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Citing your sources


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Citing your sources

Citing your sources

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  • 1. Citing your sources LIBR 2100 - Introduction to Research in the Information Age
  • 2. Citing your sources: • Citing your sources allows your readers to view the materials that you used when researching your paper • Citing means providing information that will allow those articles, books, or websites to be found • Everything you use in research, (books, an article from a full text database or a page from the Internet) must be cited.
  • 3. Citation elements • A citation consists of brief information like • author, • title, • Publisher & place of publication, • publication date, • Volume and issue number, for journals • and, in the case of electronic information, a URL. • This information can be found on the book, article, webpage, report, etc.
  • 4. EDITION Citation elements can be found on the item TITLE PUBLICATION YEAR PUBLISHER INFORMATION AUTHOR
  • 5. Citation elements can be found in your database results Citation elements: article title, author, journal title, date, volume, issue, page numbers, DOI
  • 6. Citation elements can be found in the item records of online journals Journal title, date, volume, issue, page numbers. DOI (digital object identifier) Journal article title Authors
  • 7. Where do you use the citation elements? • In your text when using quotes and paraphrasing • Author, date and page are required next to the quotation (or use a number for endnotes or footnotes) • At the end of your paper in your bibliography or reference list • The reference list or bibliography is the place where you are required to provide a full citation.
  • 8. Citation styles Different disciplines require different formats. • APA – Psychology, Education, Information Technology, Business Administration • MLA – English • Chicago - History
  • 9. MLA Style MLA=Modern Language Association. Used especially in English. (author’s last name + page #) + Works Cited Example: One author comments that “Writing well is a skill, just like skiing well or playing the saxophone well” (Rooke ix). Works Cited Rooke, Constance. The Clear Path: A Guide to Writing English Essays. Toronto: Nelson, 1995.
  • 10. APA Style APA=American Psychological Association. Used in the social sciences. (author’s last name, date of publication, p. page number) + References Example: One author comments that “Writing well is a skill, just like skiing well or playing the saxophone well” (Rooke, 1995, p. ix). References Rooke, C. (1995). The clear path: A guide to writing English essays. Toronto: Nelson.
  • 11. Chicago Style Footnotes or endnotes, usually in addition to a bibliography. For notes, order them numerically, in superscript1 For the bibliography, order them alphabetically. Example: One author comments that “Writing well is a skill, just like skiing well or playing the saxophone well.”1 Endnotes 1 Constance Rooke, The Clear Path: A Guide to Writing English Essays (Toronto: Nelson, 1995), ix.
  • 12. Chicago Style (cont.) For subsequent references to the same work, a shortened version is acceptable: 5 Rooke, Clear Path, 12. 6 Ibid., 21. Bibliography Rooke, Constance. The Clear Path: A Guide to Writing English Essays. Toronto: Nelson Canada, 1995.
  • 13. A tip & a warning • Citation software and citation tips can help with managing citations and creating bibliographies. They are great tools! • However, automated software tools will always be susceptible to errors especially when citation requires your judgement. • Always check your bibliographies!
  • 14. Factors to look out for in all the citation styles, or why we must always consult our citation guides • The number of authors of a work will affect the way an in-text citation is written • Where you found your article (or chapter), whether in print, from a subscription database, or from an open access journal site will affect your bibliographic entry • MLA makes a distinction between journals with continuous pagination between issues and those where each issue begins at page 1. • ALWAYS CONSULT YOUR CITATON GUIDE!!!
  • 15. Paraphrasing: Many people inadvertently commit plagiarism when paraphrasing others' words and ideas, believing they only have to change a few words around. Not true. Paraphrasing is OK when: – you do not follow the original source too closely AND – you give credit to the original writer Hint: If you are going to paraphrase a section, read the passage over several times very carefully and then write your notes from memory.
  • 16. Paraphrasing example Original passage: quot;But life is never all hardship for a growing boy. The surrounding country was wild enough for any imaginative youngster to find adventure in” (Bryce, 1997, p. 25). Unacceptable paraphrase: For a growing boy, life is never all hardship. For anyone with imagination, the countryside was wild enough for adventures. Acceptable paraphrase: According to Robert Bryce, in a countryside like the one Cook grew up in, an adventurous boy could compensate for life's hardships. (Bryce, 1997, p. 25) This example is modified from:
  • 17. Paraphrase or Quote? Either method may be acceptable. Some general tips: - Cite the original source when paraphrasing. - Different disciplines often favour one method over another - Do not overuse direct quotes. - Long quotes are formatted differently.
  • 18. When not to cite: • When you are writing up your own original observations, thoughts, or opinions. • When you are discussing items of common knowledge such as the year of Canadian confederation or the fact that Ottawa is the capital of Canada. • Common knowledge is subjective and will vary by discipline.