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Steve Silverstein (PowerPoint) Opens a New Window
 

Steve Silverstein (PowerPoint) Opens a New Window

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  • Bisphenol-A was originally developed for use as synthetic estrogen, but is now used as a chemical building block that is used to make epoxy resins. Composite resins are formulated from a mixture of monomers called bis-GMA, but there is no known use of BPA by itself in Dental Sealants Based on data form 3 studies, it appears that low levels of BPA may be released into saliva from certain Sealants right after application. BPA has not been found in blood and systemic exposure does not occur.
  • Therefore, in conclusion: Taken together, the weight of evidence does not support the hypothesis that low oral doses of BPA adversely affect human reproduction and developmental health There is no scientific basis for the ordinance and the SF government officials did not solicit any input, in particular scientific input, before taking action.
  • WASHINGTON - Silver fillings used to patch cavities aren't dangerous even though they expose dental patients to the toxic metal mercury, federal health researchers said Friday. The Food and Drug Administration reviewed 34 recent research studies and found "no significant new information" that would change its determination that mercury-based fillings don't harm patients, except in rare cases where they have allergic reactions.
  • WASHINGTON, Sept. 7, 2006 (AP)  Government health advisers rejected a federal report that concluded dental fillings used by millions of patients are safe, saying further study of the mercury-laden amalgam is needed. A joint panel of Food and Drug Administration advisers did not declare the so-called "silver fillings" unsafe. But in a 13-7 vote Thursday, the advisers said the federal report didn't objectively and clearly present the current state of knowledge about the fillings. In a second 13-7 vote, the panelists said the report's conclusions about safety weren't reasonable, given the quantity and quality of information currently available The Food and Drug Administration reviewed 34 recent research studies and found "no significant new information" that would change its determination that mercury-based fillings don't harm patients, except in rare cases where they have allergic reactions.
  • Recently, the New York State Department of Health released practice guidelines titled: Oral Health Care during Pregnancy and Early Childhood ( http://cdhp.org/Projects/PPMCHResources.asp ) This is how New York State addressed this issue: Jay Kumar, DDS, MPH Bureau of Dental Health New York State Department of Health
  • What advice should I give about the use of dental amalgam fillings during pregnancy? All health professionals should educate women about the potential harm that can accrue from untreated caries during pregnancy. Women with symptomatic caries or deep decay should be treated promptly, including in the first trimester. The oral health professional and the pregnant woman should determine the best treatment options based on an evaluation of the benefits, risks and alternatives of using dental amalgam fillings.
  • What advice should I give about the use of dental amalgam fillings during pregnancy ? The elemental mercury found in dental amalgams is different from methyl mercury, a form of organic mercury. The consumption of fish and seafood is the major source of organic mercury. The ingestion of methyl mercury during pregnancy is more of a concern than mercury vapor released from dental amalgams.
  • Purpose was to compare sealants with Fl. Varnish in the prevention of occlusal caries in permanent 1 st molars: 4 yrs. of the program + 5 yrs. of discontinuation.
  • Results: Sealants Sealants were effective in reducing caries during the program and the effect continued 5 yrs. after discontinuation. Fl. Varnish Fl. Varnish was effective during the program, but the preventive effect appeared to cease during the discontinuation period. There was no rebound effect. The molars did not show the high risk found for the control molars. Overall the effect of the 4 yr. program remained significant.
  • Objective : To assess the effect of a single 10% povidone iodine application as an adjunct to extensive dental tx. in ECC. Conclusions: Prophylaxis, Fl. Gel tx. and complete treatment of caries were insufficient to prevent new caries in over 60% of these high risk infants. One time tx. with povidone iodine reduced SM and Lact. for 3 months, but failed to reduce future caries formation over 1 year.
  • Objective: Identify, in a group of 6-8 yr. old , risk factors for dental caries increment in permanent dentition. Results : Past dental decay in primary teeth and mother’s educational level were predictors of caries in permanent dentition.
  • Objective : To assess, the effect of flossing on interproximal caries. Results : Professional flossing on school days for 1.7 yrs. on primary teeth was associated with a 40% caries risk reduction. Self flossing has failed to show an effect.
  • Objective : Analyze fluid intake data among 2-10 yr. old children in NHANES III (1988-94). Results : 13% of the children had high carbonated soft drink consumption, they had higher dental caries experience in primary dentition than other patterns. A fluid intake pattern, milk, water, or juice was less likely to be associated with dental caries.

Steve Silverstein (PowerPoint) Opens a New Window Steve Silverstein (PowerPoint) Opens a New Window Presentation Transcript

  • Dental Public Health Update California Children’s Dental Disease Prevention Conference Sacramento, CA October 24, 2006 Steven J. Silverstein, DMD, MPH Professor UCSF School of Dentistry
  • Overview
    • Sealants
    • Amalgam Controversy
    • Fluoride
    • Antibacterials
    • Caries Predictors
    • Floss
    • Soft Drinks
  • Sealants
    • On June 16, 2006 Mayor Gavin Newsom signed into law the banning of Bisphenol-A (BPA) in articles or products intended for use in children under 3 years of age only in San Francisco
    What does this have do with Dental Sealants?...
  • Sealants & BPA
    • BPA originally developed as synthetic estrogen, but is now used to make resins.
    • Composite resins formulated from a mixture , but no known use of BPA by itself in sealants.
    • Low levels of BPA may be released into saliva from sealants right after application.
  • Sealants & BPA
    • In conclusion:
    • “Taken together, the weight of evidence does not support the hypothesis that low oral doses of BPA adversely affect human reproduction and developmental health.”
    • thus…
    • No scientific basis for the ordinance
    • SF government did not solicit any input
    www.bisphenol-a.org
  • Sealants recommendations
    • Evidence-based Recommendations for the Use of Sealants A. Reeves, F. Chiappelli, & O.Cajulis
    • CDA Journal. Vol.34, July 2006, UCLA School of Dentistry
    • The preventive effect for 2 nd generation sealants ranges from 33%-71%. The median preventive effect is higher when sealants are reapplied, compared to a single application, because sealant effectiveness decreases over time.
  • Amalgam Controversy
    • “Federal review finds no scientific evidence of harm from mercury fillings.”
    • September 1, 2006 , The Associated Press
      • Silver fillings aren't dangerous despite exposure to mercury.
      • The Food and Drug Administration reviewed 34 recent research studies.
  • Amalgam Controversy
    • FDA Advisers: Fillings May Not Be Safe
    • September 7, 2006 , The Associated Press
      • Government health advisers rejected the federal report
        • “ ...didn't objectively and clearly present the current state of knowledge about fillings.”
        • “… the report's conclusions about safety weren't reasonable.”
  • Amalgam Controversy
    • New York State Department of Health Practice Guidelines: Oral Health Care during Pregnancy and Early Childhood
    • Jay Kumar, DDS, MPH Bureau of Dental Health New York State Department of Health
    • http://cdhp.org/Projects/PPMCHResources.asp
  • Amalgam Controversy
    • What advice should I give about the use of dental amalgam fillings during pregnancy?
    • All health professionals should educate women about the potential harm of untreated caries during pregnancy.
    • Women with symptomatic or severe caries should be treated promptly, including in the 1 st trimester.
    • The oral health professional and the pregnant woman should determine the best treatment options based on the benefits, risks and alternatives of using dental amalgam fillings.
  • Amalgam Controversy
    • What advice should I give about the use of dental amalgam fillings during pregnancy ?
    • The elemental mercury found in dental amalgams is different from methyl mercury, a form of organic mercury.
    • The consumption of fish and seafood is the major source of organic mercury.
    • The ingestion of methyl mercury during pregnancy is more of a concern than mercury vapor released from dental amalgams.
  • Fluoride – Clinical Trial Sealant & Fluoride Varnish in Caries: A Randomized Trial M. Bravo, J. Montero, J.J.Bravo, P. Baca, and J.C. Llodra J Dent Res 84(12):1138-1143, 2005. Granada, Spain Purpose : to compare sealants with fluoride varnish in the prevention of occlusal caries in permanent 1 st molars – 4 yrs. of the program + 5 yrs. of discontinuation.
  • Fluoride – Clinical Trial Results: Sealants effective in reducing caries both during the program and 5 years after discontinuation. Fluoride Varnish effective during the program, but not in the discontinuation period. No rebound effect. The molars did not show the high risk found in the control molars. Overall effect of the 4 yr. program remained significant.
    • Professionally applied topical fluoride: Evidence-based clinical recommendations
    • JADA, Vol. 137, August 2006 (See handout Table 3)
    Fluoride – Recommendations
    • Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries
    • Weintraub, Ramos-Gomez, Jue, Shain, Hoover, Featherstone, & Gansky J Dent Res 85(2):172-176. 2006
    • No related adverse events were reported. Fluoride varnish added to caregiver counseling is efficacious in reducing early childhood caries incidence. Fluoride varnish applications resulted in a dose-response effect.
    Fluoride – Clinical Trial
    • Antibacterial Tx. Needed for Severe Early Childhood Caries Zhan, Featherstone, Gansky, Hoover, Fujino, Berkowitz, Den Bestin
    • J Public Health Dent. Vol. 66. Summer 2006. UCSF
    • Objective : Assess the effect of povidone iodine as an adjunct to treat ECC.
    • Conclusions : Prophy, fluoride gel, and caries treatment did not prevent new caries in > 60% of high risk infants. Single application of povidone iodine reduced SM and LB for 3 months, but failed to reduce future caries formation over 1 year.
    Antibacterial Treatment
    • Assessment of Dental Caries Predictors in a 7 yr. Longitudinal Study Tagliaferro, Pereira, Meneghim, Ambrosano.
    • J Public Health Dent. Vol.66. Summer 2006. Brazil
    • Objective : Identify risk factors for dental caries increment in permanent dentition in 6-8 year old children.
    • Results : Past dental caries in primary teeth and mother’s educational level were significant predictors of caries.
    Caries Predictors
    • Dental Flossing and Interproximal Caries: A Systematic Review
    • Hujoel, Cunha-Cruz, Banting, Loesche J Dent Res 85(4):298-305. 2006
    • Objective : Assess the effect of flossing on interproximal caries.
    • Results : Professional flossing for 1.7 yrs. on primary teeth was associated with a 40% caries risk reduction. Self flossing showed no effect.
    Floss
    • Carbonated Soft Drinks and Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition
    • Sohn, Burt, Sowers J Dent Res 85(3):262-266. 2006
    • Objective : Analyze fluid intake data among 2-10 yr. old children in NHANES III (1988-94).
    • Results : 13% of children had high carbonated soft drink consumption, higher caries experience in primary dentition than other patterns. A fluid intake pattern, milk, water, or juice was less likely to be associated with dental caries.
    Soft Drinks