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  • 1. Functional Optical Brain Imaging Sensor utilizing Near Infrared Technology Ata Akin, Banu Onaral, Kambiz Pourrezaei Drexel University Scott Bunce MCP Hahnemann University Britton Chance, Shoko Nioka University of Pennsylvania Sponsors: ONR Drexel University
  • 2. Project Overview
    • Objectives
      • Research, development and deployment of an optical brain monitoring/imaging system based on functional Near Infrared (fNIR) imaging modality.
      • Deployment in various health applications where blood oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex is linked to the state of mental engagement and other educational and clinical parameters.
  • 3. Project Goals
    • An integration of a pulse laser/LEDs, low power circuitry, and signal and image processing :
      • To provide a means to assess the performance of a pilot or operator,
      • To measure cognitive over-load ,
      • Compatible with existing legacy and COTS systems
    • Dual use deployment , military and civilian (healthcare, training and education)
  • 4. Biophotonics Optical techniques for diagnostic and therapeutic applications
    • Photodynamic therapy
    • Laser surgery
    Diagnostics & Imaging Treatment & Surgery Microscopic < 100  m Macroscopic > 100  m
    • Two-Photon (multi photon) microscopy
    • Fluorescence microscopy
    • Optical Coherence Tomography
    • Tissue spectroscopy
    • X-Ray
    • Optical Radiation (thermograph)
    • Diffuse Photon Density Waves
  • 5. Fields of Application
    • Dermatology, plastic surgery
    • Cardiovascular interventions
    • Gastrointestinal surgery
    • Breast cancer diagnosis
    • Ophthalmic technologies
    • Dentistry
    • Brain Activity Monitoring
    • Muscular Activation
    • Metabolism Research
    • Others
    • Laser tissue interaction
    • Tissue engineering
    • Thermal treatment of tissue
    • Functional imaging of living cells and tissues
    • Microscopy
    • Molecular probes and dyes
    • Nanoparticles
    • Tumor treatment
    • Microarrays
    • Others
    Clinical Applications Basic Sciences FOCUS OF TODAY’S PRESENTATION
  • 6. Optical Window in Tissue
    • Light in the 700-900 nm wavelength range (Near Infrared) can penetrate into tissue up to 5-6 cm
    • Light sources working within this range can be used in investigating the optical properties of tissue
    Near IR 800 nm Source: Detects changes in Blood Volume 850 nm Source: Detects changes in oxygenated-Hb ( [HbO 2 ] ) 750 nm Source: Detects changes in deoxygenated-Hb ( [ Hb] )
  • 7. Physics of Light Tissue interaction Single Scattering Multiple Scattering Diffusion Process In air In Clean Water In Tissue
  • 8. Activation Areas Imaging Cognition II: An empirical Review of 275 PET and fMRI Studies R. Cabeza and L. Nyberg J. Cognitive Neuroscience, (12):1, pp. 1-47, 2000 10 , 9 , 44 Episodic Memory Retrieval (nonverbal) 6, 9 , 46 , 45 , 44 Episodic Memory Encoding (Object) 45 Semantic Memory Retrieval (Categorization) 9 , 46 , 45 , 44 Working Memory (object) 9 Attention Areas Process
  • 9. Probing Brain with Light [1]    W. Kuschinsky, “Neuronal-vascular coupling, a unifying hypothesis,” in Optical Imaging of Brain Function and Metabolism II, ed. A. Villringer and U. Dirnagl, Plenum Press, 1997 P. J. Magistretti and L.Pellerin, “Metabolic coupling during activation,” in Optical Imaging of Brain Function and Metabolism II, ed. A. Villringer and U. Dirnagl, Plenum Press, 1997 Photon Migration in Tissue Source Detector
  • 10. Work in Progress
    • Noninvasive
    • Non-intrusive
    • Safe
    • Affordable
    • Portable
    • Combines spatial resolution and time resolution
  • 11. COGNISCOPE: BRAIN ACTIVITY MONITOR
  • 12. Cogniscope
    • Combination of EEG and fNIR sensors to continuously monitor neuronal and hemodynamic changes
    • Motivation: A need to monitor brain activity with high temporal resolution (10 ms range) to better quantify physiological changes due to external stimuli
    • Hypothesis:
      • A portable optical brain imaging system can provide a quantitative and fast means of monitoring and imaging cognitive brain activity under mental stress
      • The relationship between neuronal (EEG) and hemodynamic activity (fNIR) can be established to evaluate/predict human performance under stress
  • 13. Cogniscope
    • Potential Uses
      • Cognitive activity engagement
      • Classroom evaluation
      • Soldier/pilot state monitoring
      • Alertness/vigilance assessment
      • Mental disorders assessment
      • Sleep disorders
      • Co-registration with fMRI
      • Others…
    Patent Pending
  • 14. Cogniscope Headband
    • System on Chip
    • DAQ
    • T/R
    • Power
    • DSP
    • Data Fusion
    • Diagnostics
    • Alarm
    Patent Pending
  • 15. Long-term Goals
    • Develop a quantitative technique to evaluate human performance based on the fusion of several physiological parameters
    • Use of multi-modality signal/image acquisition/processing in modeling dynamic interactions between cognition, perception, memory, learning, emotional control mechanisms and decision under stress