the recognition that we caninterdependence, the recognition that we can achieve emotional and instrumental autonomyachieve emotional and instrumental autonomy and still rely on one another for support.and still rely on one another for support. Another significant change in the new editionAnother significant change in the new edition is the acknowledgment of potential genderis the acknowledgment of potential gender differences in approaches to autonomy anddifferences in approaches to autonomy and interdependence (Gilligan, 1982).interdependence (Gilligan, 1982).
  38. 38. 4. Developing Mature4. Developing Mature Interpersonal RelationshipsInterpersonal Relationships  Reisser (1995) acknowledges "thatReisser (1995) acknowledges "that relationships provide powerfulrelationships provide powerful learning experiences about feelings,learning experiences about feelings, communication, sexuality, self-communication, sexuality, self- esteem, values, and other aspects ofesteem, values, and other aspects of identity, for both men and women"identity, for both men and women" (p. 508).(p. 508).
  39. 39. A critical function of the collegeA critical function of the college experience is to promote acceptanceexperience is to promote acceptance of individual differences and anof individual differences and an appreciation for cultural diversity,appreciation for cultural diversity, which in turn can lead to a greaterwhich in turn can lead to a greater capacity for intimacy. To sustaincapacity for intimacy. To sustain mature interpersonal relationshipsmature interpersonal relationships students must bestudents must be capable of trust,capable of trust, open and honest communication, andopen and honest communication, and unconditional positive regardunconditional positive regard..
  40. 40. 5. Establishing Identity5. Establishing Identity Reisser (1995) proposes, "Any experienceReisser (1995) proposes, "Any experience that helps students define 'who I am', 'who Ithat helps students define 'who I am', 'who I am not' can help solidify a sense ofam not' can help solidify a sense of self....Personal stability and integration areself....Personal stability and integration are the result" (p. 509). When a student hasthe result" (p. 509). When a student has achieved a stable and realistic self-image,achieved a stable and realistic self-image, new challenges will be less threatening, andnew challenges will be less threatening, and the student should be a better prepared tothe student should be a better prepared to respond to new ideas and concepts orrespond to new ideas and concepts or conflicting values and beliefs.conflicting values and beliefs.
  41. 41. 6. Developing Purpose6. Developing Purpose  Although this vector involves educationalAlthough this vector involves educational and vocational planning and makingand vocational planning and making lifestyle choices, it also focuses onlifestyle choices, it also focuses on establishing priorities. What is reallyestablishing priorities. What is really important in life? What would you reallyimportant in life? What would you really like to accomplish? I always tell mylike to accomplish? I always tell my students that I have only two goad thatstudents that I have only two goad that really matter to me, to be a good mother andreally matter to me, to be a good mother and to touch my students' lives in "little ways".to touch my students' lives in "little ways".
  42. 42. 7. Developing Integrity7. Developing Integrity This final vector is reflected in studentThis final vector is reflected in student values:values: (a)(a) humanizing values, which arehumanizing values, which are relative rather than dualistic (Perry,relative rather than dualistic (Perry, 1970),1970),
  43. 43.  (b)(b) personalizing values, which referpersonalizing values, which refer to the process of "affirming one’sto the process of "affirming one’s own values and beliefs, whileown values and beliefs, while respecting others' view points"respecting others' view points" (Reisser, 1995, p. 510). Perhaps most(Reisser, 1995, p. 510). Perhaps most important, however, is achieving theimportant, however, is achieving the congruence between values andcongruence between values and behavior that truly signifies integrity.behavior that truly signifies integrity.
  44. 44. WELLNESS AND PHYSICALWELLNESS AND PHYSICAL FITNESSFITNESS We are all in a dynamic process ofWe are all in a dynamic process of moving toward or away from behaviormoving toward or away from behavior that is either destructive or beneficial tothat is either destructive or beneficial to our health. It is therefore important forour health. It is therefore important for each individual take responsibility foreach individual take responsibility for the direction in which they choose tothe direction in which they choose to move.move.
  45. 45. WellnessWellness ►►is the process of moving towardis the process of moving toward greater awareness of your humangreater awareness of your human potential by developing by level ofpotential by developing by level of physical fitness, good nutrition,physical fitness, good nutrition, positive relationship with others, and apositive relationship with others, and a concern about self-care and sensitivityconcern about self-care and sensitivity to the environment.to the environment.
  46. 46. TRADITIONAL VALUES ANDTRADITIONAL VALUES AND BENEFITSBENEFITS When those who regularly exercise areWhen those who regularly exercise are asked, “ Have you benefited fromasked, “ Have you benefited from exercise? The answers enevitably is,exercise? The answers enevitably is, “ It makes me feel a lot better ““ It makes me feel a lot better “ 1. Exercise builds and maintain1. Exercise builds and maintain fitness.fitness.
  47. 47. 2. Increase in the work capacity of the2. Increase in the work capacity of the heart and lungs,heart and lungs, 3. Provides a good physical foundation3. Provides a good physical foundation for the development of skills andfor the development of skills and variety of sports.variety of sports. 4. Exercise may act to balance or4. Exercise may act to balance or stabilize the psychologicalstabilize the psychological consequences of emotional stress.consequences of emotional stress.
  48. 48. The Harvard Alumni study found thatThe Harvard Alumni study found that sedentary men who become moresedentary men who become more active may reduce their risk of death byactive may reduce their risk of death by 24 percent24 percent.. The benefits of regularThe benefits of regular exercise include the following:exercise include the following: 1. Improve psychological functioning1. Improve psychological functioning 2. Improve appearance2. Improve appearance 3. Increase efficiency of the heart and3. Increase efficiency of the heart and lungslungs
  49. 49. 4. Increased muscle strength and4. Increased muscle strength and endurance.endurance. 5. Reduced stress response5. Reduced stress response 6. Protection from lower-back6. Protection from lower-back problemsproblems 7. Possible delay in the aging process7. Possible delay in the aging process
  50. 50. 8. Maintenance of proper body8. Maintenance of proper body weightweight 9. Possible reduction of the risk of9. Possible reduction of the risk of coronary heart diseasecoronary heart disease 10. Naturally induced fatigue and10. Naturally induced fatigue and relaxationrelaxation
  51. 51. PHYSICAL EDUCATIONPHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM MODELSCURRICULUM MODELS
  52. 52. Aim and Objective of PhysicalAim and Objective of Physical Education | Fitness and healthEducation | Fitness and health Aim of Physical EducationAim of Physical Education ►►The ultimate goal or direction is referredThe ultimate goal or direction is referred to as an aim, it point out way. It is finalto as an aim, it point out way. It is final end. Aim is achieved some certainend. Aim is achieved some certain objectives.objectives. ►►is to develop human personality in itsis to develop human personality in its totality well planned activity programs.totality well planned activity programs.
  53. 53. Health and Physical EducationHealth and Physical Education CurriculumCurriculum Department GoalsDepartment Goals Physical educationPhysical education coursed designedcoursed designed to increase the student’s awareness ofto increase the student’s awareness of the importance of physical activity inthe importance of physical activity in creating a healthy lifestyle. Studentscreating a healthy lifestyle. Students are encourage through physicalare encourage through physical activity to increase their fitness level.activity to increase their fitness level.
  54. 54. Emphasis is placed not only onEmphasis is placed not only on participation in team sports andparticipation in team sports and exercise, but increasingexercise, but increasing awareness and participation inawareness and participation in lifetime sports and skills that willlifetime sports and skills that will be available to them as adults.be available to them as adults.
  55. 55. Individual Course GoalsIndividual Course Goals Physical education I:Physical education I: Accompanying the progression of theAccompanying the progression of the basic skills in such sports are programbasic skills in such sports are program designed to enhance development ofdesigned to enhance development of physical fitness. These activities makephysical fitness. These activities make a valuable contribution to the student’sa valuable contribution to the student’s overall health and well being.overall health and well being.
  56. 56. Physical education II:Physical education II: This course continues the broadThis course continues the broad concepts developed in PE I and alsoconcepts developed in PE I and also offers a Variety of team and individualoffers a Variety of team and individual activities, as well as provides anactivities, as well as provides an introduction to a lifetime sports. Theintroduction to a lifetime sports. The goal is enable students to participate ingoal is enable students to participate in activities adults are likely pursue andactivities adults are likely pursue and enjoy as leisure as sports.enjoy as leisure as sports.
  57. 57.  Physical fitnessPhysical fitness again include at thisagain include at this level.level. Activities in PE II includeActivities in PE II include bone /muscle/weight conditioning,bone /muscle/weight conditioning, badminton, archery, fitness testing,badminton, archery, fitness testing, tinikling, field hockey, running,tinikling, field hockey, running, soccer, CPR, and softball.soccer, CPR, and softball.
  58. 58. Physical education III-IVPhysical education III-IV Lifetime Sports:Lifetime Sports: TheThe PE III – IVPE III – IV courses are designed forcourses are designed for students who are not participating instudents who are not participating in organized sports at TCH. Studentsorganized sports at TCH. Students participate in activities designedparticipate in activities designed increase their physical fitness andincrease their physical fitness and ability to participate in lifetime sportsability to participate in lifetime sports and physical activity.and physical activity.
  59. 59. Activities in PE III – IV include golf,Activities in PE III – IV include golf, CPR, badminton, pickleball, flagCPR, badminton, pickleball, flag football, weight and conditioning,football, weight and conditioning, tennis, and board games.tennis, and board games.
  60. 60. Athletic PE:Athletic PE: This course is advanced inThis course is advanced in physicalphysical educationeducation course for those studentscourse for those students who wish to develop and maintain awho wish to develop and maintain a high level of fitness and conditioninghigh level of fitness and conditioning as it relates to the competitive sportsas it relates to the competitive sports program at TCH.program at TCH.
  61. 61. Students participate in year-long programStudents participate in year-long program of weight-lifting, running, and selectedof weight-lifting, running, and selected drills designed to develop or enhancedrills designed to develop or enhance agility speed and quickness. Athletic PEagility speed and quickness. Athletic PE is offered to students who participate inis offered to students who participate in interscholastic competition on theinterscholastic competition on the football, basketball, track and field,football, basketball, track and field, softball, baseball teams at Tuerling.softball, baseball teams at Tuerling.
  62. 62.  In some words,In some words, physical educationphysical education aimaim at the all round development of theat the all round development of the personality of an individual orpersonality of an individual or wholesome development of humanwholesome development of human personality and it includes physical,personality and it includes physical, mental, social, emotional and moralmental, social, emotional and moral aspects to make an individual a goodaspects to make an individual a good citizen who is able to makecitizen who is able to make contribution in process of nation incontribution in process of nation in one’s own way.one’s own way. 
  63. 63. MOVEMENT EDUCATIONMOVEMENT EDUCATION What is Movement Education?What is Movement Education? ►► It is exactly what the term implies;It is exactly what the term implies; learning how to move, or, beinglearning how to move, or, being educated in the movement functions ofeducated in the movement functions of the body.the body.
  64. 64. Movement EducationMovement Education ►► is applied to physical education,is applied to physical education, creative movement, educationalcreative movement, educational gymnastics, dance, games, and othergymnastics, dance, games, and other activities of basic skill development.activities of basic skill development.
  65. 65. Body MovementBody Movement ►►as we analyze everyone’s individualas we analyze everyone’s individual movement ability and build their basicmovement ability and build their basic movement vocabulary. Such trainingmovement vocabulary. Such training provides the basics for further, moreprovides the basics for further, more advanced, skill development andadvanced, skill development and personal growth of confidence.personal growth of confidence.
  66. 66.  A more significant aspect of MovementA more significant aspect of Movement Education is the utilization ofEducation is the utilization of specificspecific teaching techniques.teaching techniques. These methods areThese methods are designed to encourage individualization,designed to encourage individualization, exploration and problem solving. Mind andexploration and problem solving. Mind and body are challenged simultaneously asbody are challenged simultaneously as progress in small systematic steps isprogress in small systematic steps is experienced.experienced.
  67. 67. Our Movement CurriculumOur Movement Curriculum  fosters a child’s physical and emotionalfosters a child’s physical and emotional development. It utilizes concepts that givedevelopment. It utilizes concepts that give children the ability to handle themselves underchildren the ability to handle themselves under a variety of circumstances, to include bodya variety of circumstances, to include body awareness, locomotor and manipulative skills;awareness, locomotor and manipulative skills; learning to transfer weight and how to balance;learning to transfer weight and how to balance; exploring how to defy gravity and how toexploring how to defy gravity and how to utilize space; focusing on quality of movementutilize space; focusing on quality of movement and its relationship to people and equipment.and its relationship to people and equipment.
  68. 68. Why movement Education isWhy movement Education is important?important?  Movement EducationMovement Education is not a new concept,is not a new concept, but one that the general public has been slowbut one that the general public has been slow to embrace. Many people look at physicalto embrace. Many people look at physical education, or movement education as mere funeducation, or movement education as mere fun and games, having nothing to do with theand games, having nothing to do with the growth or development of young people.growth or development of young people.
  69. 69. FITNESS EDUCATIONFITNESS EDUCATION  Physical fitnessPhysical fitness – is the ability to carry out– is the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness, withoutdaily tasks with vigour and alertness, without undue fatigue and with the ample energy toundue fatigue and with the ample energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and to meetenjoy leisure-time pursuits and to meet emergencies.emergencies.
  70. 70. Components of physical fitnessComponents of physical fitness 1.1. Muscular strengthMuscular strength – is the ability of a muscle– is the ability of a muscle group to exert maximal force.group to exert maximal force. 2.2. Muscular enduranceMuscular endurance – is the ability to apply– is the ability to apply strength and sustain it.strength and sustain it.
  71. 71. 3.3. FlexibilityFlexibility – is the ability to perform a wide– is the ability to perform a wide angle of motions easily and without strain andangle of motions easily and without strain and injury.injury. 4.4. Cardio-respiratory enduranceCardio-respiratory endurance – is the ability– is the ability to maintain total body activity or movementto maintain total body activity or movement for extended periods of time.for extended periods of time.
  72. 72. PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST COMPONENTS TEST 1. Standing long jump  Strength of the legs and power 2. Curl-up / sit-up  Abdominal strength 3. 100 meter sprint  Speed 4. Pull-ups (boys)  Arm strength and endurance Flexed Arm Hang (girls)  Arm strength and endurance 5. Shuttle Run  agility 6. Sit & Reach  Trunk flexibility 7. 1000 Meter Run  Cardio-respiratory endurance
  73. 73. Body conditioningBody conditioning  Jog in place for 1 min.Jog in place for 1 min.  Head BendHead Bend  Chest ExerciseChest Exercise  Trunk twistTrunk twist  Trunk Bend-Toe TouchTrunk Bend-Toe Touch  Hip RotationHip Rotation
  74. 74.  Knee RotationKnee Rotation  Leg Swing Knee liftLeg Swing Knee lift  RelaxingRelaxing  Crab WalkCrab Walk  HoppingHopping  WindmillWindmill  Rope JumpingRope Jumping  Tread MillTread Mill

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