unit 7-Dentistry
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unit 7-Dentistry






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unit 7-Dentistry unit 7-Dentistry Presentation Transcript

  • Dentistry
    • Only small part of tooth can be seen by handler.
    • Teeth grow out continuously, and so we can tell the age of a horse fairly accurately.
    • Horses have deciduous and permanent teeth. By five years of age all permanent teeth are in- full mouth. Molars are not present in deciduous teeth.
    • Teeth are classified as incisors, molars, premolars, wolf and canine teeth.
    • Mature males will have up to 42 teeth whereas mature females will usually have 36-38 teeth.
    • Canines only develop normally in male-but 2-3% mares will have upper and lower, 20-30% lower, 6-7% in upper row only.
    • Parrot mouth is a serious defect in the dentition of a horse whereas the upper arcade or row of teeth
    • protrude further out in front of the lower row.
    • Undershot jaw is a condition opposite that of parrot mouth.
    • Points- the most common problem caused by the two teeth surfaces grinding each other to a sharp point- teeth must be floated to remedy such a situation.
    • Shear mouth is an especially bad case of points.
    • Wave mouth is when the table surface of the teeth is uneven.
    • Smooth mouth is when the grinding surface of the teeth is worn smooth in an older horse.
    • Alveolar Periostitis is infection of the tooth socket. A root canal must be performed.
  • Dental Formula
    • I= incisor I 1 = central incisor I 2 = middle incisor I 3 =corner incisor
    • Pm = premolar M=molar C= canine
    • Deciduous dental formula
    • 2 ( Di 3/3 Dc 1/1 Dpm 3/3 )= 28
    • Permanent dental formula
    • 2 ( I 3/3 C 1/1 Pm 3-4/3 M 3/3) =40
  • Aging the horse by his mouth
    • Looking to see what the color, shape, and presence of dental markers present.
    • When looking at the tooth we can only see part of the neck-portion covered by gum.
    • Nor can we see the fang or root- which are imbedded into the bone.
    • We do see the crown of the tooth, which is composed of (outside to inside) the cement, dentine, central enamel, and infindibulum. Later we will see the pulp cavity.
    • We do see the infindibulum as "the cup"
    •  eruption of the temporary teeth,
    •  the replacement of the temporary teeth and the
    •  presence of other markers
    Primarily we use the :
    • shape and disappearance of the cups
    • the appearance and position of the dental star
    • the shape, position and disappearance of the enamel ring
    • shape of the table surfaces
    • length of the crown, angle of the teeth,
    • Galyvayne's Groove
    • Presence or absence of the 7 and 11 year hook.
    • The determination of age from one to six years of age are based primarily on the appearance of the incisor teeth. Look at above factors, especially the presence
    • of the cup. Cup disappears about 3 years after eruption of tooth.
    • Check for permanent incisors. None? Horse is under 2.5 years old.
    • Central, middle, and corner incisors break through at 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 years of age. In wear within 6 months.
    • Central, middle, and corner incisors lose cup at 6,7, and 8 years, respectively. Upper central incisors lose cup at 9,10,11 years.
    • Central, middle, and corner incisors gain star at 8, 9, and 10 years of age.
    • Central, middle incisors become round at 9, 10 years of age.
    • Teeth become triangular at 16, 17 years.