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Shortage of Hispanic Dentists

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  • U.S Census defines Hispanic as people who originate from Spanish speaking countries or regions.
  • This shows the variability in the Hispanic population. People of Hispanic origin were able to report their origin as Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban and South/Central American or some other Latino origin.
  • Retirement- The population is aging, and the average ages of the faculty members is 49.9 yrs old. Indebtedness: Replacing the retirees is very hard because usually graduates (45% of them) have $100,000 in debt. Debt clearly influences career decisions. They usually go to private practice. When asked how many were considering an academic career the number was 1 - 0.5% ---- that means that 20 students among all graduating senior were interested in pursuing an academic career. Job changes: Faculty decide to change careers or go to other academic institutions. Move to private practice: In terms of salary, schools compare fairly well with for a general dentist faculty member versus the general dentist practitioner, but nowhere close for the specialist. Insufficient Qualifications: There are 3 reasons deans gave to explain the inablity to fill a position. No interest from dentists. Dentist with insufficient scholarly requirements. Salary budget limitations.
  • Fellowships and Scholarships : They help students who have significant loans posing an obstacle of pursuing academic careers. Foundations can pay for tuitions of residencies with a future commitment of the student to provide a number of years of service in academia. DHPSA: Schools can apply if they belong to a DHPSA and have faculty with loan repayment programs. Research Grants: Schools can apply for grants that enhance the development of research agendas. Schools can then use the monies of the grants for anything that helps the university grow their research agenda including recruitment and retention of faculty. Mentoring programs: Senior faculty can mentor junior faculty broad their interests on academic careers.
  • The report also states that Hispanics who dropout of school are much more likely to be employed and working full- time than their white or African American counterparts.

Transcript

  • 1. Shortage of Hispanic Dentists National Hispanic Medical Association Hispanic Health Congressional Briefing Series “ Diversity in the Health Professions” September 24, 2003 Ivonne Ganem, DDS, MPH Temple University School of Dentistry Hispanic Dental Association
  • 2. Hispanics
    • Comprise almost 13.5 % of the population. Largest minority in the U.S. Hispanic population grew nearly 4 times the rate of the U.S. population overall in the past 2 years.
    • U.S Census defines Hispanic as people who originate from Spanish speaking countries or regions.
    • Federal government considers Hispanic an “ethnicity”, not a race, Hispanic people can classify themselves as any race.
    • The Latino population was spurred in large part by immigrants seeking jobs.
  • 3. Hispanics
    • Census Bureau released the following socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of Hispanics:
      • 2/3 are of Mexican descent
      • 1/3 younger than 18, compared to 1/5 of non-Hispanic whites.
      • 2 in 5 were born outside the country.
      • 2 in 5 Hispanics age 25 and older- no high school degree. Hispanics with Puerto Rican and Cuban background were more likely to have a high school degree.
      • Poverty rate of 21% was 3 times greater than that of non- Hispanic whites
  • 4. Hispanics
  • 5. Shortage of Dental Faculty
    • American Dental Education Association (ADEA) reported:
      • No. unfilled faculty positions: 400 in yr. 2000 4% increase in the following year.
      • From 1992- 2002, number of vacant budgeted faculty positions increased approx. 50% with an average of 6.5 vacancies in 2002.
      • 75% vacancies are in clinical sciences (specialties).
      • 20% of positions have been vacant for 12 months or longer in 2002
  • 6. Shortage of Dental Faculty
      • Why the separations of full-time dental faculty from dental schools ?
      • - Retirement – 34%. There is an estimate that in the next decade there will be 800 - 1,200 faculty members retiring.
      • - Indebtedness – 45% of grads. average $100,000 in debt.
      • - Job changes - 33%
      • - Death- 4%
      • Move to private practice – 18% - salary gaps.
      • Insufficient qualifications.
  • 7. Shortage of Dental Faculty
      • Dental school faculty shortage is a problem or recruitment and retention.
      • Recommendations:
      • Fellowships and scholarships.
      • Loan Repayment Programs in DHPSA (Dental Health Professional Shortage Areas)
      • Research grants.
      • Mentoring programs.
  • 8. Shortage of Dentists
      • Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and the American Dental Association (ADA) project a continued decline of dentist to population ratio.
      • 2020 projected ratio is : 52.7 per 100,000
      • By 2014- No. of retiring dentists will surpass number of dental school graduates.
      • ADEA expects the trend to continue until 2031.
  • 9. Dentistry and Hispanics
    • Surgeon General Report states that members of ethnic and minority groups in the U.S. , including Hispanics, are experiencing disproportionate level of oral health problems.
    • Disparities attributed to:
      • Language, culture, dietary patterns and access to care
  • 10. Dentistry and Hispanics
    • Studies have shown that Hispanics feel more comfortable with Hispanic dental professionals.
    • ADA Dentist Profile Survey in 1996, showed that race/ethnicity of dentists influence race/ethnicity of patients.
    • Black and Hispanic dentists reported they treated the greatest proportion of patients whose annual family income were less than $15,000.
  • 11. Dentistry and Hispanics
    • Facts:
    • HDA- Study that found that there were 11,789 Hispanic dentists in the US. 9,451 dentists not including Puerto Rico and Guam.
    • 4% of nation’s dentist were Hispanic when compared to 13.5% of the population.
    • 1 of 8 residents of the U.S. is Hispanic
    • 1of 17 dentists is Hispanic.
    • There are 26.8 dentists/100,000 pop.
  • 12. Dentistry and Hispanics
    • Facts:
    • California and Texas have ½ the nation’s Hispanic pop., but only 1/3 of Hispanic dentists. Ratio of 17.2 per 100,000. Both states rank as near the bottom in Hispanic dentists per capita.
    • According to the JDE:
    • - In 2000 class had only 227 Hispanics (5.35% of all enrollees).
    • - In 2000 only 6.5% of applicants to dental schools in the U.S were Hispanic.
  • 13. Dentistry and Hispanics
    • U.S. Dentist-Population Ratio by
    • Race/Ethnicity
    • (BHPr, HRSA, 1996)
    • Total Black Hispanic Asian White
    • Dent. 154,900 5,200 5,200 10,700 133,600
    • DMD: Pop1 :1700 1:6000 1:5400 1:860 1:1450
  • 14. Dentistry and Hispanics
    • Dentists & Patients by Race/Ethnicity
    • %Patients: White Hispanic Black Asian
    • Dentists
    • White 76.6% 8.5% 10.5% 3.2%
    • Hispanic 43.6% 45.4% 9.8% 3.0%
    • Black 27.0% 7.9% 61.8% 2.3%
    • Asian 47.5% 14.5% 11.5% 25.1%
    • (ADA, 2000)
  • 15. Dentistry and Hispanics
    • Full time Dental Faculty as of 2001
    • Number Percentage
    • Native American 22 0.5
    • Asian Pacific 427 9.0
    • Black/AA 250 5.3
    • Hispanic/ Latino 217 4.6
    • White 3,724 78.7
    • Other/ Not reported 95 2.0
    • Total : 4,735
    • ADEA 2001
  • 16. Dentistry and Hispanics Gender and Race/ Ethnicity of Faculty ADEA 2001-02. Includes Full- time and Part-time faculty 303 (6.4% is in Mainland) 106 in P.R. 12 17 in P.R. U.S. total without Puerto Rico 409 29 U.S. Total (Includes Male and Female) Clinical sciences Basic Sciences Hispanic
  • 17. Dentistry and Hispanics
    • Percent of Professionally Active Dentists by Gender and Race/Ethnicity
    • Male 85.9%
    • Female 14.1%
    • Native American 0.1%
    • Asian/Pacific Islander 6.9%
    • Black/African American 3.4%
    • Hispanic/Latino 3.3%
    • White/Caucasian 86.3%
    • Source: American Dental Association
    • Bureau of Health Professions, HRSA
  • 18. Dentistry and Hispanics Dentists’ Participation in Capitation and Preferred Provider Dental Plans: 1999 50.0% Neither Plan 12.8% PPO & Capitation 34.8% PPO only 2.4% Capitation only
  • 19. Hispanic Serving Institutions
    • Provide Hispanic Americans with access to college education.
    • HIS’s are degree granting institutions where at least 25% of full-time-equivalent undergraduates are who are U.S. citizens or resident aliens are Hispanic.
    • According to the Pew Hispanic Center Report,drop out rate for Latinos declined from 15.2% in 1990 to 14% in 2000 - twice that of whites.
    • Report reveals in the decade from 1990 to 2000 – dropout rate was a measure of immigration trends rather that how U.S. schools were performing.
  • 20. Hispanic Serving Institutions 874,270 693,111 (includes undergrad. & post-baccalaureate) Hispanic Bachelor’s Degrees 2000-01 Associate Degrees in 2000-01 Total Enrollment Fall 2000 Institution 37,186 37,049 1,831,872 50 States & P.R. 21,459 30,921 1,650,117 50 states
  • 21. Examples of State Efforts
    • Improve dentist participation in Medicaid
    • Loan forgiveness programs
    • Scholarships
    • New dental schools
    • Tax incentives
    • Expand allied programs
    • Change licensure requirements
    • Primary school-based clinical care
    • Hospital-based programs