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  • 1. SCHOOL OF CLINICAL DENTISTRY Department of Oral Pathology MASTER OF MEDICAL SCIENCE Diagnostic Oral Pathology COURSE HANDBOOK Academic Session: 2007-2008 1
  • 2. MASTER OF MEDICAL SCIENCE (Diagnostic Oral Pathology) COURSE HANDBOOK Contents Page Numbers 1 Background to the Department 1 2 The MMed Science Programme in Diagnostic Oral Pathology 3 3 Course Structure 10 4 Course Components 11 5 Methods of Assessment 16 6 Student Progression 20 Appendix 1 – Timetable 22 Appendix 2 – Allocation of Modules to Semesters 23 Appendix 3 – Recommended Reading 24 Appendix 4 – Summary of Schedule of Assessments 27 Appendix 5 – Research Project and Dissertation Guidelines 28 Appendix 6 – Student Progression Record 36 Appendix 7 – Student Course Evaluation 37 2
  • 3. Staff Professor and Head of Department Paula M Farthing Professors C W Ian Douglas Christopher D Franklin Paul M Speight (Dean of the School of Clinical Dentistry) Readers Geoffrey T Craig Lecturers Lynne Bingle Craig Murdock (Visitor) Graham Stafford Simon A. Whawell Honorary Clinical Lecturer Adam V Jones Technical Staff Neil Cameron Michelle Gaunt Jason Heath Martin Holden Hayley Stanhope David Thompson Brenka McCabe Post Doctoral Researchers Sian Leech Joey Shepherd Naomi Vickers Support Staff Carole Ballantyne Lorraine Friendship Margaret Nicholson Jackie Nocerino PhD Students Latif Aljorani Sarah Jenkinson Syed Ali Khurram Sushmita Roy Sumita Roy Robert Ridley Suttipalin Suwannakul 3
  • 4. 1. BACKGROUND TO THE DEPARTMENT The Department of Oral Pathology is one of four departments in the School of Clinical Dentistry, which are: Adult Dental Care Oral Health & Development Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine & Surgery Oral Pathology The Department is based on the third floor of the School of Clinical Dentistry, which is situated on Claremont Crescent. The School is directly connected to the Charles Clifford Dental Hospital, where all patient treatment is carried out. The Department of Oral Pathology is a clinical academic department and has joint University and Hospital functions. It is responsible for the pathological diagnosis of patient specimens from the Dental Hospital as well as from the main hospitals and other surgical units throughout the UK and overseas. The Department also teaches extensively on the undergraduate dental degree course (BDS), covering oral pathology, microbiology and aspects of cell biology. The Master of Medical Science (M.Med.Sci) course in Diagnostic Oral Pathology is aimed at dental surgeons holding a primary dental degree and preferably with at least two years experience in hospital or general dental practice. 1.1 Course co-ordinators Dr Simon Whawell Tel 0114-271-7953 Fax 0114-271-7894 Email s.whawell@sheffield.ac.uk Ms Lorraine Friendship Tel 0114 271 7951 Fax 0114 271 7894 Email l.friendship@sheffield.ac.uk The responsibility for the day to day management of the course rests with the course co- ordinators. If there are any problems which are not easily resolved immediately then you are invited to bring these to the attention of the course co-ordinator. 1.2 Full-Time and Part-Time Options The course will run from September to September and is normally undertaken full time in one academic year, or part-time in two years. In either case the candidate must complete the Final Examination for the Degree within five years of the commencement of the programme of study. The part-time option is not available to candidates from outside the 4
  • 5. European Union. Due to the challenging nature of the course, students are strongly discouraged from taking part in other examinations (eg IQE) during the course. 1.3 Registration Before starting the course you will need to complete all the formalities of both Financial and Academic Registration, which take place during Intro week (introductory week). Remember also to register with the Library and the Students' Union. Your Union card is a useful identity card, so do not lose it! You will also be required to have a health interview and to be able to show that you have been successfully immunised against hepatitis B. During Intro Week you are expected to attend an introductory presentation by the course co-ordinator, and other supporting staff, at which aspects of the course will be explained. You will have the opportunity to ask for explanations or verifications. Exact dates and times will be forwarded to you in August. Please arrive promptly in order to avoid missing important information. In 2007, Intro Week will commence on Saturday 22nd September and formal teaching will start on Monday 1st October 2007. The University will have sent you details of the procedure and where to register. 5
  • 6. 2. THE MMED SCI PROGRAMME IN DIAGNOSTIC ORAL PATHOLOGY 2.1 Background to the M.Med.Sci. programme and subject area Oral Pathology is a specialism both of pathology and of dentistry. Pathology is the laboratory science dedicated to advancing understanding of the causes and nature of disease and histopathology is that branch of pathology involving the study of microscopical preparations of tissues; this can lead to improved knowledge of the changes that may take place in these tissues in response to various injurious agents and to the identification of specific changes that can be categorised as a particular disease or disorder. The latter aspect forms the main focus of the course in Diagnostic Oral Pathology, which is concerned specifically with the diseases and disorders that affect the tissues and organs of the oral cavity and its related structures. It thus covers the causes, pathogenesis, natural history, distribution, diagnosis and prognosis of such diseases and disorders and has important implications for understanding their clinical signs and symptoms, their response to treatment, their management and their prevention. The relationship of oral pathology to other clinical disciplines involved in aspects of the management of patients with oral diseases and disorders is therefore both close and significant; hence its place as a specialism within the field of dentistry. This course builds upon the basic understanding of pathology and oral pathology that will have been gained at undergraduate level by dental or medical graduates and is particularly suited to those who have obtained some relevant postgraduate experience in a related clinical discipline. The Master of Medical Science degree in Diagnostic Oral Pathology provides a suitable basis for those who may wish to pursue further studies in oral pathology or to better inform their training in related clinical disciplines. Thus potential employment prospects include openings in research, teaching and clinical work where a grounding in diagnostic oral pathology might be considered essential, desirable or otherwise of value. The Department of Oral Pathology combines the functions of research, teaching and laboratory diagnostic work with an emphasis on oral histopathology but extending to include oral microbiology, molecular biology and forensic odontology. Over 2,000 specimens for diagnosis have been received in each of the last 14 years and the departmental archives now include around 50, 000 cases. The Department is one of the four constituent departments of the School of Clinical Dentistry, which received an “excellent” rating in the QAA Subject Review carried out in 2000 and a 5 rating in the Research Assessment Exercise covering the period 1996-2000 and reported in 2001. For the hospital service aspects of its activities the Department forms part of the Diagnostic and Surgical Services grouping within the Charles Clifford Dental Hospital and the Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust. It also has established links with the Department of Pathology in the adjacent Royal Hallamshire Hospital. Further information can be found on the web-site for the Dental School at : http:/www.shef.ac.uk/dentalschool/dept_opath/opath.html 6
  • 7. 2.2 Programme Aims To provide dental graduates, and in particular circumstances medical graduates, with the opportunity to enhance their academic, scientific and clinical skills as part of their career development To provide high quality teaching that is informed and invigorated by the research and scholarship of departmental staff and is alert to the benefits of student-centred learning To introduce or reinforce the principles of scientific research methodology To foster the further development of transferable analytical and communication skills To provide the opportunity to acquire advanced knowledge, foster critical and impartial analysis of scientific and clinical information, and further develop the appreciation of the benefits of continuing professional education To build on the student’s foundation in the basic and clinical sciences in order to increase their understanding of oral disease processes and the clinical and public health measures used in disease management To enable students to maximise their potential in all aspects of the course To assess students over a range of knowledge, understanding and skills, and to identify and support academic and clinical excellence 2.4 Programme Learning Outcomes and objectives. On completion of the MMedSci course it is expected that students will have developed their knowledge and understanding, skills and other attributes beyond the level of their first degree to fulfil the following learning outcomes and objectives. Knowledge and understanding: Broad knowledge and conceptual understanding of a wide range of oral pathological conditions Sound knowledge and critical systematic understanding of those oral pathological conditions that commonly require diagnosis by histopathological methods Sound knowledge and comprehensive understanding of the roles of other members of the health care team in the execution of procedures involved in achieving a successful outcome to the diagnostic process Sound knowledge and comprehensive understanding of the common laboratory methods used to prepare oral diagnostic material for histopathological examination Sound knowledge and critical understanding of the effective transmission of diagnostic information Sound knowledge and comprehensive understanding of the main research tools and methods used to advance the practice of diagnostic oral pathology 7
  • 8. Critical awareness of current problems in oral pathology and sound knowledge of the sources of up-to-date information on oral pathological conditions and related scientific and clinical disciplines Broad knowledge and understanding of the principles underpinning effective teaching and learning Broad knowledge and understanding of the principles underpinning the presentation of material at scientific meetings and for publication Skills and other attributes: A high level of competence and sound judgement in the practical microscopical diagnosis of common and significant oral pathological lesions and conditions A high level of competence, sound judgement and initiative in determining the next steps necessary to resolve a diagnosis for specimens beyond their immediate capabilities A high level of competence and self-direction in obtaining relevant information speedily to assist in the establishment or confirmation of a diagnosis A high level of competence in communicating clearly with other members of the health care team involved in the diagnostic process Practical familiarity with the common laboratory methods used in the preparation of material for oral histopathological examination Practical familiarity with such IT skills as word-processing, e-mail and use of the internet Skills in acquiring, using and critically evaluating evidence and information about conditions encountered in the subject area of oral pathology Competence in transmitting information to more junior students in a way that enhances their learning experience Competence in preparing information suitable for presentation to their peers at a scientific meeting and for submission to a scientific journal Competence at carrying out individual study and a short original research project involving the ability to identify problems, gather information, think analytically, resolve difficulties, critically analyse source material, choose appropriate methodologies, construct a hypothesis, sustain a logical argument and present the results of these processes clearly in both oral and written form Ability to acknowledge their own limitations and to use this as a stimulus to continually update their knowledge and skills to a high level 2.5 Teaching and Learning Methods Development of the learning outcomes is promoted through the following teaching and learning methods: 1 Introductory period: After allocation and discussion of the Course Handbook, the initial four weeks of the course is directed at providing the student with an introduction to the structure and 8
  • 9. methods of the course and ensuring that they receive appropriate orientation to the regulations and procedures of the University, Department and Dental Hospital. This period is also utilised to ensure that the student has the requisite level of appreciation of the study skills, IT skills and knowledge of basic general and oral pathology necessary to benefit fully from the course. At the end of this period there is an Introductory assessment to assess basic knowledge in Oral Pathology. 2 Observational work shadowing: Early in the course, each student will spend time as an observer attached to a pathologist responsible for “cutting up” and reporting on diagnostic material. Students apply their knowledge and understanding to the practical diagnostic process and further expand their knowledge and understanding of oral pathological conditions. 3 Supervised reporting: Each student will spend time during which they will take responsibility for “cutting up” and writing draft diagnostic reports under the supervision of a pathologist. Students apply their knowledge and understanding to the practical diagnostic process and further expand their knowledge and understanding of oral pathological conditions. 4 Staff-led seminars: A series of seminars will be used to provide essential background and practical information on technical procedures and diagnostic oral pathology. Students will be expected to prepare topics in advance for presentation to the group. In addition, students will be either required or encouraged to attend prescribed seminars such as those available from the Dental School’s research seminar programme and the Department of Pathology’s MRCPath training programme, Diagnostic Pathology seminars and research seminars. Students may also attend clinicopathology meetings with the other clinical departments and may observe at the Head and Neck cancer Multidisciplinary Team meetings. 5 Student-led seminars: “Journal Club” sessions involve individual students being allocated oral pathology-related papers from the scientific literature for study, analysis and verbal presentation to other students and staff for further discussion. Each student will be expected to present 6 seminars – 3 in each Semester. In Semester 1 two of these will be allocated papers for critical analysis and one will be an evaluation of a technique. In Semester 2 each student will choose three papers for critical analysis and presentation to the class. The papers used are either diagnostically-based or research-based or both. “Red Box” seminars are based on preparations of individual oral pathological lesions or conditions from the Department’s archival collection; these are made available to students one week in advance. Students are asked at random to present these cases to their 9
  • 10. colleagues and staff and participate fully in the discussion of cases presented by their colleagues. 6 Laboratory techniques: Each student will practise cutting sections from paraffin-embedded, soft and hard tissues and to perform a prescribed set of routine and special stains on paraffin-embedded sections. In addition, they make themselves familiar with equipment available and technical procedures being undertaken within the Department of Oral Pathology laboratories for diagnostic and research purposes. 7 Lectures: Students will be expected to attend the lectures on oral pathology that form part of the course for dental undergraduates. These will be supplemented by staff and student led seminars on more advanced topics. 8 Extended Essay and Literature review: Each student must complete a critical review or extended essay on a selected topic in oral pathology. The student has the opportunity to choose the topic of this review, under guidance from a member of academic staff. The review must be fully referenced and submitted in word-processed form. It will be about 2000 words in length. The Topic will be chosen in early November and the essay must be submitted in mid January. This essay will be assessed as part of the First Examination at the end of Semester 1. 9 Project and Dissertation: In discussion with academic staff each student chooses a research project that will culminate in the presentation of a dissertation. This must involve the pursuit of original work based upon an approved protocol which should clearly state the objectives, key references, a broad outline of the methods involved, an estimate of resources required and an estimate of the time involved. The final version of the dissertation must be fully referenced, word processed and bound. The project topics must be chosen early in the course and a project outline must be presented at the beginning of semester 2 (February). Work on the project will be full time from June. The dissertation must be submitted at the beginning of September 10 Independent study: All of the above teaching and learning methods involve a large element of independent study, preparing work for presentation, following up on aspects that become apparent in laboratory or diagnostic practice, and pursuing topics that are relevant to oral pathology but may not be covered formally in course material. Students are encouraged to make full use of the opportunities presented by having access to the departmental archival collection of diagnostic material and literature as well as those routinely available more widely in the Dental School, Dental Hospital or University, or for which special arrangements may be possible. A reading list is provided as guidance (Appendix 3) and details of the University Library facilities are in the Dental School Graduate Handbook. 10
  • 11. Plagiarism - students are warned and advised to be aware of the dangers of plagiarism. University guidelines on plagiarism are given in the Dental School graduate handbook. 11
  • 12. 3. COURSE STRUCTURE The one year full-time course consists of two 15 week semesters (September to February, February to June) followed by a period from June to September for completion of diagnostic work and the research project/dissertation. The course is based on a modular design with the students needing to accumulate 180 credits, consisting of a core programme (60 credits), specialty or advanced modules (60 credits) and a research project/dissertation (60 credits). The core modules form the basis of the course and are undertaken by all postgraduate taught course students in the Department. Specialty and advanced modules are selected from a number available in the University. The Dissertation which encapsulates a research project on a topic in their chosen field of interest. Title Credits Core Modules ORP 6000 Oral Histopathology I 20 ORP 6010 Oral Histopathology II 20 ORP 6030 Techniques in Oral Pathology 20 Speciality and advanced Modules ORP 6040 Advanced Oral Histopathology 30 ORP 6050 Research Problems and Approaches in Oral Pathology 20 RSD 6010 Information Management & Other Learning Activities 5 GSC6060 Speaking skills for Research Purposes 5 Dissertation ORP 6020 Dissertation 60 The outline programme timetable is in Appendix 1 and the allocation and timing of modules during the course are given in Appendix 2. 12
  • 13. 4 COURSE COMPONENTS 4.1 Histopathological Diagnosis & Research (ORP6000, ORP6010 & ORP6040) Each student will: Be attached as an observer to the Pathologist responsible for cutting-up and reporting Cut-up and write draft reports on specimens under supervision of the Duty Pathologist Attend "Red Box" sessions during semesters 1 & 2 (ORP6010). The "Red Box" will contain selected sections for diagnosis accompanied by a brief clinical history. The sections will be made available for students in the week preceding the session at which they will be discussed. Each student will be expected to submit a list of suggested diagnoses, describe each case and discuss reasons for their differential/definitive diagnoses. The degree of difficulty of the cases will increase progressively from Semester 1 to Semester 2. Attend the Clinico-Pathological Conferences (CPC) and MDT meetings run jointly with the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Be encouraged to attend the Annual Meeting of the British Society for Dental Research (BSDR) Be encouraged to attend the Annual Meeting of the British Society for Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (BSOMP) Attend the meetings arranged by the Northern Oral Pathology Study & Audit Group (Leeds-Liverpool-Manchester-Sheffield). Usually one per semester, duration 3 hours Attend and participate in departmental Journal Club and Seminar sessions of relevance to diagnosis and research in oral pathology Attend prescribed seminars or lectures organised by other departments and of relevance to oral pathology Attend lectures and practical classes provided for the undergraduate Oral Pathology Course. 13
  • 14. 4.2 Techniques in Oral Pathology (ORP6030) Each student will: Make themselves familiar with the equipment and technical procedures being undertaken within this and other selected departments for diagnostic and research purposes Attend and participate in Technical Seminar sessions Practice cutting sections from paraffin-embedded, soft and hard tissues Perform a prescribed set of routine and special stains on paraffin-embedded sections Be familiar with the process of cutting un-demineralised (ground) sections of teeth Be familiar with the process involved in the preparation of specimens for electron microscopy. Be responsible for undertaking any major technical work involved in their dissertation project Students will also be assessed on 3 journal club presentations in Semester 1. 4.3 Research Problems and Approaches in Oral Pathology (ORP6050) The major component of this module comprises a critical review of the literature and an extended essay on a selected topic in oral pathology (approximately 2000 words in length excluding references). In order to avoid duplication, each student will be asked to choose from a different list of three suitable topics selected by the Course Tutors. Students may find it helpful to consult the guidance on "Writing an Essay" which is included as an appendix in each of the Undergraduate Course Booklets. The topics will be allocated in November and the completed review must be submitted for assessment by the end of Semester 1. This will form part of the assessment for the First Examination. Students will also be assessed on 3 journal club presentations in Semester 2. Students may attend relevant research-orientated courses or programmes organised by other departments on an ad-hoc or one-off basis, depending on timing and content. These courses may include: i) Research Seminars (School of Clinical Dentistry)) ii) Research Seminars (Dept of Pathology) iii) Research Seminars (Dept of Human Metabolism & Clinical Biochemistry) 4.4 The Dissertation (ORP6020) In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Medical Science (Oral Pathology), students must produce a dissertation involving some original work and a review of the relevant literature. 14
  • 15. Topics will be chosen after close consultation with the Course Tutors; the topic selected by each student and a supporting protocol (see below) must have been submitted and approved by the beginning of semester 2. The protocol should begin with a proposed title for the study followed by an introduction. The introduction should set out the principal aims and objectives accompanied by references to key papers in the literature. Next should come a materials and methods section in which the nature, extent and source of the study sample, and the proposed methodology, are outlined. An estimate of likely resource implications (eg. materials costs and technical staff time) must be included. Students are also expected to include an estimate of the time they anticipate will be required to complete the "experimental / bench-work" phase of the project. The protocol should be no more than four single-sided pages of double-spaced A4 text, excluding key references. The maximum length of the dissertation, including references and illustrations, shall be no more than 70 single-sided pages of A4 double-spaced text (approximately 20,000 words). To facilitate binding, students are advised to use a left margin of 1.5" and a right margin of 1"; top and bottom margins should be at least 1" to allow for pagination. An outline of each student's dissertation, in the form of a “contents summary” comprising proposed headings and subheadings for each chapter, should be agreed by with the supervisor by the end of April. The completed dissertation (bound by the University Library) must be submitted by the end of August. Further guidelines for the preparation and submission of the dissertation are given in Appendix 5. 4.5 Information Management and Other Learning Activities (RSD 6010) This course is provided by the Department of Restorative Dentistry. It informs the student of library procedures and literature search techniques, computer courses in the use of MS-DOS and word-processing and clinical photography, including equipment, documentation and presentation. Aims To provide students with the opportunity to develop skills in Information Technology. To facilitate the students’ personal development of transferable skills, including the collection, manipulation and use of information relating to dentistry. Objectives On completion of the course the student should be able to: 15
  • 16. Use basic IT proficiently, and recognise how and when it should be used to best effect in relation to dentistry. Describe why IT skills are becoming increasingly important. Communicate effectively using IT, and have an awareness of future developments within this field, e.g. video conferencing 4.6 Speaking Skills for Research Purposes (GSC6060) Aims and Description The course is intended principally for students whose first language is not English. It covers the skills involved in the design, preparation and execution of oral presentations of the kind given by research students within their study programmes. This includes practice in answering questions during and after such presentations. Other oral skills to be developed during the course are those required in more formal situations, such as the interviewing of subjects, and in less formal situations such as academic discussions with colleagues and supervisors Teaching is taught by seminars, tutorials, problem solving/example classes Assessment methods is by course work 4.7 Private Study The programmed parts of the course (seminars, journal clubs, red boxes, practical classes, tutorials) constitute only part of the work expected. In addition to preparation of written practical reports and written work for tutors, private study of lecture notes, recommended textbooks and general reading related to the courses are a vital part of study. The habit of private study is one that requires cultivation and self discipline. Plenty of time will be made available for private study and preparation of course material/ 16
  • 17. 5 METHODS OF ASSESSMENT This statement on ‘Methods of Assessment’ refers to the MMedSci examinations’ including continuous assessment that may contribute marks towards the award of the degree and also to formative assessments that do not contribute towards the degree but may affect progress on the course. There may be other assessments during the course and these will be discussed with you by your tutors. The schedule of assessment for the course is summarised in Appendix 4 Formative assessment Formative assessments are in-course assessments including written or oral examinations that may affect progression but do not count towards the final degree mark Summative assessment Summative assessments are formal assessments that will count towards the final mark. Progression will depend on satisfactory performance. These assessments can be retaken if they are not passed first time 5.1 Assessment methods The various modules are assessed by an appropriate combination of multiple choice questions, short answer questions and essay questions to test knowledge, and of practical diagnostic tests to determine the level of skills achieved. Both also assess written communication skills. The written dissertation and an accompanying oral examination assess research capabilities, communication and organisational skills and other transferable skills. Throughout the course, tutors will continually assess and record performance and attendance at journal clubs, red box sessions and seminars. Students will be expected to prepare in advance for seminars, and to present topics to their colleagues. Continuous assessment will assess ability to assimilate knowledge, understanding and communication and presentational skills. 5.2 Introductory Assessment To establish baseline information on each students' background knowledge of oral pathology and on their ability to communicate effectively, they will be required to complete an introductory examination within four weeks of the commencement of the Course. This will be a formative assessment and will comprise: Type of assessment Content % of marks Multiple Choice Questions 30 min 30% 30 questions Essay paper 30 min 30% One essay from 3 Practical test comprising basic histological or 45 min 30% 17
  • 18. histopathological slides for interpretation 6 cases Oral examination, including discussion of 15 min 10% performance in the written sections 100% 5.3 End-of-Semester Assessments These will be summative assessments held at the end of each semester – early February and early June. The examination at the end of Semester 2 will be at the end of the taught course and may examine students on any aspect of work undertaken in both semesters. First examination – end of Semester 1, shall comprise: Type of assessment Content Modules % of assessed module Short Answer Questions 1 hr 30mins 3 questions Oral Histopathology ORP6000 50% 6 questions Techniques in Oral ORP6030 60% Pathology Practical test comprising basic 1 hr histological or histopathological slides for interpretation up to 10 cases ORP6000 50% Evaluation of an extended essay Allocated November ORP6050 50% 18
  • 19. Second examination – end of Semester 2, shall comprise: Type of assessment Content Modules assessed % of module Short Answer Questions – Oral Pathology 2 hr 12 questions ORP6010 60% Essay paper 3hr 4 questions ORP6040 65% Practical test comprising basic 2 hr histological or histopathological slides for up to 10 cases ORP6040 35% interpretation 5.4 Continuous Assessment Continuous assessment will be formative and summative. Attendance and performance on the course will be continually monitored, so that any problems can be identified and rectified. Formal summative assessments will also take place throughout the course. At the end of Semesters 1 and 2, all Course tutors will meet to discuss and complete a Continuous Assessment Report (Appendix 6) in respect of each student. After this meeting, designated members of staff will meet with their student(s), individually, to discuss the outcome and to obtain the student’s signed agreement to the marks awarded and the comments made. Summative assessments will comprise presentations at ‘journal club’ meetings, written critiques and performance and contributions in seminars and ‘red box’ sessions which will form part of the final degree mark. Formative assessments will comprise assessments of written work during the course including written reports on diagnostic specimens,. Although these will not form part of the final mark, they may be used to guide the examiners in borderline cases. Summative continuous assessments Type of assessment Content Modules assessed % of module Critique of a journal Written critique and article presentation ORP6030 40% 3 in Semester 1 Review and critique of a Presentation Journal article 3 in Semester 2 ORP6050 50% Oral pathology seminars Presentations and and Case discussions discussions at oral ORP6010 40% pathology seminars and ‘red boxes 5.5 End-of-Course Assessment The end of course assessment will comprise an evaluation of the research dissertation and an oral examination. Marks from previous summative assessments will also be brought together to determine the final result Type of assessment Content Modules assessed % of module Written dissertation Research project and 19
  • 20. dissertation ORP6020 80% Oral examination Upto 2hr ORP6020 20% 5.6 Marking scheme All work will be marked according to the University’s approved marking scheme (Appendix 7). The normal pass mark is 50% 5.7 Determination of the final result The final degree result will be determined from the summative assessments during the course. To obtain a pass mark the student must pass each module of the course. 5.8 Award of Distinction The award of distinction may be given in cases where candidates gain a grade of 70 or better in units to the value of at least 90 credits and where there is no grade below 60, or where a grade below 60 is compensated for by an additional higher grade. 6 STUDENT PROGRESSION At the end of Semesters 1 and 2, designated members of staff will meet with the students to discuss progress and any problems and to agree and complete a Student Progression Record (Appendix 6). 6.1 Student Progress To be eligible for the award of the degree of Master of Medical Science a student must satisfactorily complete the course and must pass assessments for each module. A student who fails a module examination in Semester I may resit this examination during Semester 2 and may then progress to the second Semester module examinations. 20
  • 21. A student who fails a module examination in Semester 2 may resit examination during the summer period. A student who fails the Dissertation may resubmit a new dissertation for consideration the following year. A student who fails an examination a second time would normally be recommended to withdraw from the course. If a student fails the dissertation but has satisfactorily completed the 120 credits of the relevant modules and has satisfied the examiners in the First and Second Semester Examinations, he or she may opt to accept a Postgraduate Diploma in Oral Pathology. If this option is taken, they may not resubmit their dissertation A student can be reported formally for unsatisfactory progress on one or more of the following grounds: failure to attend regularly failure to perform adequately the work in the course failure in Examinations breach of Examination rules In such cases, the Head of Department in consultation with the Course Co-ordinator and teaching staff will consider the student's progress and has the powers to exclude students from the course, if the academic record justifies this (i.e. terminate the studies of a student). In general, all students are given due warning before these procedures are initiated but nonetheless they are used and students should be aware of them. 6.2 Personal Tutor Scheme All students in the School of Clinical Dentistry are allocated to a Personal Tutor and are expected to meet with that Tutor once a semester. The tutor will provide personal support and guidance acting as a first point of contact and a gateway to the University’s support services. 6.3 Evaluation of the course The course is evaluated by continuous feedback from students and teachers and by completion of Student Evaluation of MMedSci. Courses form (Appendix 7) following individual student feedback gained at interview. . 21
  • 22. APPENDIX 1 Course Timetables Semester 1 - Monday 24 September 2007 to Friday 9 February 2008 Time/Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Morning MDT meeting Mechanisms of Department Meeting (Caries and Perio Oral Pathology course Disease Course) Red Box Research Seminars Techniques in Oral Diagnostic Oral Pathology Pathology Afternoon Mechanisms of Techniques in Oral Diagnostic Oral Diagnostic Oral Computer skills, Disease Pathology Pathology Pathology information management Journal Club (RSD 6010) Semester 2 - Monday 12 February 2008 to Friday 14 June 2009 Time/Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Morning MDT meeting Research project Department Meeting Diagnostic Oral Oral Pathology Pathology Course** Red Box Research Project Research Seminars Afternoon Research project Private Study Diagnostic Oral Diagnostic Oral Speaking Skills for Pathology Pathology Research Purposes Journal Club Research Project (GSC6060) Notes: this timetable is indicative only – a detailed weekly timetable will be available at the beginning of the course Sessions in italics are fixed sessions which include lectures, fixed meetings and courses taking place outside the Department of Oral pathology **the Oral Pathology Course finishes in March Diagnostic Oral pathology sessions will be flexible and will not involve all students at the same time. When not allocated to work observerships or supervised reporting the student must use these sessions for private study. Diagnostic Oral Pathology sessions may involve observing, supervised reporting or seminars From June onwards most time will be allocated to project work and Diagnostic Pathology APPENDIX 2 Allocation of Modules to Semesters A. Semester 1 (end September to early February) Induction Period }
  • 23. Observational Work Shadowing } ORP6000 “Red Box” Sessions } Oral Pathology seminars } Technical Seminars } Practical Laboratory Techniques } ORP6030 “Journal Club” Sessions } ORP6030 Essay } ORP6050 Computer skills, Information management RSD6010 B. Semester 2 (early February to mid-June) “Red Box” Sessions } ORP6010, ORP6040 Oral Pathology seminars } Supervised Reporting } Journal Club Sessions } ORP6050 Dissertation ORP6020 (part) Speaking Skills for Research Purposes GSC6060 C. Post-Semester Period (mid-June to end-September) Dissertation OR6020 (remainder) APPENDIX 3 MMedSci in Diagnostic Oral Pathology Recommended reading Core textbooks These books provide basic core reading on all aspects of oral pathology and will form the basis of the course. Regezi JA, Sciubba JJ, Jordan RCK. Oral Pathology: clinical pathological correlations. Saunders, St Louis, 2003. Soames J,V, Southam JC. Oral Pathology, Oxford Medical publications. 4th Ed, Oxford University Press, 2005 Odell EW, Morgan PR. Biopsy pathology of the oral tissues. Chapman & Hall Medical, London 1998. 23
  • 24. Bancroft JD, Gamble, M. Theory and practice of histological techniques. Churchill Livingstone, 2001. 5th Ed. Further reading Advanced oral and head and neck pathology These books provide more advanced reading on specific topics – these will be particularly useful for preparation of seminars and ‘red boxes’ and for consultation when considering the diagnosis of more difficult cases. Most of these books are available (for consultation only), in the department. Allen DC, Camerson RI. Histopathological specimens: Clinical, pathological & laboratory aspects. Springer-Verlag, 2004. Barnes L, Eveson JW, Riechart P, Sidransky D Eds. World Health Organisation classification of tumours: Pathology and Genetics of Head and Neck Tumours, IARC Press, Lyon, 2005. Cawson RA, Binnie WH, Speight PM, Barrett AW, Wright JM. Lucas’s pathology of tumours of the oral tissues, 5th edition. Churchill- Livingston, London 1998 Fletcher CDM, Unni KK, Mertens F. WHO Classification of tumours: Pathology and genetics of tumours of soft tissue and bone. IARC press, Lyon 2002. Fu YS, Wenig BM, Abemayer E, Wenig BL. Head and Neck Pathology. Churchill-Livingston, Philadelphia, 2001. Gnepp DR. Diagnostic Surgical Pathology of the Head and Neck. WB Sauders Co, Philaldelphia, 2001. Harms H, Schmidt D (Eds). Current topics in pathology: Soft tissue tumours, Springer-Verlag, 1995. Jaffe ES, Harris NL, Stern H, Vardiman JW. WHO Classification of tumours: Pathology and genetics of tumours of haematopoietic & lymphoid tissue. IARC press, Lyon 2001. Marsh P, Martin MV. Oral Microbiology. 4th Ed. Wright Reichart PA, Philipsen HP. Odontogenic tumours and allied lesions. Quintessense Pub Co Ltd, London, 2004. Sciubba JJ, Fantasia JE, Kahn LB. Atlas of tumour pathology: tumours and cysts of the jaw. AFIP, Washington 2001. Weiss SW, Goldblum JR. Enzingers & Weiss’s soft tissue tumours 4th Edition. Mosby, St Louis, 2001. Advanced general texts These books provide general background reading on the scientific basis and clinical aspects of the course. They may be needed during preparation of seminars and for written assignments. 24
  • 25. Lewis MAO, Jordan RCK. A colour handbook of oral medicine. Manson publishing, London 2004. Marx RE, Stern D. Oral & Maxillofacial pathology. Quintessence Books, Illinois, 2003. Mc Gurk M, Renehan A (Eds). Controversies in the management of salivary gland disease. Oxford University Press, 2001. Nanci A. Ten Cate’s Oral Histology 6th Edition. Mosby, St Louis 2003. Seifert G (Ed). Oral pathology current topics. Springer-Verlag, 1996. Shah JP, Johnson NW, Batsakis JG. Oral Cancer. Martin Dunitz, London 2003. Tomlinson S, Heagerty AM, Weetman AP. Mechanisms of Disease: An introduction to clinical science. Cambridge University press. Useful Reviews These are a few literature reviews covering topics which you will encounter during the course. Your tutors will give you many more references to read during the course. Dahlen G. Microbiology and treatment of dental abscesses and periodontal-endodontic lesions. Periodontol 2000. 2002; 28: 206- 39. Edwards, Ruth; Harding, Keith G. Bacteria and wound healing. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 2004; 17: 91-96. Eric O. Freed. HIV-1 and the host cell: an intimate association. Trends Microbiol. 2004; 12: 170-7. Jordan R, Speight PM. Lymphoma in Sjögren's syndrome: from histopathology to molecular pathology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1996 81, 308-320. Jordan RCK, Daniels TE, Greenspan JS, Regezi JA. Advanced diagnostic methods in oral and maxillofacial pathology. Part I: Molecular methods. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Radiol Endod 2001; 92: 650-69. Jordan RCK, Daniels TE, Greenspan JS, Regezi JA. Advanced diagnostic methods in oral and maxillofacial pathology. Part II: Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent methods. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Radiol Endod 2002; 93: 56-74. Scully C, Sudbo J, Speight PM. Progress in determining the malignant potential of oral lesions. J Oral Pathol Med 2003, 32, 251-256 Speight PM, Farthing PM, Bouquot J. The pathology of oral cancer and precancer. Current Diagnostic Pathology 1996, 3, 165-176. Speight PM. Barrett AW. Salivary gland tumours. Oral Diseases 2002, 8, 229-240 Thomas GJ, Speight PM Cell adhesion molecules and oral cancer. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine 2001. 12, 479-498 25
  • 26. APPENDIX 4 Department of Oral Pathology MMedSci in Oral Pathology Summary of Schedule of Assessments Formative Summative End of October Introductory assessment MCQ (30min) Essay (30min) Practical test (45min) Oral (15min) February Presentation of research project February End of semester SAQ (1h 30mins) assessment Practical test (1h) Evaluation of an extended essay June End of taught course SAQ – oral pathology (2h) assessment Essay paper (3h) Practical tests (2h) End August Research project Submission of dissertation End of September Final oral examination Oral examination on subject matter of the course and content of dissertation Throughout course Continuous assessment Assessment of performance and Assessment of performance and attendance at attendance at journal clubs, journal journal clubs, journal critiques, seminars and critiques, seminars and ‘red box’ ‘red box’ sessions sessions Terminology Formative: in course assessment that may MCQ: Multiple Choice Questions Critique: will comprise reading a journal affect progression but does not count towards article, preparing a summary and answering a the final degree mark SAQ: Short Answer Questions series of structured questions which will test understanding and critical evaluation of a research topic Summative: formal assessments that will Practical test: will normally count towards the final mark. Progression will comprise a set of histological slides on Essay paper: normally a choice of essays with depend on satisfactory performance. These which the student must prepare a 40-45 minutes for each exams can be resit if they are not passed first report and a diagnosis or differential time diagnosis. May include the ability to recognize aspects of laboratory technical work 26
  • 27. APPENDIX 5 Research Project and Dissertation Guidelines This is a general guide to the format which may be modified in consultation with the Head of Department and project supervisor. 1. OUTLINE OF REPORT a) Title Page The report should start with the title page bearing the title of the report, as approved by the supervisor of the investigation. The title should be selected so that the "key words" which identify the subject of the study and the methods used are included. Potential readers are likely to base their decision to read the report (or not) on the title alone, and modern literature search techniques are dependent on key words. It is advisable to draft all possible permutations for the title and to consult with your supervisor to determine which is the most acceptable. The candidate's full name and degrees (including the College or University which conferred them) should appear in the centre of the title page. At the foot of the page should be the statement "Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Medical Science in Diagnostic Oral Pathology" together with the year. Centred beneath this include the name of the Department and University. b) Abstract An abstract, not exceeding 250 words, should follow the title page. The abstract should contain a concise statement of (1) the problem under investigation (2) the experimental method used and (3) the results obtained and the conclusions. It is often useful to specify abbreviations for terms which will appear frequently in the abstract e.g. IHC for "immunohistochemistry". c) Contents After the abstract, insert a list of contents, i.e. the chapter or main section headings with page numbers. A list of figures and a list of tables may be included if desired. Chapters and sections may be numbered for easy reference. where section numbering is used, the maximum number of figures should be three e.g. 3.2.1. Lengthy identification sequences such as 4.3.2.1.a (ii) do not aid the reader. Where it is desired to enumerate paragraphs within a passage the use of lower case letters or Roman numerals is acceptable BUT these subsections need not be listed on the title page. d) Introduction and Review of the Literature The introduction should begin by setting the scene of the investigation and it is customary to include a brief history of the subject, mentioning previous developments in the field or related to it. 27
  • 28. The review of the literature will vary considerably in extent depending on the subject, but should concentrate on the main relevant contributions rather than be exhaustive. It may be possible to refer to the conclusions of a previous review of earlier work and consider only more recent papers. It should rarely be necessary to exceed fifteen pages of typescript in a project review of the literature. If the review is extensive, a discussion and summary of the literature should be included. This will lead to: e) Statement of the problem There should be a clear setting forth of the exact problem(s) which the investigation is intending to explore, and the scope and limitations of the enquiry should be discussed. f) Materials and Methods The intended programme of the investigation can first be presented as an introduction if considered necessary. Materials: Full details of the materials and controls employed should be indicated. Materials in this context may include physical materials, animal or human specimen materials, or clinical cases and records. Methods: The precise method of exploring the problem is described in the methods, including the methods used to measure or record phenomena. The section may discuss possible alternative approaches but should not include results, other than those required incidentally to establish the method of the investigation. There are two acceptable formats for this section. The materials may be listed in an appendix as an exhaustive catalogue including manufacturers, specifications, batch numbers and a note of the source of supply. The subsequent account of the methods need not then repeat this detailed information. In the second style, the materials and methods are presented as a single account, with particulars of the materials embedded in the text as they naturally arise from the description of the method. Commercial details of manufacturers and suppliers are entered in brackets including the town in the UK when appearing for the first time ie (Sigma- Aldrich Chemical Company, Poole, UK), then subsequently: (Sigma). The Materials and Methods part of the Report should provide sufficient information for another investigator, in another part of the world, to know exactly what you did and to repeat your investigation using exactly the same methods. g) Results Under this heading the data obtained by the above methods are set forth with only that amount of description necessary to relate them to the methods previously indicated. The temptation to discuss results here must be strenuously resisted until the next section after all the data has been presented. 28
  • 29. h) Discussion Now the data can be analysed and discussed, drawing any conclusions where justified, and comparing your results with the results of other investigations. It is wise to review the study dispassionately and to anticipate criticisms which others may wish to make. It is here that comments may be made about the clinical relevance of the work. i) Conclusions It is frequently helpful to the reader, and a useful discipline for the writer, to gather together under a separate heading the conclusions at which he may have arrived. Remember that negative results are as important as positive results. No conclusion may be included which is not directly supported by the results obtained. The discussion is the appropriate place for conjecture. Unless it has been demonstrated that conclusions are robust enough to be applied outside the context of the sample selected and the experimental conditions used, it is prudent to preface them with a statement such as "within the limitations of the present study the following conclusions may be drawn." Recommendations for further exploration of the problem may be indicated. j) References Two alternative systems for the citation of references are acceptable, but they must not be mixed within a single report. The first, more traditional, system which is usually used in dissertations is based on the Harvard Style. The second approach follows the Vancouver style which is commonly used by many journals. Harvard Style This is the style which we would like to be adopted for your dissertation. In the text, references are indicated by author(s) and the year only. Where the author's name does not fit naturally into the structure of a sentence the reference is placed in parentheses. Papers with more than three authors are best contracted using "et al.". A full list is placed at the end of the dissertation in alphabetical order and the periodical references should be given. Abbreviations should be according the World List of Periodicals (These may differ from those used in the Index to the Dental Literature). An example of the use of the Harvard Style is shown below, together with the references. Note the format of the references, which is taken from the Journal of Dental Research Instructions to Authors: "The outer shell of enamel acts as a hard, high stiffness, wear resistant shell, being some five times harder than dentin (Craig & Peyton, 1958; Calwell et al., 1957) but is also extremely brittle. In contrast, Rasmussen (1976) showed that dentin appears to be some four times tougher than enamel and of considerably lower stiffness." Caldwell RC, Muntz ML, Gilmore RW, Pigman W (1957). Micro hardness Studies of Intact Surface Enamel. J Dent Res 36: 732-738 29
  • 30. Craig RG, Peyton FA. (1958). Elastic and mechanical properties of human teeth. J Dent Res 37: 710-718 Rasmussen ST (1976). Fracture properties of human enamel and dentine. J Dent Res 55: 154- 164. k) Appendices It is occasionally desirable to include in the bound Report large volumes of raw data. In order not to detract from the ease of reading and impact of a well-written Results section, it is sensible to append this material outside the standard sections of the Report where it is accessible if required. Where the volume is too great for this to be done without increasing the size of the Report to a gross extent, it is wise to consult with your supervisor to determine whether the data should be omitted or condensed. 2. LENGTH OF REPORT The Report should be as concise as possible with proper presentation of the material and of a satisfactory literary standard. Normally, the Report should be approximately 20,000 words in length. The finished bound volume therefore should not exceed 70 pages and it is worth remembering that an extensive report is unlikely to impress Examiners, particularly if it could have been condensed without loss of information. 3. PRESENTATION The Report should be word processed in 12 font, with 1.5 line spacing and printed on a good quality printer. Students are encouraged to consult previous students’ dissertations to gain further insight into layout and format. No secretarial assistance is provided for students and students must compile the report themselves. The candidate will be required to submit TWO bound copies to the examiners, and retain a third copy, which will be brought to the oral examination. After the examination one of the reports will be deposited in the Departmental Library and the other retained by the supervisor. In addition to his own bound copy, the student may wish to keep an unbound photocopy which will prove invaluable should he or she wish to produce a further bound copy or a rough duplicate to assist in the preparation of a shortened version for publication. The Report should be in keeping with the following specifications: Size of Paper - International A4 (the size of this sheet) 30
  • 31. Margins - A margin of 4 cm must be present on the left hand side to allow for binding. On the right hand side a 2 cm margin will ensure that the final guillotining of pages after binding does not encroach on the text. Illustrations, graphs etc. - These may be inserted in the text, or placed on the left hand pages to face typescript, in which case there should be no typescript on the reverse of the left hand page. Care should be taken to position illustrations and tables so that they are adjacent to the text which refers to them. With the new word processing capabilities it is possible for illustrations and tables to be embedded in the text. It is not desirable to group all the illustrations together, as is sometimes recommended. Photographs and other illustrations should be properly fixed (dry mounting is the best method). Facilities and advice for dry mounting are available. Incorporation of digitised or electronic images is possibly the most efficient way of producing the report. Line diagrams, artwork etc. - The candidate is expected to produce his own original artwork. Where outside help is obtained this must be acknowledged in the Report. Reproduction of illustrations from journals or previous reports should not be undertaken without the usual regard for copyright and acknowledgement is required. All illustrations, figures and tables must be accompanied by a caption which gives sufficient information for the reader to be able to understand their contents without referring to the text. Numbering - Right hand pages only should be numbered, in one continuous sequence from the title page. Blank pages on the reverse of illustrations should be numbered. 4. BINDING The main University library provides a binding service for students' reports. Two copies must be submitted in soft binding. The front cover should show the full title of the project, the author and where submitted, the higher degree sought and the year as shown in the following example: TITLE AUTHOR UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD M.Med.Sci year The candidate's own third copy does not have to be bound, but must have the same numbering as the bound copies. It would also be helpful to submit your report, together will all assignments, on CD-ROM. 31
  • 32. NB: The University Print Unit bind copies of your dissertation. The fee is £8.00 for each bound dissertation. The website address for further information is: http://www.shef.ac.uk/printing/pricelist/thesis-binding.html 5 TIMETABLE FOR COMPLETION OF RESEARCH PROJECT/DISSERTATION As a guide, you should complete work on the various sections as follows: February Presentation of Research proposal (1) Statement of general aims (2) A brief survey of relevant literature, to show the present state of knowledge (3) The questions to be addressed or the hypothesis to be tested (4) Experimental design and research procedure (5) Research techniques and methods (6) Timetable for research March/April Presentation of project and dissertation to supervisor and then to staff and students in the department. Commence research project June/July Students will be working full time on their dissertation project with assistance from their supervisor and relevant laboratory staff August Complete all experimental work and literature reviews. End August Submission of Final report Precise dates for presentations and meetings will be agreed with your supervisor and course co-ordinator. Allow time for your supervisor to read and comment on each section as it is written. Remember that he or she will also be busy and may take a holiday at the time when the final manuscript is being prepared. Try not to give the supervisor enormous blocks of material to read at once. Typed material is easier to read than mediocre handwriting. Drafts should be double spaced and have wide margins for comments. It is safer not to give your supervisor your only copy of the manuscript. It is not unknown for a disastrous accidental loss to occur. Avoid a last minute rush to complete project work. Reports which are finished in haste invariably betray the fact and will remain in the Department after you leave as evidence of 32
  • 33. poor organisation. In particular allow several days for you and at least one other person, who need not be familiar with the technical content, to scrutinise the typescript for typographical errors or other minor errors. These are much easier to correct unobtrusively before photocopying and binding. 33
  • 34. APPENDIX 6 Master of Medical Science in Oral Pathology Student Progression Record Name of student: ............................................................................................................... Semester:……… Date of interview: ........................... Member of Staff: ...................................... Academic progress Advice given (if appropriate) Personal development Advice given (if appropriate) Staff signature: ........................................... Seen by student: Date: ........................................................... Student signature: ................................... Date: .................................................... 34
  • 35. APPENDIX 7 STUDENT COURSE EVALUATION Once a semester student views are sought on the conduct of the course and a report made through the Head of the Department to the Teaching Committee. The following form is used for the report: Department of Oral Pathology School of Clinical Dentistry University of Sheffield STUDENT EVALUATION of M.Med.Sci COURSE - SUMMARY Academic Year: …………… Semester ………………………….…. Course title: ………………………………………………………….. Course Organiser: ………………………………………………………….. Number of students on course: ……………………………………………………… Number of students involved in this evaluation ……………………………………: Method of course evaluation: ………………………………………………………... Changes in the course content from previous period (if any): Observations from student’s evaluation and staff feedback: (Continue on separate sheet if desired) Summary of any problems encountered: Suggestions for change in next period or academic year (if any): Signature of Course Supervisor Date ……………………………. Please forward to Dental School Administrator Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of information given in this booklet. However, the courses are continually reviewed and revised and there may well be some changes between the date of publication and the time the course commences. Changes will be brought to the attention of the students on the course. Nevertheless, if you have any queries, it is your responsibility to take these up with the course co-ordinator. 35