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SCHOOL OF CLINICAL DENTISTRY
Department of Oral Pathology
MASTER OF MEDICAL SCIENCE
Diagnostic Oral Pathology
Academic Session: 2007-2008
MASTER OF MEDICAL SCIENCE
(Diagnostic Oral Pathology)
1 Background to the Department 1
2 The MMed Science Programme in Diagnostic Oral Pathology 3
3 Course Structure 10
4 Course Components 11
5 Methods of Assessment 16
6 Student Progression 20
Appendix 1 – Timetable 22
Appendix 2 – Allocation of Modules to Semesters 23
Appendix 3 – Recommended Reading 24
Appendix 4 – Summary of Schedule of Assessments 27
Appendix 5 – Research Project and Dissertation Guidelines 28
Appendix 6 – Student Progression Record 36
Appendix 7 – Student Course Evaluation 37
Professor and Head of Department
Paula M Farthing
C W Ian Douglas
Christopher D Franklin
Paul M Speight (Dean of the School of Clinical Dentistry)
Geoﬀrey T Craig
Craig Murdock (Visitor)
Simon A. Whawell
Honorary Clinical Lecturer
Adam V Jones
Post Doctoral Researchers
Syed Ali Khurram
1. BACKGROUND TO THE DEPARTMENT
The Department of Oral Pathology is one of four departments in the School of Clinical
Dentistry, which are:
Adult Dental Care
Oral Health & Development
Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine & Surgery
The Department is based on the third ﬂoor of the School of Clinical Dentistry, which is
situated on Claremont Crescent. The School is directly connected to the Charles Cliﬀord
Dental Hospital, where all patient treatment is carried out.
The Department of Oral Pathology is a clinical academic department and has joint
University and Hospital functions. It is responsible for the pathological diagnosis of patient
specimens from the Dental Hospital as well as from the main hospitals and other surgical
units throughout the UK and overseas. The Department also teaches extensively on the
undergraduate dental degree course (BDS), covering oral pathology, microbiology and
aspects of cell biology.
The Master of Medical Science (M.Med.Sci) course in Diagnostic Oral Pathology is aimed at
dental surgeons holding a primary dental degree and preferably with at least two years
experience in hospital or general dental practice.
1.1 Course co-ordinators
Dr Simon Whawell Tel 0114-271-7953
Ms Lorraine Friendship Tel 0114 271 7951
Fax 0114 271 7894
The responsibility for the day to day management of the course rests with the course co-
ordinators. If there are any problems which are not easily resolved immediately then you
are invited to bring these to the attention of the course co-ordinator.
1.2 Full-Time and Part-Time Options
The course will run from September to September and is normally undertaken full time in
one academic year, or part-time in two years. In either case the candidate must complete
the Final Examination for the Degree within ﬁve years of the commencement of the
programme of study. The part-time option is not available to candidates from outside the
European Union. Due to the challenging nature of the course, students are strongly
discouraged from taking part in other examinations (eg IQE) during the course.
Before starting the course you will need to complete all the formalities of both Financial
and Academic Registration, which take place during Intro week (introductory week).
Remember also to register with the Library and the Students' Union. Your Union card is
a useful identity card, so do not lose it!
You will also be required to have a health interview and to be able to show that you have
been successfully immunised against hepatitis B.
During Intro Week you are expected to attend an introductory presentation by the course
co-ordinator, and other supporting staﬀ, at which aspects of the course will be explained.
You will have the opportunity to ask for explanations or veriﬁcations. Exact dates and
times will be forwarded to you in August. Please arrive promptly in order to avoid missing
In 2007, Intro Week will commence on Saturday 22nd September and formal teaching will
start on Monday 1st October 2007.
The University will have sent you details of the procedure and where to register.
2. THE MMED SCI PROGRAMME IN DIAGNOSTIC ORAL PATHOLOGY
2.1 Background to the M.Med.Sci. programme and subject area
Oral Pathology is a specialism both of pathology and of dentistry. Pathology is the
laboratory science dedicated to advancing understanding of the causes and nature of
disease and histopathology is that branch of pathology involving the study of microscopical
preparations of tissues; this can lead to improved knowledge of the changes that may take
place in these tissues in response to various injurious agents and to the identiﬁcation of
speciﬁc changes that can be categorised as a particular disease or disorder. The latter
aspect forms the main focus of the course in Diagnostic Oral Pathology, which is
concerned speciﬁcally with the diseases and disorders that aﬀect the tissues and organs
of the oral cavity and its related structures. It thus covers the causes, pathogenesis,
natural history, distribution, diagnosis and prognosis of such diseases and disorders and
has important implications for understanding their clinical signs and symptoms, their
response to treatment, their management and their prevention. The relationship of oral
pathology to other clinical disciplines involved in aspects of the management of patients
with oral diseases and disorders is therefore both close and signiﬁcant; hence its place as
a specialism within the ﬁeld of dentistry.
This course builds upon the basic understanding of pathology and oral pathology that will
have been gained at undergraduate level by dental or medical graduates and is particularly
suited to those who have obtained some relevant postgraduate experience in a related
clinical discipline. The Master of Medical Science degree in Diagnostic Oral Pathology
provides a suitable basis for those who may wish to pursue further studies in oral
pathology or to better inform their training in related clinical disciplines. Thus potential
employment prospects include openings in research, teaching and clinical work where a
grounding in diagnostic oral pathology might be considered essential, desirable or
otherwise of value.
The Department of Oral Pathology combines the functions of research, teaching and
laboratory diagnostic work with an emphasis on oral histopathology but extending to
include oral microbiology, molecular biology and forensic odontology. Over 2,000
specimens for diagnosis have been received in each of the last 14 years and the
departmental archives now include around 50, 000 cases. The Department is one of the
four constituent departments of the School of Clinical Dentistry, which received an
“excellent” rating in the QAA Subject Review carried out in 2000 and a 5 rating in the
Research Assessment Exercise covering the period 1996-2000 and reported in 2001. For
the hospital service aspects of its activities the Department forms part of the Diagnostic
and Surgical Services grouping within the Charles Cliﬀord Dental Hospital and the
Sheﬃeld Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust. It also has established links with the Department
of Pathology in the adjacent Royal Hallamshire Hospital. Further information can be found
on the web-site for the Dental School at
2.2 Programme Aims
To provide dental graduates, and in particular circumstances medical graduates, with
the opportunity to enhance their academic, scientiﬁc and clinical skills as part of their
To provide high quality teaching that is informed and invigorated by the research and
scholarship of departmental staﬀ and is alert to the beneﬁts of student-centred
To introduce or reinforce the principles of scientiﬁc research methodology
To foster the further development of transferable analytical and communication skills
To provide the opportunity to acquire advanced knowledge, foster critical and
impartial analysis of scientiﬁc and clinical information, and further develop the
appreciation of the beneﬁts of continuing professional education
To build on the student’s foundation in the basic and clinical sciences in order to
increase their understanding of oral disease processes and the clinical and public
health measures used in disease management
To enable students to maximise their potential in all aspects of the course
To assess students over a range of knowledge, understanding and skills, and to identify
and support academic and clinical excellence
2.4 Programme Learning Outcomes and objectives.
On completion of the MMedSci course it is expected that students will have developed
their knowledge and understanding, skills and other attributes beyond the level of their
ﬁrst degree to fulﬁl the following learning outcomes and objectives.
Knowledge and understanding:
Broad knowledge and conceptual understanding of a wide range of oral pathological
Sound knowledge and critical systematic understanding of those oral pathological
conditions that commonly require diagnosis by histopathological methods
Sound knowledge and comprehensive understanding of the roles of other members of
the health care team in the execution of procedures involved in achieving a successful
outcome to the diagnostic process
Sound knowledge and comprehensive understanding of the common laboratory
methods used to prepare oral diagnostic material for histopathological examination
Sound knowledge and critical understanding of the eﬀective transmission of diagnostic
Sound knowledge and comprehensive understanding of the main research tools and
methods used to advance the practice of diagnostic oral pathology
Critical awareness of current problems in oral pathology and sound knowledge of the
sources of up-to-date information on oral pathological conditions and related scientiﬁc
and clinical disciplines
Broad knowledge and understanding of the principles underpinning eﬀective teaching
Broad knowledge and understanding of the principles underpinning the presentation
of material at scientiﬁc meetings and for publication
Skills and other attributes:
A high level of competence and sound judgement in the practical microscopical
diagnosis of common and signiﬁcant oral pathological lesions and conditions
A high level of competence, sound judgement and initiative in determining the next
steps necessary to resolve a diagnosis for specimens beyond their immediate
A high level of competence and self-direction in obtaining relevant information speedily
to assist in the establishment or conﬁrmation of a diagnosis
A high level of competence in communicating clearly with other members of the health
care team involved in the diagnostic process
Practical familiarity with the common laboratory methods used in the preparation of
material for oral histopathological examination
Practical familiarity with such IT skills as word-processing, e-mail and use of the
Skills in acquiring, using and critically evaluating evidence and information about
conditions encountered in the subject area of oral pathology
Competence in transmitting information to more junior students in a way that
enhances their learning experience
Competence in preparing information suitable for presentation to their peers at a
scientiﬁc meeting and for submission to a scientiﬁc journal
Competence at carrying out individual study and a short original research project
involving the ability to identify problems, gather information, think analytically, resolve
diﬃculties, critically analyse source material, choose appropriate methodologies,
construct a hypothesis, sustain a logical argument and present the results of these
processes clearly in both oral and written form
Ability to acknowledge their own limitations and to use this as a stimulus to continually
update their knowledge and skills to a high level
2.5 Teaching and Learning Methods
Development of the learning outcomes is promoted through the following teaching
and learning methods:
1 Introductory period:
After allocation and discussion of the Course Handbook, the initial four weeks of the
course is directed at providing the student with an introduction to the structure and
methods of the course and ensuring that they receive appropriate orientation to the
regulations and procedures of the University, Department and Dental Hospital. This period
is also utilised to ensure that the student has the requisite level of appreciation of the
study skills, IT skills and knowledge of basic general and oral pathology necessary to
beneﬁt fully from the course. At the end of this period there is an Introductory
assessment to assess basic knowledge in Oral Pathology.
2 Observational work shadowing:
Early in the course, each student will spend time as an observer attached to a pathologist
responsible for “cutting up” and reporting on diagnostic material. Students apply their
knowledge and understanding to the practical diagnostic process and further expand their
knowledge and understanding of oral pathological conditions.
3 Supervised reporting:
Each student will spend time during which they will take responsibility for “cutting up” and
writing draft diagnostic reports under the supervision of a pathologist. Students apply
their knowledge and understanding to the practical diagnostic process and further expand
their knowledge and understanding of oral pathological conditions.
4 Staﬀ-led seminars:
A series of seminars will be used to provide essential background and practical
information on technical procedures and diagnostic oral pathology. Students will be
expected to prepare topics in advance for presentation to the group. In addition, students
will be either required or encouraged to attend prescribed seminars such as those
available from the Dental School’s research seminar programme and the Department of
Pathology’s MRCPath training programme, Diagnostic Pathology seminars and research
seminars. Students may also attend clinicopathology meetings with the other clinical
departments and may observe at the Head and Neck cancer Multidisciplinary Team
5 Student-led seminars:
“Journal Club” sessions involve individual students being allocated oral pathology-related
papers from the scientiﬁc literature for study, analysis and verbal presentation to other
students and staﬀ for further discussion. Each student will be expected to present 6
seminars – 3 in each Semester. In Semester 1 two of these will be allocated papers for
critical analysis and one will be an evaluation of a technique. In Semester 2 each student
will choose three papers for critical analysis and presentation to the class. The papers
used are either diagnostically-based or research-based or both.
“Red Box” seminars are based on preparations of individual oral pathological lesions or
conditions from the Department’s archival collection; these are made available to students
one week in advance. Students are asked at random to present these cases to their
colleagues and staﬀ and participate fully in the discussion of cases presented by their
6 Laboratory techniques:
Each student will practise cutting sections from paraﬃn-embedded, soft and hard tissues
and to perform a prescribed set of routine and special stains on paraﬃn-embedded
sections. In addition, they make themselves familiar with equipment available and
technical procedures being undertaken within the Department of Oral Pathology
laboratories for diagnostic and research purposes.
Students will be expected to attend the lectures on oral pathology that form part of the
course for dental undergraduates. These will be supplemented by staﬀ and student led
seminars on more advanced topics.
8 Extended Essay and Literature review:
Each student must complete a critical review or extended essay on a selected topic in oral
pathology. The student has the opportunity to choose the topic of this review, under
guidance from a member of academic staﬀ. The review must be fully referenced and
submitted in word-processed form. It will be about 2000 words in length. The Topic will
be chosen in early November and the essay must be submitted in mid January. This essay
will be assessed as part of the First Examination at the end of Semester 1.
9 Project and Dissertation:
In discussion with academic staﬀ each student chooses a research project that will
culminate in the presentation of a dissertation. This must involve the pursuit of original
work based upon an approved protocol which should clearly state the objectives, key
references, a broad outline of the methods involved, an estimate of resources required
and an estimate of the time involved. The ﬁnal version of the dissertation must be fully
referenced, word processed and bound. The project topics must be chosen early in the
course and a project outline must be presented at the beginning of semester 2 (February).
Work on the project will be full time from June. The dissertation must be submitted at the
beginning of September
10 Independent study:
All of the above teaching and learning methods involve a large element of independent
study, preparing work for presentation, following up on aspects that become apparent in
laboratory or diagnostic practice, and pursuing topics that are relevant to oral pathology
but may not be covered formally in course material. Students are encouraged to make full
use of the opportunities presented by having access to the departmental archival
collection of diagnostic material and literature as well as those routinely available more
widely in the Dental School, Dental Hospital or University, or for which special
arrangements may be possible. A reading list is provided as guidance (Appendix 3) and
details of the University Library facilities are in the Dental School Graduate Handbook.
Plagiarism - students are warned and advised to be aware of the dangers of plagiarism.
University guidelines on plagiarism are given in the Dental School graduate handbook.
3. COURSE STRUCTURE
The one year full-time course consists of two 15 week semesters (September to February,
February to June) followed by a period from June to September for completion of
diagnostic work and the research project/dissertation. The course is based on a modular
design with the students needing to accumulate 180 credits, consisting of a core
programme (60 credits), specialty or advanced modules (60 credits) and a research
project/dissertation (60 credits).
The core modules form the basis of the course and are undertaken by all
postgraduate taught course students in the Department.
Specialty and advanced modules are selected from a number available in the
The Dissertation which encapsulates a research project on a topic in their chosen
ﬁeld of interest.
ORP 6000 Oral Histopathology I 20
ORP 6010 Oral Histopathology II 20
ORP 6030 Techniques in Oral Pathology 20
Speciality and advanced Modules
ORP 6040 Advanced Oral Histopathology 30
ORP 6050 Research Problems and Approaches in Oral Pathology 20
RSD 6010 Information Management & Other Learning Activities 5
GSC6060 Speaking skills for Research Purposes 5
ORP 6020 Dissertation 60
The outline programme timetable is in Appendix 1 and the allocation and timing of modules
during the course are given in Appendix 2.
4 COURSE COMPONENTS
4.1 Histopathological Diagnosis & Research (ORP6000, ORP6010 & ORP6040)
Each student will:
Be attached as an observer to the Pathologist responsible for cutting-up and
Cut-up and write draft reports on specimens under supervision of the Duty
Attend "Red Box" sessions during semesters 1 & 2 (ORP6010). The "Red Box" will
contain selected sections for diagnosis accompanied by a brief clinical history. The
sections will be made available for students in the week preceding the session at
which they will be discussed. Each student will be expected to submit a list of
suggested diagnoses, describe each case and discuss reasons for their
diﬀerential/deﬁnitive diagnoses. The degree of diﬃculty of the cases will increase
progressively from Semester 1 to Semester 2.
Attend the Clinico-Pathological Conferences (CPC) and MDT meetings run jointly
with the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Be encouraged to attend the Annual Meeting of the British Society for Dental
Be encouraged to attend the Annual Meeting of the British Society for Oral and
Maxillofacial Pathology (BSOMP)
Attend the meetings arranged by the Northern Oral Pathology Study & Audit Group
(Leeds-Liverpool-Manchester-Sheﬃeld). Usually one per semester, duration 3
Attend and participate in departmental Journal Club and Seminar sessions of
relevance to diagnosis and research in oral pathology
Attend prescribed seminars or lectures organised by other departments and of
relevance to oral pathology
Attend lectures and practical classes provided for the undergraduate Oral
4.2 Techniques in Oral Pathology (ORP6030)
Each student will:
Make themselves familiar with the equipment and technical procedures being
undertaken within this and other selected departments for diagnostic and
Attend and participate in Technical Seminar sessions
Practice cutting sections from paraﬃn-embedded, soft and hard tissues
Perform a prescribed set of routine and special stains on paraﬃn-embedded
Be familiar with the process of cutting un-demineralised (ground) sections of teeth
Be familiar with the process involved in the preparation of specimens for electron
Be responsible for undertaking any major technical work involved in their
Students will also be assessed on 3 journal club presentations in Semester 1.
4.3 Research Problems and Approaches in Oral Pathology (ORP6050)
The major component of this module comprises a critical review of the literature and an
extended essay on a selected topic in oral pathology (approximately 2000 words in length
excluding references). In order to avoid duplication, each student will be asked to choose
from a diﬀerent list of three suitable topics selected by the Course Tutors. Students may
ﬁnd it helpful to consult the guidance on "Writing an Essay" which is included as an
appendix in each of the Undergraduate Course Booklets. The topics will be allocated in
November and the completed review must be submitted for assessment by the end of
Semester 1. This will form part of the assessment for the First Examination.
Students will also be assessed on 3 journal club presentations in Semester 2.
Students may attend relevant research-orientated courses or programmes
organised by other departments on an ad-hoc or one-oﬀ basis, depending on
timing and content.
These courses may include:
i) Research Seminars (School of Clinical Dentistry))
ii) Research Seminars (Dept of Pathology)
iii) Research Seminars (Dept of Human Metabolism & Clinical Biochemistry)
4.4 The Dissertation (ORP6020)
In partial fulﬁlment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Medical Science (Oral
Pathology), students must produce a dissertation involving some original work and a
review of the relevant literature.
Topics will be chosen after close consultation with the Course Tutors; the topic selected by
each student and a supporting protocol (see below) must have been submitted and
approved by the beginning of semester 2.
The protocol should begin with a proposed title for the study followed by an introduction.
The introduction should set out the principal aims and objectives accompanied by
references to key papers in the literature. Next should come a materials and methods
section in which the nature, extent and source of the study sample, and the proposed
methodology, are outlined. An estimate of likely resource implications (eg. materials costs
and technical staﬀ time) must be included. Students are also expected to include an
estimate of the time they anticipate will be required to complete the "experimental /
bench-work" phase of the project. The protocol should be no more than four single-sided
pages of double-spaced A4 text, excluding key references.
The maximum length of the dissertation, including references and illustrations, shall be no
more than 70 single-sided pages of A4 double-spaced text (approximately 20,000 words).
To facilitate binding, students are advised to use a left margin of 1.5" and a right margin of
1"; top and bottom margins should be at least 1" to allow for pagination.
An outline of each student's dissertation, in the form of a “contents summary” comprising
proposed headings and subheadings for each chapter, should be agreed by with the
supervisor by the end of April.
The completed dissertation (bound by the University Library) must be submitted by the
end of August. Further guidelines for the preparation and submission of the dissertation
are given in Appendix 5.
4.5 Information Management and Other Learning Activities (RSD 6010)
This course is provided by the Department of Restorative Dentistry. It informs the student
of library procedures and literature search techniques, computer courses in the use of
MS-DOS and word-processing and clinical photography, including equipment,
documentation and presentation.
To provide students with the opportunity to develop skills in Information
To facilitate the students’ personal development of transferable skills, including the
collection, manipulation and use of information relating to dentistry.
On completion of the course the student should be able to:
Use basic IT proﬁciently, and recognise how and when it should be used to best
eﬀect in relation to dentistry.
Describe why IT skills are becoming increasingly important.
Communicate eﬀectively using IT, and have an awareness of future developments
within this ﬁeld, e.g. video conferencing
4.6 Speaking Skills for Research Purposes (GSC6060)
Aims and Description
The course is intended principally for students whose ﬁrst language is not English. It
covers the skills involved in the design, preparation and execution of oral presentations of
the kind given by research students within their study programmes. This includes practice
in answering questions during and after such presentations. Other oral skills to be
developed during the course are those required in more formal situations, such as the
interviewing of subjects, and in less formal situations such as academic discussions with
colleagues and supervisors
Teaching is taught by seminars, tutorials, problem solving/example classes
Assessment methods is by course work
4.7 Private Study
The programmed parts of the course (seminars, journal clubs, red boxes, practical classes,
tutorials) constitute only part of the work expected. In addition to preparation of written
practical reports and written work for tutors, private study of lecture notes,
recommended textbooks and general reading related to the courses are a vital part of
study. The habit of private study is one that requires cultivation and self discipline. Plenty
of time will be made available for private study and preparation of course material/
5 METHODS OF ASSESSMENT
This statement on ‘Methods of Assessment’ refers to the MMedSci examinations’ including
continuous assessment that may contribute marks towards the award of the degree and
also to formative assessments that do not contribute towards the degree but may aﬀect
progress on the course. There may be other assessments during the course and these will
be discussed with you by your tutors. The schedule of assessment for the course is
summarised in Appendix 4
Formative assessments are in-course assessments including written or oral examinations
that may aﬀect progression but do not count towards the ﬁnal degree mark
Summative assessments are formal assessments that will count towards the ﬁnal mark.
Progression will depend on satisfactory performance. These assessments can be retaken
if they are not passed ﬁrst time
5.1 Assessment methods
The various modules are assessed by an appropriate combination of multiple choice
questions, short answer questions and essay questions to test knowledge, and of practical
diagnostic tests to determine the level of skills achieved. Both also assess written
communication skills. The written dissertation and an accompanying oral examination
assess research capabilities, communication and organisational skills and other
transferable skills. Throughout the course, tutors will continually assess and record
performance and attendance at journal clubs, red box sessions and seminars. Students will
be expected to prepare in advance for seminars, and to present topics to their colleagues.
Continuous assessment will assess ability to assimilate knowledge, understanding and
communication and presentational skills.
5.2 Introductory Assessment
To establish baseline information on each students' background knowledge of oral
pathology and on their ability to communicate eﬀectively, they will be required to complete
an introductory examination within four weeks of the commencement of the Course. This
will be a formative assessment and will comprise:
Type of assessment Content % of marks
Multiple Choice Questions 30 min 30%
Essay paper 30 min 30%
One essay from 3
Practical test comprising basic histological or 45 min 30%
histopathological slides for interpretation 6 cases
Oral examination, including discussion of 15 min 10%
performance in the written sections
5.3 End-of-Semester Assessments
These will be summative assessments held at the end of each semester – early February
and early June. The examination at the end of Semester 2 will be at the end of the taught
course and may examine students on any aspect of work undertaken in both semesters.
First examination – end of Semester 1, shall comprise:
Type of assessment Content Modules % of
Short Answer Questions 1 hr 30mins
Oral Histopathology ORP6000 50%
Techniques in Oral ORP6030 60%
Practical test comprising basic 1 hr
histological or histopathological
slides for interpretation up to 10 cases ORP6000 50%
Evaluation of an extended essay Allocated November ORP6050 50%
Second examination – end of Semester 2, shall comprise:
Type of assessment Content Modules assessed % of
Short Answer Questions – Oral Pathology 2 hr
12 questions ORP6010 60%
Essay paper 3hr
4 questions ORP6040 65%
Practical test comprising basic 2 hr
histological or histopathological slides for up to 10 cases ORP6040 35%
5.4 Continuous Assessment
Continuous assessment will be formative and summative. Attendance and performance on
the course will be continually monitored, so that any problems can be identiﬁed and
rectiﬁed. Formal summative assessments will also take place throughout the course. At
the end of Semesters 1 and 2, all Course tutors will meet to discuss and complete a
Continuous Assessment Report (Appendix 6) in respect of each student. After this
meeting, designated members of staﬀ will meet with their student(s), individually, to
discuss the outcome and to obtain the student’s signed agreement to the marks awarded
and the comments made. Summative assessments will comprise presentations at ‘journal
club’ meetings, written critiques and performance and contributions in seminars and ‘red
box’ sessions which will form part of the ﬁnal degree mark. Formative assessments will
comprise assessments of written work during the course including written reports on
diagnostic specimens,. Although these will not form part of the ﬁnal mark, they may be
used to guide the examiners in borderline cases.
Summative continuous assessments
Type of assessment Content Modules assessed % of module
Critique of a journal Written critique and
article presentation ORP6030 40%
3 in Semester 1
Review and critique of a Presentation
Journal article 3 in Semester 2 ORP6050 50%
Oral pathology seminars Presentations and
and Case discussions discussions at oral ORP6010 40%
and ‘red boxes
5.5 End-of-Course Assessment
The end of course assessment will comprise an evaluation of the research dissertation and
an oral examination. Marks from previous summative assessments will also be brought
together to determine the ﬁnal result
Type of assessment Content Modules assessed % of
Written dissertation Research project and
dissertation ORP6020 80%
Oral examination Upto 2hr ORP6020 20%
5.6 Marking scheme
All work will be marked according to the University’s approved marking scheme (Appendix
7). The normal pass mark is 50%
5.7 Determination of the ﬁnal result
The ﬁnal degree result will be determined from the summative assessments during the
course. To obtain a pass mark the student must pass each module of the course.
5.8 Award of Distinction
The award of distinction may be given in cases where candidates gain a grade of 70 or
better in units to the value of at least 90 credits and where there is no grade below 60, or
where a grade below 60 is compensated for by an additional higher grade.
6 STUDENT PROGRESSION
At the end of Semesters 1 and 2, designated members of staﬀ will meet with the students
to discuss progress and any problems and to agree and complete a Student Progression
Record (Appendix 6).
6.1 Student Progress
To be eligible for the award of the degree of Master of Medical Science a student must
satisfactorily complete the course and must pass assessments for each module.
A student who fails a module examination in Semester I may resit this examination during
Semester 2 and may then progress to the second Semester module examinations.
A student who fails a module examination in Semester 2 may resit examination during the
A student who fails the Dissertation may resubmit a new dissertation for consideration the
A student who fails an examination a second time would normally be recommended to
withdraw from the course.
If a student fails the dissertation but has satisfactorily completed the 120 credits of the
relevant modules and has satisﬁed the examiners in the First and Second Semester
Examinations, he or she may opt to accept a Postgraduate Diploma in Oral Pathology. If this
option is taken, they may not resubmit their dissertation
A student can be reported formally for unsatisfactory progress on one or more of the
failure to attend regularly
failure to perform adequately the work in the course
failure in Examinations
breach of Examination rules
In such cases, the Head of Department in consultation with the Course Co-ordinator and
teaching staﬀ will consider the student's progress and has the powers to exclude students
from the course, if the academic record justiﬁes this (i.e. terminate the studies of a
student). In general, all students are given due warning before these procedures are
initiated but nonetheless they are used and students should be aware of them.
6.2 Personal Tutor Scheme
All students in the School of Clinical Dentistry are allocated to a Personal Tutor and are
expected to meet with that Tutor once a semester. The tutor will provide personal
support and guidance acting as a ﬁrst point of contact and a gateway to the University’s
6.3 Evaluation of the course
The course is evaluated by continuous feedback from students and teachers and by
completion of Student Evaluation of MMedSci. Courses form (Appendix 7) following
individual student feedback gained at interview.
Semester 1 - Monday 24 September 2007 to Friday 9 February 2008
Time/Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Morning MDT meeting Mechanisms of Department Meeting (Caries and Perio Oral Pathology course
Red Box Research Seminars
Techniques in Oral Diagnostic Oral
Afternoon Mechanisms of Techniques in Oral Diagnostic Oral Diagnostic Oral Computer skills,
Disease Pathology Pathology Pathology information
Journal Club (RSD 6010)
Semester 2 - Monday 12 February 2008 to Friday 14 June 2009
Time/Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Morning MDT meeting Research project Department Meeting Diagnostic Oral Oral Pathology
Afternoon Research project Private Study Diagnostic Oral Diagnostic Oral Speaking Skills for
Pathology Pathology Research Purposes
Journal Club Research Project (GSC6060)
this timetable is indicative only – a detailed weekly timetable will be available at the beginning of the course
Sessions in italics are ﬁxed sessions which include lectures, ﬁxed meetings and courses taking place outside the Department of
**the Oral Pathology Course ﬁnishes in March
Diagnostic Oral pathology sessions will be ﬂexible and will not involve all students at the same time. When not allocated to work
observerships or supervised reporting the student must use these sessions for private study.
Diagnostic Oral Pathology sessions may involve observing, supervised reporting or seminars
From June onwards most time will be allocated to project work and Diagnostic Pathology
Allocation of Modules to Semesters
A. Semester 1 (end September to early February)
Induction Period }
Observational Work Shadowing } ORP6000
“Red Box” Sessions }
Oral Pathology seminars }
Technical Seminars }
Practical Laboratory Techniques } ORP6030
“Journal Club” Sessions } ORP6030
Essay } ORP6050
Information management RSD6010
B. Semester 2 (early February to mid-June)
“Red Box” Sessions } ORP6010, ORP6040
Oral Pathology seminars }
Supervised Reporting }
Journal Club Sessions } ORP6050
Dissertation ORP6020 (part)
Speaking Skills for Research Purposes GSC6060
C. Post-Semester Period (mid-June to end-September)
Dissertation OR6020 (remainder)
MMedSci in Diagnostic Oral Pathology
These books provide basic core reading on all aspects of oral pathology and will form the basis of the course.
Regezi JA, Sciubba JJ, Jordan RCK. Oral Pathology: clinical pathological correlations. Saunders, St Louis, 2003.
Soames J,V, Southam JC. Oral Pathology, Oxford Medical publications. 4th Ed, Oxford University Press, 2005
Odell EW, Morgan PR. Biopsy pathology of the oral tissues. Chapman & Hall Medical, London 1998.
Bancroft JD, Gamble, M. Theory and practice of histological techniques. Churchill Livingstone, 2001. 5th Ed.
Advanced oral and head and neck pathology
These books provide more advanced reading on speciﬁc topics – these will be particularly useful for preparation of seminars and ‘red
boxes’ and for consultation when considering the diagnosis of more diﬃcult cases. Most of these books are available (for consultation
only), in the department.
Allen DC, Camerson RI. Histopathological specimens: Clinical, pathological & laboratory aspects. Springer-Verlag, 2004.
Barnes L, Eveson JW, Riechart P, Sidransky D Eds. World Health Organisation classiﬁcation of tumours: Pathology and Genetics of
Head and Neck Tumours, IARC Press, Lyon, 2005.
Cawson RA, Binnie WH, Speight PM, Barrett AW, Wright JM. Lucas’s pathology of tumours of the oral tissues, 5th edition. Churchill-
Livingston, London 1998
Fletcher CDM, Unni KK, Mertens F. WHO Classiﬁcation of tumours: Pathology and genetics of tumours of soft tissue and bone.
IARC press, Lyon 2002.
Fu YS, Wenig BM, Abemayer E, Wenig BL. Head and Neck Pathology. Churchill-Livingston, Philadelphia, 2001.
Gnepp DR. Diagnostic Surgical Pathology of the Head and Neck. WB Sauders Co, Philaldelphia, 2001.
Harms H, Schmidt D (Eds). Current topics in pathology: Soft tissue tumours, Springer-Verlag, 1995.
Jaﬀe ES, Harris NL, Stern H, Vardiman JW. WHO Classiﬁcation of tumours: Pathology and genetics of tumours of haematopoietic &
lymphoid tissue. IARC press, Lyon 2001.
Marsh P, Martin MV. Oral Microbiology. 4th Ed. Wright
Reichart PA, Philipsen HP. Odontogenic tumours and allied lesions. Quintessense Pub Co Ltd, London, 2004.
Sciubba JJ, Fantasia JE, Kahn LB. Atlas of tumour pathology: tumours and cysts of the jaw. AFIP, Washington 2001.
Weiss SW, Goldblum JR. Enzingers & Weiss’s soft tissue tumours 4th Edition. Mosby, St Louis, 2001.
Advanced general texts
These books provide general background reading on the scientiﬁc basis and clinical aspects of the course. They may be needed during
preparation of seminars and for written assignments.
Lewis MAO, Jordan RCK. A colour handbook of oral medicine. Manson publishing, London 2004.
Marx RE, Stern D. Oral & Maxillofacial pathology. Quintessence Books, Illinois, 2003.
Mc Gurk M, Renehan A (Eds). Controversies in the management of salivary gland disease. Oxford University Press, 2001.
Nanci A. Ten Cate’s Oral Histology 6th Edition. Mosby, St Louis 2003.
Seifert G (Ed). Oral pathology current topics. Springer-Verlag, 1996.
Shah JP, Johnson NW, Batsakis JG. Oral Cancer. Martin Dunitz, London 2003.
Tomlinson S, Heagerty AM, Weetman AP. Mechanisms of Disease: An introduction to clinical science. Cambridge University press.
These are a few literature reviews covering topics which you will encounter during the course. Your tutors will give you many more
references to read during the course.
Dahlen G. Microbiology and treatment of dental abscesses and periodontal-endodontic lesions. Periodontol 2000. 2002; 28: 206-
Edwards, Ruth; Harding, Keith G. Bacteria and wound healing. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 2004; 17: 91-96.
Eric O. Freed. HIV-1 and the host cell: an intimate association. Trends Microbiol. 2004; 12: 170-7.
Jordan R, Speight PM. Lymphoma in Sjögren's syndrome: from histopathology to molecular pathology. Oral Surg Oral Med
Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1996 81, 308-320.
Jordan RCK, Daniels TE, Greenspan JS, Regezi JA. Advanced diagnostic methods in oral and maxillofacial pathology. Part I:
Molecular methods. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Radiol Endod 2001; 92: 650-69.
Jordan RCK, Daniels TE, Greenspan JS, Regezi JA. Advanced diagnostic methods in oral and maxillofacial pathology. Part II:
Immunohistochemical and immunoﬂuorescent methods. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Radiol Endod 2002; 93: 56-74.
Scully C, Sudbo J, Speight PM. Progress in determining the malignant potential of oral lesions. J Oral Pathol Med 2003, 32,
Speight PM, Farthing PM, Bouquot J. The pathology of oral cancer and precancer. Current Diagnostic Pathology 1996, 3,
Speight PM. Barrett AW. Salivary gland tumours. Oral Diseases 2002, 8, 229-240
Thomas GJ, Speight PM Cell adhesion molecules and oral cancer. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine 2001. 12,
Department of Oral Pathology
MMedSci in Oral Pathology
Summary of Schedule of Assessments
End of October Introductory assessment MCQ (30min)
Practical test (45min)
February Presentation of research project
February End of semester SAQ (1h 30mins)
assessment Practical test (1h)
Evaluation of an extended essay
June End of taught course SAQ – oral pathology (2h)
assessment Essay paper (3h)
Practical tests (2h)
End August Research project Submission of dissertation
End of September Final oral examination Oral examination on subject matter of the
course and content of dissertation
Throughout course Continuous assessment Assessment of performance and Assessment of performance and attendance at
attendance at journal clubs, journal journal clubs, journal critiques, seminars and
critiques, seminars and ‘red box’ ‘red box’ sessions
Formative: in course assessment that may MCQ: Multiple Choice Questions Critique: will comprise reading a journal
aﬀect progression but does not count towards article, preparing a summary and answering a
the ﬁnal degree mark SAQ: Short Answer Questions series of structured questions which will test
understanding and critical evaluation of a
Summative: formal assessments that will Practical test: will normally
count towards the ﬁnal mark. Progression will comprise a set of histological slides on Essay paper: normally a choice of essays with
depend on satisfactory performance. These which the student must prepare a 40-45 minutes for each
exams can be resit if they are not passed ﬁrst report and a diagnosis or diﬀerential
time diagnosis. May include the ability to
recognize aspects of laboratory
Research Project and Dissertation Guidelines
This is a general guide to the format which may be modiﬁed in consultation with the Head of
Department and project supervisor.
1. OUTLINE OF REPORT
a) Title Page
The report should start with the title page bearing the title of the report, as approved by the
supervisor of the investigation.
The title should be selected so that the "key words" which identify the subject of the study
and the methods used are included. Potential readers are likely to base their decision to read
the report (or not) on the title alone, and modern literature search techniques are
dependent on key words. It is advisable to draft all possible permutations for the title and to
consult with your supervisor to determine which is the most acceptable.
The candidate's full name and degrees (including the College or University which conferred
them) should appear in the centre of the title page.
At the foot of the page should be the statement "Submitted in partial fulﬁlment of the
requirements for the Degree of Master of Medical Science in Diagnostic Oral Pathology"
together with the year. Centred beneath this include the name of the Department and
An abstract, not exceeding 250 words, should follow the title page. The abstract should
contain a concise statement of (1) the problem under investigation (2) the experimental
method used and (3) the results obtained and the conclusions. It is often useful to specify
abbreviations for terms which will appear frequently in the abstract e.g. IHC for
After the abstract, insert a list of contents, i.e. the chapter or main section headings with page
numbers. A list of ﬁgures and a list of tables may be included if desired. Chapters and
sections may be numbered for easy reference. where section numbering is used, the
maximum number of ﬁgures should be three e.g. 3.2.1. Lengthy identiﬁcation sequences such
as 184.108.40.206.a (ii) do not aid the reader.
Where it is desired to enumerate paragraphs within a passage the use of lower case letters or
Roman numerals is acceptable BUT these subsections need not be listed on the title page.
d) Introduction and Review of the Literature
The introduction should begin by setting the scene of the investigation and it is customary to
include a brief history of the subject, mentioning previous developments in the ﬁeld or
related to it.
The review of the literature will vary considerably in extent depending on the subject, but
should concentrate on the main relevant contributions rather than be exhaustive. It may be
possible to refer to the conclusions of a previous review of earlier work and consider only
more recent papers. It should rarely be necessary to exceed ﬁfteen pages of typescript in a
project review of the literature.
If the review is extensive, a discussion and summary of the literature should be included.
This will lead to:
e) Statement of the problem
There should be a clear setting forth of the exact problem(s) which the investigation is
intending to explore, and the scope and limitations of the enquiry should be discussed.
f) Materials and Methods
The intended programme of the investigation can ﬁrst be presented as an introduction if
Materials: Full details of the materials and controls employed should be indicated. Materials
in this context may include physical materials, animal or human specimen materials, or
clinical cases and records.
Methods: The precise method of exploring the problem is described in the methods,
including the methods used to measure or record phenomena. The section may discuss
possible alternative approaches but should not include results, other than those required
incidentally to establish the method of the investigation.
There are two acceptable formats for this section. The materials may be listed in an appendix
as an exhaustive catalogue including manufacturers, speciﬁcations, batch numbers and a note
of the source of supply. The subsequent account of the methods need not then repeat this
detailed information. In the second style, the materials and methods are presented as a
single account, with particulars of the materials embedded in the text as they naturally arise
from the description of the method. Commercial details of manufacturers and suppliers are
entered in brackets including the town in the UK when appearing for the ﬁrst time ie (Sigma-
Aldrich Chemical Company, Poole, UK), then subsequently: (Sigma).
The Materials and Methods part of the Report should provide suﬃcient information for
another investigator, in another part of the world, to know exactly what you did and to repeat
your investigation using exactly the same methods.
Under this heading the data obtained by the above methods are set forth with only that
amount of description necessary to relate them to the methods previously indicated. The
temptation to discuss results here must be strenuously resisted until the next section after all
the data has been presented.
Now the data can be analysed and discussed, drawing any conclusions where justiﬁed, and
comparing your results with the results of other investigations. It is wise to review the study
dispassionately and to anticipate criticisms which others may wish to make. It is here that
comments may be made about the clinical relevance of the work.
It is frequently helpful to the reader, and a useful discipline for the writer, to gather together
under a separate heading the conclusions at which he may have arrived. Remember that
negative results are as important as positive results. No conclusion may be included which is
not directly supported by the results obtained. The discussion is the appropriate place for
Unless it has been demonstrated that conclusions are robust enough to be applied outside
the context of the sample selected and the experimental conditions used, it is prudent to
preface them with a statement such as "within the limitations of the present study the
following conclusions may be drawn." Recommendations for further exploration of the
problem may be indicated.
Two alternative systems for the citation of references are acceptable, but they must not be
mixed within a single report. The ﬁrst, more traditional, system which is usually used in
dissertations is based on the Harvard Style. The second approach follows the Vancouver style
which is commonly used by many journals.
This is the style which we would like to be adopted for your dissertation. In the text,
references are indicated by author(s) and the year only. Where the author's name does not
ﬁt naturally into the structure of a sentence the reference is placed in parentheses. Papers
with more than three authors are best contracted using "et al.". A full list is placed at the end
of the dissertation in alphabetical order and the periodical references should be given.
Abbreviations should be according the World List of Periodicals (These may diﬀer from those
used in the Index to the Dental Literature).
An example of the use of the Harvard Style is shown below, together with the references.
Note the format of the references, which is taken from the Journal of Dental Research
Instructions to Authors:
"The outer shell of enamel acts as a hard, high stiﬀness, wear resistant shell, being some ﬁve
times harder than dentin (Craig & Peyton, 1958; Calwell et al., 1957) but is also extremely
brittle. In contrast, Rasmussen (1976) showed that dentin appears to be some four times
tougher than enamel and of considerably lower stiﬀness."
Caldwell RC, Muntz ML, Gilmore RW, Pigman W (1957). Micro hardness Studies of Intact
Surface Enamel. J Dent Res 36: 732-738
Craig RG, Peyton FA. (1958). Elastic and mechanical properties of human teeth. J Dent Res 37:
Rasmussen ST (1976). Fracture properties of human enamel and dentine. J Dent Res 55: 154-
It is occasionally desirable to include in the bound Report large volumes of raw data. In order
not to detract from the ease of reading and impact of a well-written Results section, it is
sensible to append this material outside the standard sections of the Report where it is
accessible if required.
Where the volume is too great for this to be done without increasing the size of the Report to
a gross extent, it is wise to consult with your supervisor to determine whether the data
should be omitted or condensed.
2. LENGTH OF REPORT
The Report should be as concise as possible with proper presentation of the material and of a
satisfactory literary standard. Normally, the Report should be approximately 20,000 words in
length. The ﬁnished bound volume therefore should not exceed 70 pages and it is worth
remembering that an extensive report is unlikely to impress Examiners, particularly if it could
have been condensed without loss of information.
The Report should be word processed in 12 font, with 1.5 line spacing and printed on a good
quality printer. Students are encouraged to consult previous students’ dissertations to gain
further insight into layout and format.
No secretarial assistance is provided for students and students must compile the report
themselves. The candidate will be required to submit TWO bound copies to the examiners,
and retain a third copy, which will be brought to the oral examination.
After the examination one of the reports will be deposited in the Departmental Library and
the other retained by the supervisor. In addition to his own bound copy, the student may wish
to keep an unbound photocopy which will prove invaluable should he or she wish to produce
a further bound copy or a rough duplicate to assist in the preparation of a shortened version
The Report should be in keeping with the following speciﬁcations:
Size of Paper - International A4 (the size of this sheet)
Margins - A margin of 4 cm must be present on the left hand side to allow for binding. On the
right hand side a 2 cm margin will ensure that the ﬁnal guillotining of pages after binding does
not encroach on the text.
Illustrations, graphs etc. - These may be inserted in the text, or placed on the left hand pages
to face typescript, in which case there should be no typescript on the reverse of the left hand
Care should be taken to position illustrations and tables so that they are adjacent to the text
which refers to them. With the new word processing capabilities it is possible for illustrations
and tables to be embedded in the text.
It is not desirable to group all the illustrations together, as is sometimes recommended.
Photographs and other illustrations should be properly ﬁxed (dry mounting is the best
method). Facilities and advice for dry mounting are available. Incorporation of digitised or
electronic images is possibly the most eﬃcient way of producing the report. Line diagrams,
artwork etc. - The candidate is expected to produce his own original artwork. Where outside
help is obtained this must be acknowledged in the Report. Reproduction of illustrations from
journals or previous reports should not be undertaken without the usual regard for copyright
and acknowledgement is required.
All illustrations, ﬁgures and tables must be accompanied by a caption which gives suﬃcient
information for the reader to be able to understand their contents without referring to the
Numbering - Right hand pages only should be numbered, in one continuous sequence from
the title page. Blank pages on the reverse of illustrations should be numbered.
The main University library provides a binding service for students' reports. Two copies must
be submitted in soft binding.
The front cover should show the full title of the project, the author and where submitted, the
higher degree sought and the year as shown in the following example:
UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD
The candidate's own third copy does not have to be bound, but must have the same
numbering as the bound copies.
It would also be helpful to submit your report, together will all assignments, on CD-ROM.
NB: The University Print Unit bind copies of your dissertation. The fee is £8.00 for each
bound dissertation. The website address for further information is:
5 TIMETABLE FOR COMPLETION OF RESEARCH PROJECT/DISSERTATION
As a guide, you should complete work on the various sections as follows:
Presentation of Research proposal
(1) Statement of general aims
(2) A brief survey of relevant literature, to show the present state of knowledge
(3) The questions to be addressed or the hypothesis to be tested
(4) Experimental design and research procedure
(5) Research techniques and methods
(6) Timetable for research
Presentation of project and dissertation to supervisor and then to staﬀ and students in the
Commence research project
Students will be working full time on their dissertation project with assistance from their
supervisor and relevant laboratory staﬀ
Complete all experimental work and literature reviews.
Submission of Final report
Precise dates for presentations and meetings will be agreed with your supervisor and course
co-ordinator. Allow time for your supervisor to read and comment on each section as it is
written. Remember that he or she will also be busy and may take a holiday at the time when
the ﬁnal manuscript is being prepared. Try not to give the supervisor enormous blocks of
material to read at once. Typed material is easier to read than mediocre handwriting. Drafts
should be double spaced and have wide margins for comments. It is safer not to give your
supervisor your only copy of the manuscript. It is not unknown for a disastrous accidental loss
Avoid a last minute rush to complete project work. Reports which are ﬁnished in haste
invariably betray the fact and will remain in the Department after you leave as evidence of
poor organisation. In particular allow several days for you and at least one other person, who
need not be familiar with the technical content, to scrutinise the typescript for typographical
errors or other minor errors. These are much easier to correct unobtrusively before
photocopying and binding.
Master of Medical Science in Oral Pathology
Student Progression Record
Name of student: ...............................................................................................................
Semester:……… Date of interview: ........................... Member of Staﬀ: ......................................
Advice given (if appropriate)
Advice given (if appropriate)
Staﬀ signature: ........................................... Seen by student:
Date: ........................................................... Student signature: ...................................
STUDENT COURSE EVALUATION
Once a semester student views are sought on the conduct of the course and a report made
through the Head of the Department to the Teaching Committee. The following form is used
for the report:
Department of Oral Pathology School of Clinical Dentistry University of Sheﬃeld
STUDENT EVALUATION of M.Med.Sci COURSE - SUMMARY
Academic Year: …………… Semester ………………………….….
Course title: …………………………………………………………..
Course Organiser: …………………………………………………………..
Number of students on course: ………………………………………………………
Number of students involved in this evaluation ……………………………………:
Method of course evaluation: ………………………………………………………...
Changes in the course content from previous period (if any):
Observations from student’s evaluation and staﬀ feedback:
(Continue on separate sheet if desired)
Summary of any problems encountered:
Suggestions for change in next period or academic year (if any):
Signature of Course Supervisor Date …………………………….
Please forward to Dental School Administrator
Every eﬀort has been made to ensure the accuracy of information given in this booklet.
However, the courses are continually reviewed and revised and there may well be some
changes between the date of publication and the time the course commences. Changes will
be brought to the attention of the students on the course. Nevertheless, if you have any
queries, it is your responsibility to take these up with the course co-ordinator.