Studyplan Master of Dentistry

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Studyplan Master of Dentistry

  1. 1. THE FACULTY OF MEDICINE AND DENTISTRY UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN Studyplan 2006 Master of Dentistry Approved by The faculty board 28th of November 2006. English version, May 2007/June 2008 1
  2. 2. MASTER’S DEGREE IN DENTISTRY - CURRICULUM ..................................................... 4 Goals and Content ...................................................................................................................... 4 Entrance Requirements .............................................................................................................. 4 Learning Outcomes .................................................................................................................... 4 Introductory Topics .................................................................................................................... 6 Subjects and Specialisation ........................................................................................................ 6 Course Schedule ......................................................................................................................... 7 Workload in Terms of Credits.................................................................................................... 8 Assessment Forms...................................................................................................................... 8 Grades......................................................................................................................................... 8 Teaching Methods ...................................................................................................................... 9 Assessment ................................................................................................................................. 9 Study Progress Requirements................................................................................................... 10 Place of Study........................................................................................................................... 10 Teaching Languages................................................................................................................. 10 Student Exchanges ................................................................................................................... 10 Career Opportunities ................................................................................................................ 11 Authorisation ............................................................................................................................ 11 Qualifications Achieved for Further Studies............................................................................ 11 Responsibility for Completion of the Curriculum.................................................................... 11 Study Trip................................................................................................................................. 13 DESCRIPTION OF COURSES - Master’s Degree in Dentistry............................................. 14 First year................................................................................................................................... 14 Examen Philosophicum........................................................................................................ 14 Medical Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 16 Medical Statistics ................................................................................................................. 16 Basic Biological Subjects (Biobas) ...................................................................................... 17 Interdisciplinary Introductory Course .................................................................................. 17 Oral Biology (Part 1)............................................................................................................ 18 Clinical Ethics ...................................................................................................................... 18 Second Year ............................................................................................................................. 19 The Structure and Function of the Body .............................................................................. 19 Physiology............................................................................................................................ 19 Anatomy ............................................................................................................................... 21 Oral Biology (Part 2)............................................................................................................ 23 Assistance Course for Periodontal Surgery (the Assistance Course)................................... 24 General Pathology and Immunology.................................................................................... 24 Preclinical Courses/Biomaterials (Block Part 1).................................................................. 25 Dental Biomaterials.............................................................................................................. 26 Third year ................................................................................................................................. 27 Integrated Clinical Introductory Course............................................................................... 28 Preclinical Course/Biomaterials (Block Part 2) ................................................................... 29 Endodontics .......................................................................................................................... 30 Oral Pharmacology............................................................................................................... 33 Cariology.............................................................................................................................. 33 Oral Microbiology................................................................................................................ 36 Oral Radiology ..................................................................................................................... 37 Periodontics .......................................................................................................................... 39 Prosthodontics ...................................................................................................................... 42 Odontophobia ....................................................................................................................... 44 2
  3. 3. Fourth Year .............................................................................................................................. 46 General Dental Practice........................................................................................................ 47 Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics ................................................................................... 51 Oro-maxillo-facial Diseases and Complaints (The KOS Block) ......................................... 54 Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine .......................................................................................... 56 Pedodontics .......................................................................................................................... 58 Community Dentistry........................................................................................................... 60 Extramural studies (Community Dentistry) ......................................................................... 61 Integrated Master’s Thesis ................................................................................................... 62 Fifth Year ................................................................................................................................. 63 «General Dental Practice».................................................................................................... 64 «Oro-maxillo-facial Diseases and Complaints»................................................................... 64 «Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine» ...................................................................................... 64 Pedodontics .......................................................................................................................... 64 Community Dentistry........................................................................................................... 65 Extramural Studies (Community Dentistry) ........................................................................ 65 Integrated Master’s Thesis ................................................................................................... 65 3
  4. 4. MASTER’S DEGREE IN DENTISTRY - CURRICULUM ”The revised curriculum 2006 - Master’s Degree in Dentistry” meet the requirements that follow from the ”Regulations relating to standards and criteria for accreditation of studies and criteria for the accreditation of institutions in Norwegian higher education” issued by the National Body for Quality in Education on 25 January 2006, the template for curricula at UiB, ”Profile and Competences for the European Dentist” (ADEE November 2004) and the report of the programme auditors (17 February 2006), who assessed dentistal studies at the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry in general and the block of subjects under General Dental Practice in particular. Goals and Content The integrated Master’s degree course in dentistry is a programme of professional study that leads to the Master’s Degree in Dentistry. The course of studies takes five years (300 credits). The course of studies aims to produce general dental practitioners with broad-based competence who are capable of taking responsibility for oral health in an overall perspective. The course shall also provide candidates with a basis for lifelong learning, specialisation and researcher training. The dental course aims to provide society with candidates who possess the knowledge, attitudes and skills required to practise dentistry. This means that the tuition should, as far as possible be research-based, professionally updated and adapted to the needs of society and the population in general for the prevention and treatment of oral diseases and conditions. The studies shall provide a basis continuing education by acquiring knowledge about and understanding of relevant methods. The integrated Master’s degree course in dentistry at the University of Bergen provides tuition in basic biological subjects (1st and 2nd years), para-clinical subjects (2nd -5th year) and clinical subjects (3rd - 5th year). The contents are primarily aimed at enabling candidates to achieve a level of competence that forms a good basis for embarking on a professional career as a general dental practitioner, researcher or as a clinical specialist. Entrance Requirements General qualifications for higher education or equivalent prior learning and work experience. In addition, the subjects 2MX/2MY/3MZ + 2FY + 3KJ are required. Learning Outcomes After completing the Master’s degree course in dentistry, the candidate is expected to have acquired broad basic competence in dentistry. This basic competence consists of theoretical knowledge in bio-medical, para-clinical, clinical and behavioural disciplines as well as practical clinical skills. 4
  5. 5. Knowledge The theoretical tuition is intended to promote a scientific attitude and way of thinking. After having completed the dental course, the candidate shall, to a specified degree, be familiar with, understand and be able to apply knowledge in bio-medical, para-clinical, clinical and behavioural disciplines that are relevant to dentistry. Skills A clinical competence congruent with socity’s and patients’ need for causal dental treatment in general practice requires the candidate to have fundamental theoretical knowledge as the basis for the development of clinical skills. In order to develop clinical skills, the course provides candidates with exposure to as many different patient categories as possible during the course of their studies. Attitudes Broad basic competence in dentistry presupposes that candidates develop adequate ethical and professional attitudes during the course of their studies. The ethical and professional practice of dentistry requires empathy, awareness of quality and precision and recognition of the need to maintain and update knowledge and skills throughout one’s whole career. After completing their studies candidates shall: (1) Be able to communicate with patients in a manner that enables them to acquire an adequate picture of their medical and dental history (2) Be able to perform standard visual, technical and manual examinations/ observations, and, on the basis of these observations and the patient’s medical and dental history, be able to write patient records in accordance with regulations and official requirements (3) Be able to understand, select and interpret data from the fundamental terms, concepts, principles and methods and thereby on the basis of the available patient records be able to: - Make a complete and correct diagnosis with respect to all the most commonly occurring complaints in the oral cavity and oral manifestations of general medical complaints - Draw up a complete (causal) treatment plan and prioritise therapy so that the patient’s most urgent treatment needs and wishes are satisfied first, and in a manner that leads to the least possible expense and expenditure of time for the patient - Communicate with the patient in an understandable manner and be able to present treatment alternatives so that the patient is aware of the extent of the therapy, health consequences and costs, thus enabling him or her to make an informed choice - Know his or her professional limitations and be able to order supplementary examinations or refer the patient to a specialist, a dentist with specialised competence or other health personnel for further examination or treatment when necessary (4) Be able to assess the patient’s general health in relation to the planned treatment (5) Be able to critically judge, assess and apply modern preventive and therapeutic agents and materials based on scientific principles 5
  6. 6. (6) Be able to carry out preventive and therapeutic procedures for individual patients in general practice, including fully adequate treatment of known carriers of disease. For further specification of clinical competence (attitudes, specific professional knowledge and skills) see the descriptions of individual subjects. (7) Be able to demonstrate effective preventive measures, e.g. of a hygienic or nutritional nature, and motivate the patient in manner that will make him or her comply (8) Be able to master different acute situations that may arise during dental treatment (9) Be able to keep patient records, to quality assure and evaluate the effect of treatment and critically assess whether follow-up treatment is required (10) Ensure that patients entitled to refund/grant-in-aid from public or private institutions are made aware of it and that they receive advice and necessary assistance to document their rightful claim (11) be able to manage a general dental practice (public and private) and organise, manage and stimulate cooperation with dental health personnel and, if relevant, other personnel in such a manner that the patients’ interests, both dental and financial, but also the interests and job satisfaction of personnel, are attended to in compliance with applicable statutory requirements The Dental Health Team In order for work at a dental clinic to be carried out professionally and efficiently, the clinic must have personnel with complementary competence. It is becoming more and more common for a dentist, dental hygienist and dental chairside assistant to make the dental health team. The dentist will normally be the leader of the team. As far as possible, the dentist’s time should be devoted to treating patients. The main duties of a dental hygienist are health-promotion and disease prevention. Most of his or her working hours are spent at the clinic but outreach activities are also part of the dental hygienist’s duties. The dental chairside assistant has many and varied duties that are essential for ensuring good patient treatment and the efficient running of the clinic. The dentist must be capable of implementing a well-thought-out division of labour that results in optimal use of resources, the best possible result and thereby probably increased job satisfaction. Introductory Topics Introductory topics are examen philosophicum, and nomenclature (Latin terminology). Through examen philosophicum students learn about the history of philosophy, the philosophy of science and logic, with a view to developing a scientific and critical thinking concerning fundamental medical and dental issues. Nomenclature introduces students to Latin medical terminology. Subjects and Specialisation Students who are admitted to the integrated Master’s degree course in dentistry must follow a mandatory curriculum and take the subjects included in it at all times. The exception to this 6
  7. 7. rule is the written fourth-year project assignment, the topic for which the students can largely choose themselves. Course Schedule The curriculum for the integrated Master’s degree in dentistry is designed so that students have to follow a fixed schedule and take exams at set times thoughout the course. First Year: The first year is common for dental and medical students who are taught fundamental medical and dental topics of chemistry, biochemistry, anatomy, physiology and cell biology (basic biology subjects). Other subjects are medical nomenclature (specialised Latin terminology), examen philosophicum, medical statistics and oral biology part 1. Medical statistics is part of the integrated Master’s thesis. The students are also introduced to clinical subjects and the student clinic at the Department of Clinical Dentistry. Second Year: In their second year, students are taught anatomy, physiology and oral biology part 2. Integrated tuition in dental biomaterials and the preclinical course in cariology starts in the spring semester. Tuition is also given in general pathology and immunology, microbiology and oral biology part 2. Tuition starts in dental radiographic diagnostics and in an introductory clinical course. Third Year: A lot of the teaching in the third year consists of training in manual skills, in which integration of paraclinical and clinical subjects is in focus. The treatment of patients starts and considerable attention is paid to clinical procedures, hygiene, communication with patients, examinations, planning of treatment, local anaesthetics and the regulations pertaining to patient records. Preclinical courses continue with prosthodontics, and subject-specific clinical teaching starts in periodontics, endodontics, prosthodontics and cariology. Teaching continues in dental radiographic diagnostics, dental biomaterials and the introductory clinical course. Tuition is also given in pharmacology. Fourth Year: Subject-specific teaching continues in periodontics, endodontics, prosthodontics and cariology. Tuition starts in orthodontics and facial orthopedics, oro-maxillo-facial diseases and complaints, oral surgery and oral medicine, pedodontics, community dentistry and general dental pracitice. At the beginning of their fourth year, students start work on their assignments, which are part of the integrated Master’s thesis. Fifth Year: At the start of their fifth year, students complete three weeks of extramural training at Norwegian Public Dental Service clinics. Tuition in orthodontics and facial orthopedics, oral surgery and oral medicine, oro-maxillo- facial diseases and complaints, community dentistry, pedodontics, dental radiographic diagnostics and general dental practice continues in the fifth year. Work on the integrated Master’s thesis continues and is concluded. Tuition in the major clinical subjects is coordinated under the general dental practice block, i.e. stomatognathic physiology, 7
  8. 8. endodontics, gerodontology, cariology, periodontics and prosthodontics. Other subjects which contribute to the course in general dental practice are: pharmacology, orthodontics and facial orthopedics, dental biomaterials, dental radiographic diagnostics, oral surgery and oral medicine. Workload in Terms of Credits The Master’s degree in dentistry amounts to 300 credits. The course workload is evenly distributed over the five years. A week’s work including mandatory tuition, seminars and self-study/ independent work corresponds to approximately 40 hours = 1.5 credits. For a detailed breakdown of credits, see Table 2 “Assessment Forms and Credits”. Assessment Forms Quality assurance of the students’ knowledge, skills, attitudes, professional understanding and ability to interact with patients is continually assessed during the course of the studies. Written and oral exams, mandatory submission of written assignments, tests stipulated in the curriculum and internal tests are used to quality assure students’ competence. Internal tests can be organised by the subject area at short notice, but they have no consequences for the student in terms of study progress in relation to the normal length of studies in the event that the grade “not approved” is given. Internal tests are followed up by a review together with the students which acts as feedback. Tests stipulated in the curriculum are held in cooperation with the faculty. They may have consequences for the student’s study progression in the event that the grade “Fail” is given, see “Supplementary regulations to the regulations for degree studies at the University of Bergen – the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry”. A student card showing the student’s patient-related treatment will accompany the student in general dental practice subject areas. The student card shows the student’s study progress in relation to qualitative and quantitative learning requirements. The Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry uses external examiners for final written exams. The use of external examiners ensures the quality of the studies and safeguards the students’ legal rights. An exam commission consists of one internal and one external examiner. External examiners are appointed by the faculty board for four years at a time. Internal examiners are used for tests stipulated in the curriculum. Appeal arrangements and the possibility of resitting an exam or a test in the event of failure are described in detail in “Regulations for degree studies at the University of Bergen – the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry” and in “Supplementary regulations to the regulations for degree studies at the University of Bergen - Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry”. Grades On 31 January 2006 (item 05/06) the faculty board decided to introduce the ECTS system (European Credit Transfer System) with alphabetical grades from A to F (where F is a fail) for theoretical exams. 8
  9. 9. - The graded ECTS scale apply to dentistry with effect for students who commenced studies in 2006 and finish their course in 2011. - The assessment Passed/ Failed will still be used for assessment of clinical service and tests stipulated in the curriculum. - The project assignment which is part of the integrated Master’s degree thesis will be assessed as Passed or Failed. Teaching Methods Teaching methods vary between subjects and blocks of subjects. Normal teaching methods consist of lectures, problem-based learning assignments, written and oral presentations, laboratory courses, using various kinds of tools, including ICT with special software, and work in small groups. The bulk of the teaching in the last part of the studies is practical/preclinical/clinical. One of the main goals of this teaching is to integrate attitudes and theoretical knowledge with training in manual skills. Teaching forms in the clinic include individual supervision, supervision in small groups and seminars with a clinical orientation. Individual supervision is necessary in order to satisfy preclinical/clinical learning requirements. Assessment Students play an active part in the evaluation of courses. The Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry sends students electronic questionnaires each semester. The questionnaires contain relevant questions about students’ perception of study facilities, theoretical teaching and clinical teaching/ service. All topics are evaluated every other year. The results are presented to the Study Committee and passed on to the subject areas. Those responsible/ subject teachers are required to follow up relevant feedback and for reporting. The Vice Dean for academic affairs produces an overall appraisal each semester based on the reports from the subject areas. Some subject areas also evaluate their own teaching using questionnaires. The Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry has introduced a system involving external programme auditors for its undergraduate couses (faculty board item 26/05). Four-year agreements are signed with the programme auditors. The programme auditors shall: - evaluate the overall standard of the course of studies compared with corresponding courses at other European universities, and whether the exam and assessment systems that are used are reasonable and practised fairly in relation to the students - comment on and give advice about the contents, combinations, structure and assessment forms used in the programme - comment on proposals for final exam assignments - if relevant, take part in assessing the exam performance of a selection of students - be present in the academic environment at least once a year to discuss current matters and more principal issues concerning the assessment of students’ performance - take part in the more extensive programme evaluation that takes place every four years (see section 4.2 in the Handbook for Quality Assurance of University Studies) 9
  10. 10. Programme auditors shall focus on various aspects and issues of the faculty’s undergraduate studies in consultation with the faculty. Programme auditors submit an annual report. Study Progress Requirements Most subjects in the course have mandatory tuition. Students must have attended the mandatory tuition and the tests stipulated in the curriculum must be passed before students can proceed with clinical service or sit the exams. In laboratory teaching, the courses must be approved, and in clinical service there are both mandatory tuition and qualitative and quantitative requirements that must be satisfied. The various subject areas/ blocks have specified requirements for attendance at mandatory tuition and qualitative and quantitative requirements based on professional criteria. For further information about the formal requirements for study progress, see “Supplementary regulations to the regulations for degree studies at the University of Bergen – the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry”. Applications for short leaves of abscence are considered by the subject area, see “Guidelines for short periods of leave of abscence”. Place of Study The Faculty of Medicine has administrative and academic responsibility for teaching in the subjects: medical nomenclature, medical statistics, basic biology subjects (BioBas), physiology, anatomy and oral biology. These subjects and Examen Philosophicum are taught from the first to the fourth semester and teaching takes place in the Building for Basic Biological Subjects (the BB building), Jonas Lies vei 91, 5009 Bergen. Teaching in general pathology and immunology takes place in teaching premises at Haukeland University Hospital. The laboratory courses in oral microbiology and immunology are held in the BB building at Haukeland University Hospital. The Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry is administratively and academically responsible for the remaining theoretical paraclinical and clinical teaching, and teaching largely takes place at Årstadveien 17, 5009 Bergen. Clinical teaching takes place at the student clinic. Part of the clinical teaching in gerodontology takes place at Kalfaret dental clinic. Teaching Languages Teaching takes place in Norwegian or a Nordic language, with a certain amount in English. The syllabus is presented in a Nordic language or English. Student Exchanges Through periods of study at foreign universities students are given an opportunity to experience academic environments different from their own. In the dentistry course, exchanges are possible in the eighth and ninth semesters when students relatively independently can treat patients who need uncomplicated treatment. The period of study 10
  11. 11. abroad is three months. The exchange period must obtain formal recognition before departure on the basis of recommendations from the subject areas, and as part of the course of study. As of November 2006, the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry had exchange agreements with the following institutions: - University of Minnesota, USA - Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica - The School of Dentistry, Copenhagen, Denmark - Helsinki University, Finland - Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden - Tandlægeskolen (School of Dentistry) in Reykjavik, Iceland - Charitè Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany The student adviser can provide further information about the exchange agreements. The deadlines for applying for an exchange in the next semester are 15 September (1 September for Minnesota) and 15 February. Career Opportunities The profession of dentistry is very challenging. Most dentists work in private practice or in the public dental health service. Some work in teaching, research and administration. Authorisation A candidate who has completed the programme of professional study in dentistry (Master of Dentistry) must apply for authorisation in order to practise as a dentist in the EU/EEA area. Authorisation is granted by the Norwegian Registration Authority for Health Personnel (SAFH), P.O. Box 8053 Dep., 0031 Oslo. The Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry cooperates with SAFH to obtain the documentation that is required for authorisation. Qualifications Achieved for Further Studies After completion of degree studies (Master’s in Dentistry) it is possible to apply for vacancies for research fellows (PhD), or, after two years’ clinical practice, for admission to special/specialist programmes in dentistry. Holders of the Master’s Degree in Dentistry may also be qualifed for further higher education at universities and university colleges in Norway and abroad. Responsibility for Completion of the Curriculum The programme of professional study in dentistry belongs to the Faculty of Medcince and Dentistry at the University of Bergen. The academic teaching staff is employed by the Department of Oral Sciences. Preclinical subjects are taught and administered by the Faculty of Medicine. 11
  12. 12. Responsibility for completion of the curriculum has been delegated to the Study Committee with support from the faculty’s division for study administration. In cooperation with the Dental Clinic and the Faculty of Medicine (preclinical subjects), the subject areas are responsible for the quality of the education offered. The Study Committee The Faculty Board is the supreme government body of the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry. The Study Committee is appointed by the Faculty Board as an advisory body. Pursuant to section 1 of its remit, the Study Committee has “principal responsibility for ensuring that curricula are in accordance with the objective for the course of studies and that teaching is to carried out according to the current curriculum. The committee is empowered to carry out changes in curricula that do not require the regulations to be changed. Furthermore, the committee is responsible for coordinating different subject areas in order to ensure the efficient use of teaching staff” (remit enclosed). The Study Committee is chaired by the Vice Dean for academic affairs and its composition is representative and broadly based. Responsibility for Subject Areas The Faculty Board appoints a chairperson for each subject area for a period of three years. The appointed person is responsible for subject-specific theoretical and practical teaching. The chairperson’s qualification and responsibilities are as follows: - Member of the academic staff - Appointed by the Faculty Board for a period of three years - Is responsibility for the teaching of students in the Bachelor’s degree studies for dental hygienists in the subject - Is responsibility for the teaching of students in the Master’s degree studies in dentistry in the subject - Is responsibility for the teaching of specialist candidates in the subject - Is responsibility for the professional content of treatment at subject-specific clinics - Is responsibility for assessing clinical service - Is responsibility for arranging exams and tests in the subject in accordance with the curriculum Blocks and Block Managers Many of the subjects taught in the dental curriculum are integrated with other subjects into blocks. In subjects administered by the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, the Faculty Board appoints block managers nominated by the chairpersons responsible for the subjects. Basic Biological Subjects - The Structure and Function of the Body - Preclincal courses/Biomaterials (Cariology, Dental Biomaterials and Prosthodontics) - Oro-Maxillo-Facial Disease and Complaints (Pharmacology, Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine, Oral Radiography Diagnosis and Oral Pathology) - General Dental Practice (Periodontics, Cariology, Prosthodontics and Endodontics, Gerodontology, Oral Radiography Diagnosis) The requirements for and responsibilities of block managers are as follows, 12
  13. 13. - The block manager is a member of the academic staff, but shall not concurrently have the role of person responsible for a subject. - The block manager is proposed by the members of the block committee (the persons responsible for subjects). - Appointed by the faculty board for a period of three years - Convenes and chairs meetings of the block committee - Is responsibility the coordination of theoretical and practical teaching in the block, including staffing of the clinic, if relevant - Is responsibility assessing clinical service - Is responsibility ensuring that teaching takes place in accordance with the current curriculum - Is responsibility arranging block exams and tests in the Dental Clinic The Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry bases the education it offers and its clinical research on the running of its own clinic for outpatient treatment. The dental clinic is a university clinic with high teaching and clinical competence, and is one of the largest in the country. The clinic consists of two main parts: the student clinic and the specialist clinic. In the student clinic, patients are accepted who, following an examination and assessment are found suitable for clinical teaching purposes. The patients are informed about the procedures at the student clinic and are required to give their consent. Treatment takes place in accordance with a pre- defined plan and under the supervision of clinical teaching staff. The bulk of the students’ clinical tuition and training in skills in patient treatment takes place in the fourth and fifth year at the student clinic. The Study Division at the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry The study division is responsible for scheduling tuition and drawing up semester plans. General information about courses and tuition is made available on the student web site “My Space”. The division for study administration acts as the secretariat for and prepares matters for consideration by the Study Committee, contributes to the development of curricula, regulations, and the quality of courses. Other tasks include considering applications for leave of absence, exemption from subjects/courses, exam appeals and special arrangements for exams. Moreover, it plans and organises exams and administers exchange stays etc. Student counsellors are available to advise students and to provide practical assistance. The Faculty of Medicine In cooperation with the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, the Faculty of Medicine has academic and administrative responsibility for large parts of the teaching of dental students during the first three semesters (preclinical studies). Study Trip Students may be granted leave for a study trip of up to one week's duration during their studies. In order to ensure continuity of treatment any study trip must be take place before the 13
  14. 14. eighth semester and during the week when the Norwegian Dental Association holds its national conference. The students must present a well-thought-out academic programme for the study trip before permission may be granted. Students write a report about what they learn from their academic programme. The report is presented to the Study Committee shortly after returning home. DESCRIPTION OF COURSES - Master’s Degree in Dentistry First year At the end of the first year, the candidate should have acquired knowledge about the history of philosophy, the philosophy of science, logic, medical nomenclature, chemistry/biochemistry, cell biology, cell physiology, molecular biology, medical statistics and dental anatomy. Through interdisciplinary lectures and introductory courses, the candidate should have acquired a preliminary overview of what the different dental subject areas do. The candidates should also have learnt how to obtain information and use ICT aids. Below is a presentation of the individual courses and what students are expected to learn during their first year: # Basic Biological Subjects (Biobas) # Examen Philosophicum # Medical Nomenclature # Medical Statistics # Oral Biology (Part 1) Examen Philosophicum Contents The Examen philosophicum consists of two parts, Exphil-alfa and Exphil-beta. The goal of Exphil-alfa is to provide an introduction to some of the main aspects of Ancient philosophy and modern Western philosophy without pretending to cover the history of philosophy exhaustively. In the first part, the general focus is on ontology and epistemology, and the subject matter is structured with a view to its link with medical thinking through the ages (topics 1 and 2, approx. 5 seminars/ lectures). The second half focuses on two philosophical issues of particular relevance, namely the relationship between body and soul, and the concept of normality. The goal of Exphil-beta is to provide a thematic introduction to fundamental aspects of and fundamental issues relating to the sciences on which medicine and dentistry are based. Both classic and more recent topical issues relating to medical and health-related activity necessitate various forms of philosophical endeavour, at the same time as the philosophical tradition often proves to be an adequate tool for understanding medical and health-related issues. This part of Exphil will therefore often approach philosophical issues by way of medical or health-related examples. The Faculty of Arts is responsible for the course and sets the syllabus. 14
  15. 15. Expected Learning Outcomes The Examen philosophicum aims to give students at the University of Bergen an introduction to the university’s intellectual traditions and to the ways of thinking, working and writing it employs. Exphil is intended to provide an principal philosophical perspective on academic culture and education. The medical and dental version of the course teaches students about the philosophical, and to some extent also the historical, foundation of medicine and health subjects, both through philosophy of science-based analysis of practice and research in these subjects and through the study of key contributions to Western philosophy which have been relevant to the practising of medicine. Form of teaching Examen philosophicum may be obtained either by following the “seminar model” or the “exam model”. The seminar model consists of: - 2 x 2 hours of lectures per week for 9 weeks - 2 x 2 hours of seminars per week for 9 weeks - Individual academic supervision in connection with writing a seminar assignment for each of the two part courses Students who choose the seminar model are assigned to a seminar group. The seminar group is the same for both the two part-courses. Each seminar group has its own leader who is responsible for teaching and supervision. Assessment Form for the Seminar Model If you choose the seminar model, there is no written exam. On the other hand, you are required to write an assignment for each part-course during the semester. These written assignments are collected in a folder and assessed as the student’s exam work. The following work requirements must be satisfied during the semester for the folder to be assessed. Students who follow the seminar model must: - take part in at least 75% of the seminars in each part-course. This means that absence in excess of two seminar sessions in each part-course, irrespective of the reason, will result in the folder not being assessed. - attend individual supervision appointments - make an oral presentation in each seminar sequence - submit a seminar assignment of approx. 1,500 words in each part-course - take part in a 45-minute broad-based test at the end of each part-course (“multiple choice”). Both part-courses must be passed. It is not possible to transfer satisfied work requirements from one semester to the next. b) The exam model consists of: - 2 x 2 hours of lectures per week for 9 weeks. Tuition in the two models may be spread throughout the semester in different ways. 15
  16. 16. Assessment Form If you choose the exam model, you only have to attend lectures. These are the same lectures as attended by students following the seminar model. Attendance is not recorded. The exam model concludes with a four-hour written exam towards the end of the semester. The written exam consists of analytical questions in the two part-courses that make up Examen philosophicum. Both part-courses must be passed. Medical Nomenclature Contents Medical nomenclature consists of tuition in basic Latin. Mastery of Latin nomenclature is a precondition for learning the principles underlying the structure of medical expressions. Expected learning outcomes Candidates should acquire good knowledge of Latin/medical nomenclature. Tuition The tuition takes the form of lectures during the first part of the first semester. Assessment form A two-hour written exam is held in the middle of the semester and a grade of Passed/Failed awarded. Medical Statistics Contents Statistics is the science of collecting, describing and analysing numerical data that have an element of random variation. Expected Learning Outcomes Candidates should acquire knowledge about descriptive and inductive statistics necessary for them to carry out a critical assessment of the use of statistics in medical/dental research/literature. Candidates should be able to describe a collection of observations, both numerically and graphically, be familiar with the principles for estimation and the testing of hypotheses, be able to calculate p-values and confidence intervals, and to interpret them in simple standard situations. Teaching and Quality Assurance Tuition is largely in the form of lectures. An important part of tuition is the assignments which students must solve on their own and through group work. Tuition concludes with a two-hour written exam for which grades from A to F are awarded. 16
  17. 17. Basic Biological Subjects (Biobas) Contents The “BioBas” block consists of topics from chemistry, biochemistry, cell biology, cell physiology and molecular biology. Expected Learning Outcomes Candidates should acquire fundamental knowledge about the development, structure and function of cells and the organisation of different tissues, as well as knowledge about cellular regulatory mechanisms. On completion of Biobas, candidates should be able to explain: − The development, structure and differentiation of cells − The basic chemistry of the cells based on general and organic chemistry − The building blocks, structure, synthesis and function of the cells − Cell membranes and the transport system − Energy conversion in cells − The nucleus of the cell and basic genetic mechanisms − The regulation of genetic expression with emphasis on transcription and translation − The surface and cytoskeleton of the cell and cell movement − Cellular regulatory mechanisms − The cells’ organisation in tissue − Fundamental biology of human development − Cell division and cell death − Cancer Teaching and Quality Assurance Tuition consists of lectures, tutorials, question sessions, diagnostic tests (organised problem solving), laboratory courses, meetings with tutors, partial access to lecture notes via the internet, contact with tutors via e-mail and an electronic bulletin board. Laboratory and histology courses and approved records are compulsory. An integrated six-hour exam is held towards the end of the second semester in the first year. ECTS grades from A to F. Interdisciplinary Introductory Course Contents The course is intended to give students an introduction to oral diseases, their diagnosis and treatment, and to contribute to strengthening the students’ contact with and affiliation to dentistry. Expected Learning Outcomes The candidate should: 17
  18. 18. − become familiar with clinical service as a tuition form − learn about the most common oral diseases, their diagnosis and treatment − strengthen contact with dentistry Teaching and Quality Assurance Tuition consists of lectures and an introductory clinical course (5 sessions, 2 of which at the Children’s Dental Health Clinic). Oral Biology (Part 1) Oral biology is taught in two parts. The first part is scheduled during the first year, and the second part during the second year. Contents Oral biology consists of a syllabus and tuition in the following topics: − detailed anatomy of deciduous teeth and permanent teeth − root canal anatomy − occlusion and articulation Expected Learning Outcomes Candidates should be able to give a detailed description of normal crown and root anatomy of the deciduous and permanent teeth, and be familiar with root canal anatomy. In addition, candidates should be able to explain the basic principles of occlusion and articulation. Detailed knowledge about teeth and the masticatory organ is a fundamental element in tuition in many clinical subjects and it provides candidates with the background required to interpret radiographs, design fillings and prosthetic replacements correctly and to recognise teeth with normal and atypical anatomy. Teaching and Quality Assurance Tuition takes the form of lectures and practical exercises in dental anatomy during which students work in groups attempting to identify teeth. The students keep course records that are submitted and corrected. The practical course is compulsory and attendance records are kept. A one-hour test is held in the identification of teeth. Oral biology part 1 finishes with a test stipulated in the curriculum. Part 1 of the course must be approved before the candidate can take part 2. Students are encouraged to submit term reports with their opinions of the teaching programme in Oral biology. Clinical Ethics The description of the topic is under production. Evaluation is integrated into the BioBas exam. 18
  19. 19. Second Year During the second year, the candidate is expected to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills in anatomy, physiology and general pathology including immunology, as well as basic knowledge and skills in Preclinical courses /Biomaterials (cariology) and clinical assistance during periodontal surgery. Subjects # Anatomy # Physiology # General Pathology # Immunology # Cariology # Dental Biomaterials # Oral Biology (Part 2) # Oral Microbiology # Periodontics The Structure and Function of the Body The candidate is expected to acquire knowledge in human biology, development, anatomy and oral biology, physiology and nutrition, and detailed knowledge of the development, structure and function of the masticatory organ, the oral cavity and the adjoining areas. This knowledge is basic to the understanding of deviation from normal development, structure, function and development of disease. Teaching in the block of subjects “The Structure and Function of the Body” is divided into courses in Oral Biology, Anatomy and Physiology. Oral Biology part 1 is described under the first year. Physiology Contents The physiology section consists of a syllabus and tuition in the following topics: - Basic neurophysiology - Sensory physiology - Pain - Muscle control - Complex brain functions - Muscles - Blood cells and the body’s defence mechanism - Autonomic nervous system 19
  20. 20. - Cardiovascular physiology - Respiration - Occupational physiology - Body temperature - Acid base balance - Renal physiology - Salt/water balance - Reproduction - Nutrition Expected Learning Outcomes The principal objective in physiology is for candidates to acquire the competence necessary to enable them to define the basic physiological concepts, explain the mechanisms regulating the various functions of the body and how the regulatory mechanisms can restore equilibrium and function after a disruption of the equilibrium of a physiological system. Moreover, the candidate should learn to describe the physiological background to clinical problems and the background to physiological problems as they are presented in the scientific literature. Knowledge The candidates shall be able to explain: - the principles of how physiological changes in the surrounding environment create action potentials in the nervous system and are perceived as sense impressions. The candidate shall be familiar with the main features of the physiology of the visual, auditory, balance, gustatory and olfactory organs. - the neurophysiological basis of pain perception and pain modulation, and be familiar with the variations in the pain reaction and possible causes of this - the function of the muscle spindles, the gamma/alpha loop and the difference between the static and dynamic gamma receptors. They should be familiar with spinal reflexes and how muscle tone is regulated. They should know a little about the fact that the control systems in the brain (basal ganglia, cerebellum, cortex cerebri) control the function of the muscles. - complex brain functions - the structure of the muscle cell and the mechanism of muscle contraction - blood cells and the mechanism of blood coagulation, as well as the blood cells’ function in relation to immunity - function changes, sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation of glands, veins, the heart, lungs, trachea, the gastrointestinal tract, eyes and reproductive organs. Students should know the principles of how drugs affect the transmission and function of the autonomic nervous system and the organs and organ systems innervated by it. - the basic functioning mechanisms of the heart and the peripheral circulation. They should be able to explain the regulation of blood flow and pressure in the circulatory system as a whole and in relation to the transport needs of individual organs. 20
  21. 21. - perfusion and ventilation in various sections of the lungs, ventilation regulation, gas transport and gas exchange in lungs and tissues - the mechanisms of body temperature homeostasis - the functional structure of the kidney and its importance as an excretion organ and as regulator of the body’s acid-base ratio, water and electrolyte balance. Students should be familiar with the regulation of the kidney function under varying physiological conditions. - the body’s various fluid phases and their composition. They should be able to explain the factors that create disturbances in the salt/water balance and how the body normalises it. - the individual endocrine glands and their hormones, and the hormones’ functioning mechanism in homeostasis - the normal development and control of the ovarian and testis functions, the effect of sexual stimulation in the two sexes, fertilisation, and knowledge of the birth mechanism and the lactation mechanisms - the most important nutrition-related health problems in the population. The development of the Norwegian diet, assessing the health consequences of the composition of the diet, and the absorption, transport, conversion and functions of the nutrients. Nutrition policy objectives and strategies. Skills: The students should understand and be able to use simple apparatus for physiological measurements. Teaching and Quality Assurance Teaching takes the form of lectures, compulsory laboratory courses, group work including presentations by student under the supervision of a teacher. Study groups with student assistance are also used. The courses are compulsory and attendance is recorded. The students keep course records which must be approved before they can entre their final exam. The students are encouraged to assess the teaching programme in physiology and to submit term reports. The teaching staff also conducts individual evaluations of their teaching. There is a three-hour written exam in physiology. Anatomy Contents The emphasis is on the candidate learning the normal anatomical structure and development of the head and neck. In addition, the student will acquire knowledge of the development, anatomy and histology of the human organ systems. The syllabus and teaching in macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and embryology includes the following topics: The anatomical and histological structure of - the central and peripheral nervous systems - the visual, auditory, olfactory and balance organs 21
  22. 22. - the heart and circulatory system - the lymphatic system - the respiratory system - the digestive system - the urinary system - the endocrine system In addition, the development of some organ systems is taught. The development, regional and functional anatomy of the head and neck is taught in detail - the face, base of the skull and the flat skull bones - the muscles of mastication, mimic, tongue and throat - autonomic and sensory innervation - the cranial nerves and ganglia - vascular supply: arteries, veins - the lymphatic system - oral and nasal cavities - sinuses - the soft and hard palate - the pharynx and larynx - the salivary glands - the mandibular joint - selected topographical areas Expected Learning Outcomes The principal objective for the teaching of human anatomy and cell biology is for the candidate to acquire competence and be able to explain the normal development and structure of the organ systems in the body as the basis for understanding normal function and development of diseases in humans. The candidate should be able to explain in detail the normal development and anatomy of the head and neck and be able to use this information to identify deviations from the norm, interpret radiographic findings and provide background for clinical problems and the performance of surgery. Teaching and Quality Assurance The teaching in macroscopic anatomy takes the form of lectures, demonstrations and dissection courses. Study groups with teacher assistance are also used. The histology teaching takes the form of lectures and microscopy courses. The candidates keep course records that must be approved before the final exam is taken. Dissection courses, demonstrations and the histology course are compulsory. Attendance records will be kept. The students are encouraged to submit term reports giving their assessment of the teaching for the anatomy part of the block of subjects called “The Structure and Function of the Body”. 22
  23. 23. There is a three-hour written exam in anatomy, embryology, histology and cell biology. In addition, the candidate takes a practical test in anatomy or histology. The evaluation of the exams is by an external and an internal. Oral Biology (Part 2) In the block of subjects called Oral Biology, the candidate is expected to acquire detailed histological knowledge of the development, structure and function of the masticatory organ, the oral cavity and the adjoining areas. This knowledge will form the basis for the candidate’s ability to prevent the development of disease, diagnose deviation from normal and understand the development of diseases in these tissues. Contents Oral Biology consists of a syllabus and tuition in the following topics: - the development of the dental lamina, the crown and root of the tooth, and its connective tissue - differentiation of tooth-specific cells - odontoblasts, ameloblasts and cementoblasts - dentinogenesis - amelogenesis - cementogenesis - the histological structure of dentine, enamel and cementum - the dentine-pulp complex - innervation and vascular supply of teeth and their connective tissue - theories of dental pain, pain pathways from the teeth - nervous regulation of the blood flow in the dental pulp - the anatomical and histological structure of the periodontium - the histological structure of the oral mucosa in different parts of the oral cavity - the structure of taste buds - the sense of taste, taste pathways - the histological structure of salivary glands - the physiology of salivary glands - tooth eruption - tooth eruption chart for deciduous and permanent teeth - exfoliation - the histological structure of the mandibular joint Expected Learning Outcomes The candidate is expected to acquire the competence necessary to enable him to define basic concepts of oral biology, explain in detail the anatomical and histological structure and function of the tissues of the oral cavity and adjoining areas, be familiar with the development of the tissues and be able to use the acquired knowledge in connection with diagnostics, the development of diseases, developmental anomalies, the prevention of disease, and clinical 23
  24. 24. interventions. In addition, the candidate should learn to describe the anatomical, histological and physiological background to clinical problems and possess the skills required to acquire information from the scientific literature concerning oral biology and physiological subjects. The candidate should be able to give a detailed presentation of normal development and anatomy, and the histological structure of teeth, the supporting tissue, oral mucosa in different parts of the mouth, salivary glands and adjoining tissue areas, as well as normal innervation and vascular supply for teeth and tooth-supporting tissues. In addition, candidates should know the time scale for the development and eruption of deciduous and permanent teeth. Examples are also given of typical developmental anomalies of the mastication apparatus and the oral tissues. Tuition includes lectures in oral physiology, at which the students will acquire basic knowledge of the function of salivary glands, the physiology of the pulp and dental pains. Detailed knowledge of oral biology is fundamental to the understanding of the normal development, structure and function of the tissues, the development of disease and pain from oral tissues and the face, as well as the prevention of disease in these tissues. Teaching and Quality Assurance Part 1 of the course must be completed before the candidate can take Part 2. Teaching takes the form of lectures and a microscopy course. The students keep course records that are submitted and corrected. These records must be approved before students can take the final exam. The microscopy course is compulsory and attendance will be recorded. The students are encouraged to submit term reports stating their opinion of the teaching programme in oral biology. The subject is concluded with a four-hour written exam in Oral biology. An external examiner will be used in addition to the subject teacher for the evaluation of the exams. Assistance Course for Periodontal Surgery (the Assistance Course) «The Assistance Course» is held to enable second-year students to assistant during third, fourth and fifth year students periodontal surgery. General Pathology and Immunology Contents The subject includes the study of disease processes in general, how they manifest themselves in the organs, the structure, function and reaction mechanisms of the immune system, how a compromised immune response results in reduced protection against infections and can lead to tumour development and autoimmune disease, how immunological overreaction causes hypersensitivity (allergy), and how diseases can be diagnosed using standard pathological methods. The immunology part emphasises basic principles, using as examples diseases and clinical symptoms that are relevant to dentists. Expected Learning Outcomes Knowledge The candidate should be able to explain: - the basic biological/immunological mechanisms behind the development of disease 24
  25. 25. - the importance of the immune system to the body’s defence against infection and consequences of immune failure and immunological overreaction - diagnostic methods in pathology and immunology and be able to apply them to relevant organs and tissues of the body - the basic morphological features (macroscopic and microscopic) of relevant disease processes Skills The candidate should be able to: - identify pathological changes in an organ - use a microscope in immunological examinations Attitudes The candidate shall: - develop respect for the human body - develop respect for patients’ diseases - understand the importance of the duty of confidentiality regarding the patient’s medical history - view the oral cavity as part of the body - develop curiosity about mechanisms behind the development of disease Teaching and Quality Assurance Tuition includes lectures, demonstrations and a microscopy course as well as a laboratory course in immunology for which a record must be submitted for approval by the subject teacher. Learning materials will be made available on the student portal. Two-way communication between teacher and students will take place via the student portal. The students are given the opportunity to submit a home assignment for approval by and feed- back from the teacher. The subject is concluded with a four-hour written exam in the fourth semester. Preclinical Courses/Biomaterials (Block Part 1) The subject areas of cariology, dental biomaterials and prosthodontics cooperate on tuition in part 1 of the block. The first part of the block consists of prebasic cariology (direct restorations)/ biomaterials and is taught at the end of the second year. In the first part of the third year, the second part of the block is taught. It contains basic prosthodontics/biomaterials. Contents (basic cariology/biomaterials) In the second year, basic courses in cariology, dental biomaterials and topics relating to different types of direct restoration are taught. 25
  26. 26. Expected Learning Outcomes After completing the first part of the course, the student should be familiar with the basic principles of cavity preparation, plastic filling materials and the filling of teeth. Students will be given opportunities to practise manual skills and thereby prepare for the clinical work. After having completed Part 1 of the block, the student is expected to have acquired the knowledge and skills in cariology and dental biomaterials necessary to entre the clinical part of the course. Knowledge The student should be able to explain: − the principles and methods for direct restorations − hand instruments and rotating instruments − the effect of different preparation instruments on dental hard tissues − handling of the dental materials used during the course Skills The student is expected to have developed manual skills preparation for the treatment of patients in the clinic. Attitudes Through dexterity training, the student is expected to have acquired a positive and self-critical attitude towards technical quality. Teaching and Quality Assurance The teaching programme includes lectures, seminars, demonstrations and work on models. Preclincal teaching/practise is compulsory. The prebasic cariology part of the course (Block Part 1) is concluded with a theoretical test. The practical work is approved on completion and assessed together at the end of the course. Both the theoretical test and the practical work must be approved before the student can begin treating patients in the clinic. Dental Biomaterials Contents Dental biomaterials is the field of study that deals with the materials and production methods used in dentistry to restore function or prevent damage from occuring. General chemical and physical factors and concepts are considered, as are biological aspects, including the interaction between living tissue and artificial materials. Formal aspects relating to the production and use of dental biomaterials are also taught. Expected learning outcomes At the end of their studies, candidates are expected to have acquired knowledge about the concepts used, about concrete materials and processes, biological interaction between artificial materials and the body, local as well as general biological mechanisms, and the factors that form the basis for the assessment and choice of materials and technology in relation to the individual patient and the health service. Furthermore, the candidate should 26
  27. 27. have acquired specific skills in the choice of materials and obtaining of information from manufacturers and suppliers, and have developed a conscious attitude to legislation and current information from the authorities. Knowledge The candidate should be able to explain: − the concepts of dental biomaterials − the structure, composition, reactions and properties of relevant biomaterials − temporary and permanent dental restorative materials for direct and indirect techniques − materials used in the production of restorations or other components used in treatment or prevention − methods for the preparation of restorative materials for use in, and the production of such components − materials used to fix dental restorations − choice of products, and why − the thinking about potential biological side effects, including toxicological aspects Skills The candidate should be able to: − make a rational choice of materials − use relevant biomaterials in general dental practice − carry out a search for information from manufacturers and suppliers − cooperate with dental technicians − make a clinical assessment of any anomalous reactions to the materials Attitudes The candidate should have developed a critical attitude to the assessment of materials, products and services offered in relation to dental biomaterials. The candidate is also expected to have developed a conscious attitude to legislation and relevant information from the authorities. Teaching and Quality Assurance Tuition in dental biomaterials will be integrated with the preclinical courses. The programme includes lectures, field trips and exercises with a view to a problem-based approach to special topics. A four-hour written exam will be held at the end of the sixth semester. Third year During the third year, the candidates are expected to acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to be able to assess a patient’s general state of health in relation to planned dental treatment. The candidate should also be able to examine, diagnose, draw up a treatment 27
  28. 28. plan and prevent plaque-related diseases, as well as be able to carry out simple endodontic, restorative, periodontal and prosthodontic treatments. Subjects # Endodontics # Pharmacology # Cariology # Microbiology # Patient Communication # Dental Biomaterials # Oral Radiology # Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine # Pedodontics # Periodontics # Prosthodontics Integrated Clinical Introductory Course The block of subjects called “Integrated Clinical Introductory Course” is taught in collaboration between the subjects cariology, microbiology, oral radiology, oral surgery and oral medicine, and the Center for Odontophobia and the Clinic of Dentistry. Contents The most important courses in this block are clinical procedures and hygiene (danger of infection and infection control), patient communication, history taking, general health evaluation, ethics, examinations, diagnostics, the planning of treatment, patient record regulations and local anaesthesia. Expected Learning Outcomes In combination with other theoretical, preparatory and clinical teaching, the “Integrated Clinical Introductory Course” should enable the candidate to start treating patients in the student clinic. Knowledge The candidate should be able to explain: - the principles concerning the spread of infection and infection control (Hygiene Plan for the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry) - the principles for patient communication - the contents and function of the history - methods for extraoral and intraoral examinations - local anaesthetics and their use - formal patient record requirements 28
  29. 29. Skills The candidate should be able to: - implement recommended procedures for good clinic hygiene - take an history, carry out extraoral and intraoral examinations, make a preliminary diagnosis and draft a preliminary treatment plan - administer local anaesthesia - write patient records - use equipment and materials in accordance with current guidelines - handle special waste and problem waste in an adequate manner Teaching and Quality Assurance The introductory course includes lectures, demonstrations, seminars and clinical exercises. The course, seminars and clinical service are compulsory, and attendance will be recorded. The course ends with a multidisciplinary written test. The test must be approved before the candidate is allowed to treat patients. Preclinical Course/Biomaterials (Block Part 2) This block is taught in collaboration between the subjects cariology, dental biomaterials and prosthodontics. The first part of this block includes cariology/ biomaterials and is taught in the last part of the second year (Described under "Second year"). The second part of the block, dealing with preclinial prosthodontics/biomaterials (indirect restorations), is taught during the second half of the third year. Contents The block «Preclinical Courses/ Biomaterials» consists of teaching regarding biomaterials and techniques used for indirect fixed and indirect removable restorations. The objectives, learning and work methods and forms of assessment for dental biomaterials are described under Second. Expected Learning Outcomes After having completed the block of subjects, the candidate is expected to have acquired the attitudes, knowledge and skills in cariology, dental biomaterials and prosthodontics necessary to carry out simple treatment of patients under supervision. Knowledge The candidate should be able to explain: − the indications and principles for indirect fixed restorations − the indications and principles for indirect removable restorations Skills The candidate should be able to carry out simple treatment involving: − indirect fixed restorations 29
  30. 30. − indirect removable restorations Attitudes During the course, the students should start to develop positive attitudes to the different aspects of prosthodontic treatment. It is important to focus on developing an adequate attitude to precision in prosthodontic work during the preclinical course. Teaching and Quality Assurance Teaching is in the form of blocks of topics, in which practical work in the laboratory is elaborated on in lectures, video seminars, clinical demonstrations, theme days and visits to a dental laboratory. The most important activity during the course is individual laboratory work (work on phantom heads and dental procedures). The course and seminars are compulsory, and attendance will be recorded. The practical work is approved individually and together at the end of each block of topics. Anonymous practical and theoretical tests are taken after each block of topics. The students are assessed and the assessments are summarised at teacher meetings after each block of topics. Each student will have at least one interview with the teacher during the course. In this interview, the student’s attitudes, theoretical and practical knowledge and skills are discussed, and his or her attendance, ability to work unsupervised and any problems are discussed. More interviews are scheduled if necessary. The final theoretical test and the practical work must be approved by the teaching staff before the student can start treating patients in the clinic. The majority of the seminars are in the form of video viewing. The videos are also made available to the students on the intranet. Preclinical course teachers are expected to have detailed knowledge of the videos. There is a practical and a theoretical test after each topic. The students will receive individual feedback on the tests, and will be given an opportunity to retake the test if necessary. At least two meetings are held between the staff member responsible for the course and the class’s student representative during the course. At these meetings they discuss the organisation of the course and any problems that have arisen. This provides important feedback on the rest of the course that can be used in future courses. Endodontics Contents Endodontics deals with the etiology, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases and injuries involving the dental pulp, and conditions resulting from them (sequelae). Expected Learning Outcomes The candidate will learn to prevent, diagnose and treat the endodontic diseases and tooth injuries involving the pulp tissue. In addition, the candidate should be able to assess the result of treatment. After completing the course, the candidate should be able to safely deal with most endodontic problems encountered in general dental practice. The candidate’s clinical practice will be based on knowledge derived from the basic subjects. Knowledge - Conventional endodontics The candidate should: 30
  31. 31. − be able to explain preventive endodontics and the treatment of the vital pulp − be able to carry out an examination of a patient with an endodontics-related problem − know how to assess the status of pulp and periradicular tissue − have the knowledge necessary to be able to make a diagnosis and draw up a treatment plan focusing on what is best for the patient Skills - Conventional endodontics The candidate should: − be able to carry out an examination of a patient with an endodontics-related problem − be able to communicate with the patient in order to take a complete and relevant history, and put the endodontics into an overall context for the patient − act as a link between colleagues in the multidisciplinary planning and execution of such treatment − handle most types of endodontic treatment common in general dental practice − assess the outcomes of treatment − evaluate the need for restoration of endodontically treated teeth − be able to handle emergency treatment and follow-up of dental injuries − perform bleaching of teeth after root canal treatment − evaluate and carry out other necessary supplementary treatment if necessary − perform apexification of immature permanent teeth with pulp disease We refer to the Undergraduate Curriculum Guidelines for Endodontology - European Society of Endodontology (Int Endodont J 2001; 34: 574-80) for a more detailed description of knowledge and skills. Knowledge - Surgical endodontics The candidate should: − be able to diagnose and plan treatment for patients who need surgical endodontics − be able to explain and be conversant with dental biomaterials related to surgical endodontics − be familiar with the possible implications of systemic diseases for surgical endodontic treatment − be able to explain and be conversant with the principles and practice of surgical endodontics − be able to explain and have an understanding of the possibility of cross-infection in surgical endodontics, and how to control it Skills - Surgical endodontics The candidate should: − be able to communicate with the patient in order to take a complete and relevant history, and promote surgical endodontics as part of overall care 31
  32. 32. − control and evaluate surgical endodontic treatment − know the indications and possibilities for supplementary treatment, such as hemisection, root amputation, planned replantation and crown lengthening We refer to the Undergraduate Curriculum Guidelines for Endodontology - European Society of Endodontology (Int Endodont J 2001; 34: 574-80) for a more detailed description of knowledge and skills. Teaching and Quality Assurance The teaching includes lectures, demonstration, seminars, a preclinical course and clinical teaching. The subject-specific teaching begins with the preclinical course in the sixth semester. Subject-specific clinical teaching begins when the preclinical course has been completed and is concluded in the eighth semester. Teaching continues into the General dental Pracitice block. Research-based teaching is ensured in that the academic staff holds lectures and is obliged to teach in the clinic. Clinical teachers are kept up-to-date (departmental meetings), and they hold seminars which are quality assured by the academic staff. − Clinical endodontics should be taught by persons with special competence, or persons undergoing specialist training in endodontics. − The preclinical course is concluded with a theoretical test. The test must be approved before clinical service can begin. The test will be reviewed for each group (A-D) in a plenary meeting. − Clinic service is compulsory. − The students register the clinical work (type and number) and have it approved on a separate student card. This provides the basis for the evaluation of progress and variation in treatment prior to final approval of the course. − The students complete non-conformity forms for each endodontic treatment. This form is reviewed and signed by the group teacher/ person responsible for the session. − The non-conformity forms form the basis for changes in clinical procedures in the student clinic. − Evaluation of subject-specific tuition takes place in the form of written feedback to the candidates in the middle of the seventh semester (October/November). Final evaluation of subject-specific tuition takes place after the course has been completed (week 11 in the eighth semester). Candidates’ subject-specific tuition must be approved before they can proceed to the General Dental Practice block (exceptions can be made if a written plan for extra work focusing on endodontics in the General Dental Pracitice block has been drawn up in cooperation with the person with academic responsibility for the subject). Endodontics is also involved in tuition in the KOS block. − Clinical grades (Pass/Fail) are awarded in the tenth semester (based on subject-specific tuition and tuition in the General Dental Practice block). − Combined written exam in Endodontics 1 and Prosthodontics 1 (6 hours) at the end of the eighth semester. Approval of the subject-specific clinical course is a precondition for taking the exam (the exam can be taken if a written agreement has been entered into about extra work focusing on endodontics in the General Dental Practice block). 32
  33. 33. Oral Pharmacology Contents Pharmacology is the study of interactions between medicines and the living organism. The following topics are taught in dental pharmacology: − general pharmacology − local anaesthetics − analgesics − antimicrobial drugs − psychotropic drugs − anaesthetics/anxiolytics/sedatives − drugs for cardiovascular diseases − drugs affecting the blood − hormone medications − oral side effects of drugs − interactions − prescription studies − RELIS − use of Felleskatalogen (“The Norwegian Pharmaceutical Product Compendium of Medicinal Products marketed in Norway”) Expected Learning Outcomes The candidate should be able to explain basic concepts and definitions in general pharmacology. The candidate is also expected to be able to explain the pharmacological properties of medicines used in dentistry. The candidate should be able to explain the side effects of the drugs and drug interactions which could influence oral health. The candidate should be able to explain the rules concerning dentists’ right to requisition drugs set out in the Regulations relating to the Requisitioning and Dispensing of Drugs from Pharmacies. Teaching and Quality Assurance The teaching includes a subject-specific series of lectures on pharmacology, and lectures integrated into other teaching. Teaching is also provided in the KOS block. A three-hour written exam will be held at the end of the sixth semester. Cariology Contents The theoretical teaching should result in a deeper understanding of the oral ecosystem and its importance to the development of disease and damage to the dental hard tissues. The etiology, pathogenesis and diagnostics of injuries are studied, as are disease activity, prognoses, prevention work and reparative treatment. Cariology will also help increase the students’ 33
  34. 34. understanding of the significance of lifestyle, general state of health and social and cultural factors with respect to oral health. Expected Learning Outcomes The student is expected to acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to be able to diagnose, prevent and treat disease, mineralisation disorders and injuries to the dental hard tissues. The student should also be able to evaluate the prognosis and treatment and communicate with patients about this. Knowledge The student should be able to explain: − tooth development and dental development disorders − histopathological changes (in connection with pathology) in hard dental tissue − the function of the oral ecosystem, including the importance of diet to oral health and dental diseases − the composition, function and variation of saliva − the importance of general health, mental factors, medication and lifestyle to oral health/disease (for example eating disorders) − dryness of the mouth in connection with disease, medication, abuse (narcotic substances and alcohol) and radiation therapy, including diagnosis, thorough examination and possibilities for treatment/ relief − principles and methods for chemical and mechanical plaque control − differential diagnostics between various hard tissue injuries such as, for example, caries, tooth wear (erosion, abrasion, attrition) and mineralisation disorders, as well as their etiology, prophylaxis and the possibilities for reparative treatment − clinical and radiographic image of caries in enamel, dentine and cementum (root caries) − tooth pain from caries, tooth wear and other hard tissue injuries and the possibilities for treatment/ relief − the principles of the working mechanisms of fluoride, fluoride therapy as preventive treatment and the possible negative effects of fluoride − principles and indications of cavity design and the choice, use and handling of materials − complications and sequentae of caries therapy, filling defects and indications for the revision of fillings is required − causes of discolouration of teeth and possibilities for treatment (for example bleaching and microabrasion) − traditional clinical, radiological and more recent caries diagnostic methods − possibility and principles for cosmetic/ aesthetic dental health based on ethical considerations − the interpretation of caries-epidemiological data 34
  35. 35. Skills The student should be able to: − take a clinical history − perform clinical, radiological and other necessary examinations (for example saliva tests and dietary history) − make an adequate diagnosis and keep patient records − make a total assessment of the patient, assess disease activity and the prognosis − prioritise treatment needs, plan and carry out cause-oriented adequate prophylaxis and reparative therapy − evaluate the result of treatment, assess the prognosis and the intervals recall appointments − know his or her limitations, know when to seek help, and be able to communicate with patients, dental health personnel and health personnel in a relevant manner Attitudes The student must develop a positive and responsible attitude to preserving the natural dentition as well as possible, both in terms of function and aesthetics. Teaching and Quality Assurance Knowledge, technical skills and a responsible attitude will be achieved through lectures, seminars, group teaching, demonstrations and patient treatment. The clinical teaching will be closely linked to the subjects endodontics, periodontics and prosthodontics, as the subject- specific treatment will be carried out following an overall assessment of the patient. Tuition in cariology is partly subject-specific, and partly integrated in the blocks “Preclinical course/ Biomaterials” and “General Dental Practice”. Quality assurance of the clinical cariology work (third and fourth-year students) is carried out in the form of interviews between the group teachers and the students. These interviews take place every semester, partly as group interviews and partly individually, but the student also prepares a self-assessment report based on his or her clinical work. The group teacher makes a complete assessment and reports to the person responsible for the course/subject. Extra follow-up measures in accordance with the faculty’s procedures will be implemented if a student does not meet the expectations of the subject area. Work requirements: A certain number of treatments in the clinic are required. Research-based teaching is ensured by: − the academic staff having an obligation to teach at the clinic − the clinical teachers receiving hand-outs from the lectures and listening in on the lectures if they can − the clinical teachers holding seminars that are quality assured by the academic staff − regular teacher/staff meetings on relevant topics Assessment forms: − Test after “Preclinical Cariology”: Internal examiner 35
  36. 36. − Test after the “Integrated Clinical Introductory Course” (fifth semester): Internal examiner − Written exam (eighth semester): Internal and external examiners − Written exam (tenth semester, in the General Dental Practice block): Internal and external examiners Quality Assurance of Teaching − The preclinical cariology course finishes with a written test − The Integrated Clinical Introductory Course concludes with a written test. After the test, the students are informed about the correct answers. − Attendance records are kept for the compulsory part of the course (clinic and seminars). Minor deviations will be pointed out verbally, more serious ones in writing. − The students register the number of approved clinical activities on a student card themselves, and the clinical teacher gives his or her approval by signing the card. A special self-assessment report makes it easier to follow up the progress of students’ work during the course. The student cards form an important basis for the evaluation of progress and whether the amount of clinical work units can be approved at the end of the clinical course. − Group interviews and a “performance appraisal interview” between students and the group teacher are carried out each semester. − The students’ progress in clinical service is evaluated regularly. The students receive oral feedback from the group teacher. Students who deviate seriously from normal progress are also given written feedback. Extra follow-up is provided in the clinic if necessary. There is a three-hour written exam in cariology. The subject-specific clinical service must be approved before the student can proceed to the General Dental Practice block. Oral Microbiology Contents The general part of the course deals with the classification of micro-organisms and their structure, biological functions and pathogenic properties. The main emphasis will be on bacteria, fungi and viruses relevant to dentistry. The interaction between microorganisms and the host organism and between different microorganisms in the local environment (micro- ecology) will be explained. An introduction is also given as to why bacteria may become resistant to antimicrobial drugs and how such resistance can spread to other bacteria. The part dealing with oral microbiology explains the microorganisms and micro-ecology of the oral cavity and what this means to oral health and infections in the teeth, periodontium, mucous membranes and mandibulars. The spread of oral infections to other parts of the body and the possible connection between chronic oral bacterial infections and disease processes in other parts of the body will be discussed. Expected Learning Outcomes Knowledge The candidate should be able to explain: 36
  37. 37. − how the relevant microorganisms, microbial dental plaque (biofilm) and micro- ecological changes can lead to infection and inflammation − that infections do not always cause clinical symptoms and tissue changes in patients, but that these patients can still represent an infection risk − and use knowledge of dental biofilm prophylactically, i.e. to prevent such biofilm from being formed and biofilm-related diseases developing as a result − and be able to take samples of saliva and dental plaque and know how these samples can be used to determine the amount of caries bacteria in order to determine a patient’s risk of caries − how the effectiveness of sterilizers can be examined microbiologically Skills The candidate should be able to: − handle microorganisms safely − cultivate microorganisms on growth media and assess their growth − produce Gram slides and examine them in a microscope − carry out sterilizer control with spore tests Attitudes The candidate should: − be motivated for the prevention of caries and gum disease based on microbacteriological knowledge − organise his or her work in a manner that minimises the risk of him/herself becoming infected − based on his or her knowledge of infectious diseases, practice the recommended infection prevention measures when treating patients − adopt a restrictive attitude to the use of antimicrobial drugs in dentistry based on his or her knowledge of the dangers of spreading resistant bacteria in order to contribute to minimising the spread of resistance to antimicrobial drugs Teaching and Quality Assurance Teaching consists of lectures, compulsory laboratory courses, use of the student portal and two-way communication between the subject teacher and the students via group e-mail. The students submit their laboratory records, which must be approved before the students can take the test stipulated in the curriculum in the fifth semester. Oral Radiology Contents In Oral radiology students learn how X-radiation is formed, what its effect is and how X-rays are used to create images of teeth, periodontium and facial structures. They also learn to interpret radiographs. 37
  38. 38. Expected Learning Outcomes The candidate will learn about the physical background to X-ray diagnostics, radiobiology and radiation hygiene, roentgenographical materials and digital imaging technology, examination techniques, normal and pathological X-ray anatomy, indications for X-ray examinations and the reliability of X-ray diagnostics. The candidate should be able to use X- ray diagnostics in general dental practice. Knowledge The candidate should be able to explain: − different types of electromagnetic radiation, their properties and characteristics − the structure and function of the X-ray machine − the interaction between X-rays and matter, and biological effects − measurement of X-radiation and radiation dosages in mandibular and facial diagnostics − radiation hygiene measures and radiation injuries − indications for X-ray diagnostics − X-ray films, intensification screens and cassettes − darkroom procedures − sensors for digital imaging diagnostics − examination techniques − normal and pathological X-ray anatomy − artefacts and the reliability of X-ray diagnostics Skills The candidate should be able to: − choose a setting and carry out examinations of different types of patients using intraoral films, sensors and phosphorous plates, plus extraorally positioned films and panoramic exposures − interpret radiographs with regard to quality and decide which pictures must be retaken or supplemented − perform a simple contrast examination of the fistulography type − identify the normal anatomical structures of the mandibular, the mandibular joint and adjoining areas − identify dental materials in X-ray images − diagnose specific diseases and conditions of the teeth, periodontium, the mandibulars and adjoining areas Attitudes Students must be responsible and caring towards their patients and ensure that the examination does not involve greater radiation exposure for the patients than necessary. 38

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