1. The Evolution of
Lasers in Dentistry:
Ruby to YSGG By James Jesse, DDS
Sandip Desai, DDS
and Patrick Oshita, DDS
4 Continuing Dental
2. The Evolution of Ruby
Lasers in Dentistry to YSGG
By James Jesse, DDS, Sandip Desai, DDS, and Patrick Oshita, DDS
An amazing transformation Fig. 1. Indications for use for the YSGG laser.
Hard • Class I, II, III, IV and V cavity preparation
is occurring in dentistry with a technology breakthrough that Tissue • Caries removal
• Hard tissue surface roughening and etching
provides dentists with the capability to perform a wide range • Enameloplasty, excavation of pits and ﬁssures for placement of
of clinical procedures with improved patient outcomes, less
trauma, reduced post-op complications and in most cases Root Canal • Tooth preparation to obtain access to a root canal
• Root canal preparation including enlargement
with no need for injections. Plus, this new technology greatly • Root canal debridement and cleaning
• Pulpotomy as an adjunct to root canal therapy
expands the scope of procedures a dentist can oﬀer their
Endo • Flap preparation – incision of soft tissue to prepare a ﬂap and
patients. Surgery expose the bone
• Cutting bone to prepare a window access to the apex (apices) of
Dentists are now successfully integrating Er,Cr:YSGG laser • Apicoectomy – amputation of the root end
technology (Waterlase® YSGG laser, BIOLASE Technology, • Root end preparation for retroﬁll amalgam or composite
• Removal of pathological tissues (i.e., cysts, neoplasm or abscess)
Inc.) into practice with the broadest indications for use of any and hyperplastic tissues (i.e., granulation tissue) from around the
apex. (NOTE: Any tissue growth (i.e., cyst, neoplasm or other lesions) must be
other laser in medicine or dentistry. Lasers, which have long submitted to a qualiﬁed laboratory for histopathological evaluation)
been the standard of care in ophthalmology, dermatology Bone • Cutting, shaving, contouring and resection of oral osseous tissues
• Osteoplasty and osseous recontouring (removal of bone to correct
and plastic surgery are typically a single wavelength laser osseous defects and create physiologic osseous contours)
• Ostectomy (resection of bone to restore bony architecture,
purchased for a speciﬁc application. For example, an excimer resection of bone for grafting, etc.)
laser for refractive surgery, argon for retinal surgery, and a • Osseous crown lengthening
Soft Tissue • Incision, excision, vaporization, ablation and coagulation of oral soft
Q-switch Nd:YAG for capsulotomies, a Q-switched ruby for tissues, including: excisional and incisional biopsies
tattoo removal, diode for hair removal, and an Er:YAG for skin • Exposure of unerupted teeth
• Fibroma removal
resurfacing. Even so, these medical professionals recognize • Flap preparation – incision of soft tissue to prepare a ﬂap and
expose the bone
these lasers still provide excellent return on investment and • Frenectomy and frenotomy
• Gingival troughing for crown impressions
superior clinical results for new, unique procedures speciﬁc to • Gingival troughing for crown impressions
• Gingivectomy or gingivoplasty
lasers. • Gingival incision and excision
While lasers have been involved in dentistry for more • Implant recovery
• Incision and drainage of abscesses
than 20 years, until recently, no single laser had been cleared • Leukoplakia
for and is capable for use on all oral tissues, including hard • Oral papillectomies
tissue, soft tissue, endo, perio, and bone. That all changed • Pulp extirpation
with the introduction of the YSGG laser. This laser was the ﬁrst • Reduction of gingival hypertrophy
• Soft tissue crown lengthening
to obtain marketing clearances for use on all oral tissues, and • Treatment of canker sores, herpetic and aphthous ulcers of the oral
it has emerged as the pinnacle of the dental laser revolution. • Vestibuloplasty
Dentists now have access to a single instrument that can Perio • Sulcular debridement (removal of diseased or inﬂamed soft tissue
in the periodontal pocket to improve clinical indices including
be utilized in all areas of their clinical practice, and provide gingival index, gingival bleeding index, probe depth, attachment
new opportunities for increased ROI and improved patient loss and tooth mobility)
• Flap preparation -- incision of soft tissue to prepare a ﬂap and
care. According to Deidrich and Bushick in the February expose unerupted teeth (hard and soft tissue impactions)
• Full thickness ﬂap
2004 edition of the Journal of the American Dental Association, • Partial thickness ﬂap
• Split thickness ﬂap
the advent of the YSGG laser is the “most important recent • Removal of granulation tissue from bony defects
• Laser soft tissue curettage of the post-extraction tooth sockets and
development in laser dentistry.” the periapical area during apical surgery
3. The Evolution of Lasers in Dentistry: Ruby to YSGG 2
Terminology and Concepts
in Laser Dentistry
Before exploring the evolution
of dental lasers, it is important to
understand several terms and concepts
when discussing laser dentistry. Lasers
are usually named for the “active
medium” that is charged with energy
inside the laser unit to create laser light.
For example, the YSGG laser receives its
name from the elements that compose
the crystal medium inside the laser
system – yttrium, scandium, gallium
and garnet, doped with erbium and
Fig. 2. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Lasers have certain properties based on their position in the electromagnetic
chromium. When the crystal is pumped
wave spectrum. The YSGG laser emits a wavelength of 2,780 nanometers, in the mid-infrared spectrum. with energy, a speciﬁc, monochromatic
wavelength of light is emitted from
the crystal and transferred to the target
tissue through a delivery system. In the
case of the YSGG laser, the wavelength
delivered from the laser through a
ﬁber optic cable is 2,780 nanometers.
Other lasers, such as the Nd:YAG lasers
operate at 1,064 nanometers, CO2 lasers
at 10,600 nanometers, Erbium:YAG at
2,940 nanometers, and so on (Fig. 2
– Electromagnetic Spectrum).
Another key concept is that
diﬀerent lasers react with tissue in
diﬀerent ways. Depending on their
“absorption coeﬃcient,” laser light has
properties that cause it to interact and
absorb diﬀerently with target tissue. For
Fig. 3. Absorption Coeﬃcient Table. The YSGG laser is near the peak absorption in water, which allows it to example, the laser light from a diode
eﬀectively cut enamel, dentin, hydroxyapatite and bone. Despite their proximity on the scale, the Er,Cr:YSGG and
Er:YAG are separated by more than 300% on the scale. laser is most eﬀectively absorbed in
The present report addresses a brief history of dental lasers, and the evolution of darker pigment and melanin, which
these systems from the ﬁrst ruby laser to the YSGG laser. This report also addresses the makes it an ideal tool for use in cutting
wide array of clinical applications (Fig. 1) using the YSGG laser, including hard tissue, and coagulating soft tissue. The YSGG
soft tissue, endo, perio, and bone, as well as new applications that continue to shape laser is well absorbed in water and
an emerging standard of preventive and minimally invasive care in dentistry. hydroxyapatite (Fig. 3 - Absorption
Coeﬃcient Table), which makes it an
Although lasers have not yet replaced conventional instrumentation in all excellent tool for cutting enamel, dentin,
applications, this report of the clinical uses of the YSGG laser clearly demonstrates that bone, and soft tissue.
no other instrument in dentistry has the versatility and clinical utility of this device.
4. 3 The Evolution of Lasers in Dentistry: Ruby to YSGG
A Brief History of Lasers The Dental Laser
The ﬁrst laser was developed by
Theodore H. Maiman. Using a theory The search for a laser system with
originally postulated by Einstein, broader applications in dentistry led Dr.
Maiman created a device where a Terry Meyers and his brother William,
crystal medium was stimulated by an ophthalmologist, to select the Nd: Figure 4. The YSGG laser uses a
patented combination of laser energy,
energy, and radiant, laser light was YAG laser for experiments on the water, and air to ablate enamel, dentin,
bone, and soft tissue.
emitted from the crystal. This ﬁrst laser removal of incipient caries (Meyers,
was a Ruby laser. One year later, Snitzer Meyers, 1985). Soon after, they began
released the neodymium laser (Nd: developing the ﬁrst true dental laser
YAG). All of the early dental research system, which according to textbooks
focused on the Ruby laser, and the Nd: and published literature, sparked the
YAG laser was largely ignored during dental laser revolution. Their product,
the early years. Experiments by Stern the D-Lase 300, led to the founding
and Sognnaes found that the Ruby of American Dental Laser (acquired
laser was not an eﬀective wavelength by BIOLASE Technology, Inc. in 2003),
for cutting enamel and dentin. the creation of several dental laser
Additional work by Stern suggested associations, and the ﬁrst widespread Figure 5. The YSGG laser is cleared for
cavity preps Class I-V (Class III
a possible role for lasers in caries exposure of lasers to dentistry. In May pictured) as well as caries removal,
prevention, but overall, hard tissue 1991, the FDA granted a marketing enameloplasty, and pits and ﬁssures.
applications for the Ruby laser were clearance to American Dental Laser for
not promising. soft tissue uses. Awareness was surging
forward, and there were several major
Research then focused on soft
research projects underway using newer
tissue, where several of the early
wavelengths in the experimental cutting
lasers proved to be successful. The
of enamel and dentin.
argon, carbon dioxide, and Nd:YAG
laser proved eﬀective for cutting
and coagulating soft tissue. The ﬁrst
reported oral surgical application using Following American Dental Laser, a Figure 6a. The high-speed drill
a C02 laser occurred in 1977 (Lenz, et al, number of other companies, including leaves a smear layer of debris on the
surface of the treated tooth (5000x
1977). Because of the thermal nature Luxar, HGM, Excel and BIOLASE oﬀered magniﬁcation, photo courtesy of Loma
of these soft-tissue lasers, injections Nd:YAG, CO2, and argon lasers for use
were required in most cases. In in soft tissue. In 1988 in Europe and
January 1987, the ﬁrst FDA clearance 1989 in the United States, BIOLASE ﬁled
for a C02 laser used in oral surgery patents for the novel use of lasers with
paved the way for the acceptance and water in dentistry. The company began
viability of using lasers in the oral cavity development of a laser device exclusively
in a clinical environment. The stage for this purpose.
was set for a new round of research
In May 1997, Premier Laser obtained
and investigations into lasers for
the ﬁrst marketing clearance from the
broader applications such as cutting
U.S. FDA to cut enamel and dentin in Figure 6b. After treatment with the
enamel, dentin, and bone. YSGG laser, there is no smear layer
adults using an Er:YAG laser, a device and the dentinal tubules are open,
which improves bonding. (5000x
readily available in dermatology and magniﬁcation, photo courtesy of Loma
5. The Evolution of Lasers in Dentistry: Ruby to YSGG 4
plastic surgery. Later, other companies, advanced new implant therapies
including OpusDent, Hoya ConBio, Kavo, including sinus augmentation and bone
Deka and Fotona adapted the Er:YAG grafting, gingival tissue resurfacing, and
technology as well, making additional even low-level laser therapy applications
strides for laser use in dentistry. using the YSGG laser.
In 1998, after more than ten years
Fig. 7. A lingual frenectomy completed Clinical Applications and
of research and investigation, BIOLASE
with the YSGG laser (case courtesy of
Dr. Chris Walinski, Fall River, Mass.) Descriptions
obtained a marketing clearance for cutting
hard tissue in adults using an all-new laser Because of its broad versatility,
designed by the company exclusively for Deidrich and Bushick reported in the
use in dentistry. February 2004 issue of the Journal of
the American Dental Association that the
BIOLASE’s ﬁrst YSGG laser, called the
YSGG laser ﬁnally “makes the economics
“Millennium,” used a patented combination
of providing laser therapy more feasible.”
of YSGG laser energy, water and air to
For this report, the clinical applications of
safely and eﬀectively ablate enamel and
the YSGG laser will be reviewed in ﬁner
dentin in adults. The YSGG laser was then
detail in essentially the same order in
cleared for use on patients of all ages,
which the indications were cleared by
Fig. 8. The YSGG laser is also eﬀective and the company began selling the laser
for trimming gingival tissue. (Case
the U.S. FDA.
courtesy of Dr. Michael Koceja.)
Researchers at BIOLASE had also Cutting Hard Tissue
worked on soft tissue with the YSGG laser. (Enamel and Dentin)
With the water spray minimized or turned
The YSGG laser was cleared for Class
oﬀ, the laser could eﬀectively cut and
I, II, III, IV, and V cavity preps, as well as
coagulate soft tissue with more control,
caries removal in adults (Fig. 5) in 1999,
and in many cases, much faster. By 2000,
with a similar clearance for children
greatly expanded FDA clearances for soft
soon thereafter (1999). Since then,
tissue indications had been obtained by
published reports have demonstrated
BIOLASE, and clinicians were able to work
the laser’s ability to reduce and even
Figure 8. While most dentists refer across both hard and soft tissue.
conditions such as ﬁbroma to an oral eliminate the smear layer associated
surgeon, the YSGG laser allows quick,
bloodless removal of lesions for biopsy.
Also in 2000, BIOLASE released its with traditional rotary instruments (Fig.
second YSGG laser, the “Waterlase,” (Fig. 6a and Fig. 6b), which can improve
4). The company quickly obtained a surface adhesion and bond strength
series of ground-breaking marketing for restorations (Gutknecht, Apel, et. al,
clearances from the FDA for complete laser 2001). Also, because the laser reacts at
endodontics (2002), apicoectomy (2002), a cellular level and helps to prohibit the
cutting and shaving oral osseous tissues pain response (Tuner and Hodes, 2002),
(2003), as well as the most complete list of most hard tissue procedures can be
procedures related to periodontal therapy, completed without the aid of injected
including laser curettage and osseous anesthetic. The YSGG laser also allows
crown lengthening (2004). the precise treatment of pits and ﬁssures
Figure 9. The YSGG laser was the
on the occlusal surfaces of molars, which
ﬁrst cleared for all stages of endo Research also continues for future
therapy, including accessing the canal, has aided in the growing discipline of
pulpotomy (pictured), and cleaning, indications, including crown and veneer
shaping and debriding the canal. “micro” and “minimally invasive” dentistry
preparations, orthodontic applications,
6. 5 The Evolution of Lasers in Dentistry: Ruby to YSGG
(Rosenberg 2003). Bone Surgery and Osseous
The YSGG laser was also the ﬁrst
Soon after obtaining the ﬁrst cleared for bone, including cutting,
hard-tissue clearances for the YSGG shaving, contouring and resecting oral
laser, BIOLASE obtained a collection of osseous tissues (February 2002). The
Figure 11. The coronal third of a root
clearances related to soft tissue (July laser was later cleared for osteoplasty, canal after treatment with the Proﬁle
2001), including sulcular debridement. rotary system. (5000x mag). (Photo
ostectomy, and osseous recontouring to courtesy of Loma Linda University).
The YSGG laser demonstrated the correct defects and create physiologic
capability to atraumatically treat soft osseous contours necessary for ideal
tissue with little to no bleeding, little clinical results. In 2003, the YSGG laser was
edema, and positive post-operative the ﬁrst laser device cleared for osseous
results. The YSGG laser was the ﬁrst crown lengthening to achieve biologic
hard-tissue laser cleared for soft width (Fig. 14), which can be completed
tissue indications such as treatment without laying a ﬂap, suturing, or damage
of aphthous ulcers, herpetic lesions, to the bone (Wang, 2002). The ease of use
and leukoplakia. In addition, the of the YSGG system provides the dentist
laser was cleared for oral surgical with a strong ROI by performing most of
applications such as frenectomy (Fig. 7), Figure 12. The coronal third of a root
their own osseous crown lengthening canal after treatment with manual K
gingivectomy (Fig. 8), ﬁbroma removal procedures, which is important in an era
ﬁles (5000x mag). (Photo courtesy of
Loma Linda University.)
(Fig. 9), and bloodless troughing around fueled by prime time “extreme” dental
a prep prior to taking an impression. makeovers, and growing demand for
With hard tissue and soft tissue Apicoectomy
procedures cleared by the FDA, research Other advanced endodontic
and development turned to other applications include the YSGG’s ground-
disciplines where lasers had already breaking clearance for apicoectomy
showed some potential for disinfection, (2003), which, for the ﬁrst time, allowed a
sterilization, and other beneﬁts. The Figure 13. The coronal third of a canal
clinician to use a single instrument for all treated with the YSGG laser. Note the
YSGG laser was the ﬁrst laser cleared for major steps of an apicoectomy procedure,
absence of smear layer in the canal
(5000x mag). (Photo courtesy of Loma
root canal, including tooth preparation including ﬂap preparation, cutting bone,
to obtain access to the canal, root amputating the root tip, removing
preparation, and canal enlargement and pathological tissue and hyperplastic tissue
cleaning (Fig. 10). The same beneﬁts from around the site, and preparing the
that are evident when cutting enamel site for retroﬁll amalgam or composite (Fig.
and dentin were also available when 15).
the YSGG laser was used in the canal.
The smear layer was eleiminated and Periodontal Procedures
debris were dramatically reduced, and
the dentinal tubules remained free The YSGG laser is the ﬁrst and only
and clear, which may aid in improved laser cleared for the major indications in Figure 14. The YSGG laser can be used
for closed ﬂap crown lengthening, where
obturation and sealing of the canal (Fig. laser periodontal therapy. While other the laser uses low amounts of energy
to shave and contour osseous tissue to
11, 12, 13). lasers such as the diode laser and Nd:YAG achieve biologic width. (Case courtesy of
Dr. David Eshom, La Jolla, California.)
7. The Evolution of Lasers in Dentistry: Ruby to YSGG 6
laser are cleared for soft tissue applications Beneﬁts of the YSGG Laser to
related to perio, none have been cleared the Patient and Practice
for cutting oral osseous tissues, a core
component of any periodontal program. The beneﬁts of a versatile instrument
The YSGG laser was recently cleared by the such as the YSGG laser are clearly evident.
FDA for a wide array of indications related The fact that a single instrument has been
Figure 15. The YSGG laser is cleared to cleared for hard tissue, soft tissue, and bone,
perform apicoectomy, including ﬂap to periodontal health, including laser
elevation, accessing the diseased apex,
curettage, sulcular debridement (Fig. 16), as well as correlating therapies for root canal,
and excising the infected tissue. (Case
courtesy of Dr. David Browdy, Long ostectomy, osteotomy (Fig. 17), soft tissue oral surgery, and perio, makes it applicable to
Island, New York.)
ﬂap elevation, removal of pathological nearly every aspect of practicing dentistry.
tissues from bony sockets, and many other The dramatic reduction of pain in
important clinical applications. most cases reduces the need for injected
anesthesia and frees up chair time for a busy
Innovations and Future practice (Shulkin, 1991), and can generate
Applications increased word-of-mouth referrals among
Researchers continue to explore your patients. According to various reports,
new applications for the YSGG Laser. For 100 million patients fear a visit to the dentist
example, Dr. Mark Colonna published the because of fear of the drill and the needle.
Figure 16. The YSGG laser can be
used for laser curettage and sulcular ﬁrst-ever laser-only crown preps in late The ADA recently reported that at least 82%
debridement, as part of a complete
laser periodontal program. 2002 (Fig. 18), and research continues with of patients think it “somewhat important,
BIOLASE to perfect the technique. In regard important, or very important,” that a dental
to implant therapy and applications, one of oﬃce have a dental laser, which allows a
the ﬁrst YSGG laser users in the world, Dr. practice to oﬀer a diﬀerent type of dentistry.
Robert Miller, has created ground-breaking The laser dramatically reduces the need
techniques to treat failing and ailing to apply a high-speed drill to the tooth
implants (Miller 2002), and Dr. Norberto surface for any reason; however, it has yet to
Berna of Italy created the ﬁrst system for completely replace the drill because a laser
placing implants in a single visit (Berna cannot eﬀectively cut reﬂective surfaces such
2003). Dr. Berna’s research has spawned as metal and porcelain. Still, the fact that a
Figure 17. The YSGG laser is used in hybrid techniques that have appeared in
procedures involving the harvesting single instrument can remove bulk amounts
and grafting of bone tissue. (Case the U.S. Dr. Sascha Jovanovic, a renowned of enamel, dentin and decay, then cut soft
courtesy of Dr. David Rhoden, Waco,
Texas.) lecturer and researcher from UCLA, tissue around the site, return to removing
completed the ﬁrst sinus augmentation enamel, and then etch the surface in the
using the YSGG laser in North America time it typically takes for anesthetic to take
in early 2003. In regard to low-level laser eﬀect – it hearkens to an exciting new era of
therapy and “soft” laser applications, Drs. eﬃcient, minimally invasive laser dentistry.
Arun and Rita Darbar of England, and Dr.
Jon Karna of California have led the way Lasers can no longer be considered a
in the research for “soft” laser therapy and niche tool for only the most cutting-edge
photobiomodulation. Finally, Professor Paul dentists. The YSGG laser has practical, viable
Bradley of Nova Southeastern University applications across a wide clinical spectrum:
Fig. 18. The YSGG laser is even being is currently studying the analgesic and hard tissue, soft tissue, bone, endo and perio.
used for crown and veneer prepara-
tions. (Case courtesy of Dr. Mark anesthetic eﬀects of the YSGG laser.
Colonna, Whiteﬁsh, Montana.)
8. 7 The Evolution of Lasers in Dentistry: Ruby to YSGG
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The pinnacle of the research and investigation has
Hossain M. Atomic analysis and knoop hardness measurement of the vacity ﬂoor
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and faster recovery. primary teeth. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2002 Spring; 26 (3), pp. 263-8.
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10. 9 The Evolution of Lasers in Dentistry: Ruby to YSGG
1. Lasers have been used in the dental professional for surgery procedure with a laser in a clinical environment?
more than how many years? a. 1997
a. 5 b. 1987
b. 10 c. 1977
c. 15 d. 1967
10. Was anesthetic generally required when using early
2. True or False. There is a laser that may be used across all lasers for soft tissue applications?
types of tissue, including enamel, dentin, soft tissue, and a. Yes
bone. b. No
b. False 11. What year did the FDA ﬁrst clear lasers for use in the
3. Which wavelength is able to work across all oral tissue a. 1997
types? b. 1987*
a. Diode c. 1977
b. C02 d. 1967
d. None of the above 12. Dr. Terry Meyers founded what laser company?
4. How are lasers typically named or classiﬁed? b. American Dental Laser
a. Named after the medium that is charged with c. Coherent, Inc.
energy to create a speciﬁc type of laser light* d. Cynosure, Inc.
b. Named after the company that markets the laser.
c. Named after their inventor. 13. In 1997, what company obtained the ﬁrst marketing
d. Named after the university that conducts the pre- clearance for cutting enamel and dentin in adults?
market research. a. BIOLASE
b. American Dental Laser
5. How does the YSGG laser operate? c. Premier Laser*
a. Speciﬁc, pulsed amounts of energy are pumped d. Ivoclar
into a crystal and transferred to the tissue through a
ﬁber-optic delivery system.* 14. What was the name of the ﬁrst YSGG laser cleared for
b. A semiconductor emits pulsed energy that cutting hard tissue in adults?
transforms itself into laser light. a. Millennium*
c. Gas is compressed in a chamber and released as b. Centurion
energy. c. Spartan
d. None of the above. d. Maxlite
6. True or False. Diode lasers are excellent tools for use in 15. What year was the Waterlase second-generation YSGG
cutting and coagulating soft tissue. laser released?
a. True.* a. 1998
b. False. b. 1999
7. What was the name of the ﬁrst laser researched for d. 2001
dental laser applications?
a. Emerald laser 16. The YSGG laser has FDA marketing clearances for
b. Diamond laser which procedures?
c. Ruby laser* a. Root canals
d. Platinum laser b. Osseous crown lengthening
c. Laser curettage
8. Was the ﬁrst laser successful in trials for cutting hard d. All of the above
a. Yes 17. The statement that the YSGG laser ﬁnally “makes the
b. No* economics of providing laser therapy more feasible” was
published in which medical/dental journal?
9. What year did Lenz perform the ﬁrst recorded oral a. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
11. The Evolution of Lasers in Dentistry: Ruby to YSGG 10
b. Journal of the American Dental Association c. Fibroma removal
c. Journal of Endodontics d. All of the above*
d. Dental Products Report
26. Can the YSGG laser be used to amputate an infected
18. The YSGG laser is approved for what types of cavity root tip during an apicoectomy procedure?
preps? a. Yes*
a. Class I-V* b. No
b. Class I and V only
c. Class II, III and IV only 27. The YSGG laser was recently cleared by the FDA for
d. None of the above which perio procedures?
a. Laser curettage
19. What year was the YSGG laser approved for cavity b. Sulcular debridement
preps in children? c. Removal of pathological tissues from a bony socket
a. 1999* d. All of the above*
c. 1997 28. What YSGG laser dentist published the ﬁrst-ever
d. none of the above laser crown preps in late 2002?
a. Dr. William Chen
20. Is the YSGG laser able to reduce or eliminate the smear b. Dr. Mark Colonna*
layer associated with traditional rotary instruments? c. Dr. Howard Farran
a. Yes* d. Dr. Sascha Jovanovic
29. True or false. Lasers cannot cut reﬂective material such
21. How often can hard tissue procedures be completed as amalgam or porcelain.
with the YSGG laser without the need for injected a. True*
anesthestic? b. False
b. Very Rarely 30. The ADA published a survey that reported what
c. Rarely percentage of patients think it at least “somewhat
d. Most of the time* important, important, or very important” that a dental
practice own a dental laser?
22. What are some advantages for using the YSGG laser a. 12%
for soft tissue procedures? b. 32%
a. Little to no bleeding c. 52%
b. Little swelling and minimal post-operative d. 82%*
c. a & b*
d. None of the above
23. What are some of the advantages of using a laser to
shape and debride a root canal?
a. Smear layer and debris are minimized in the canal
b. Dentinal tubules remain free and open
c. a & b*
24. What soft tissue procedures has the YSGG been
a. Treatment of aphthous ulcers
b. Treatment of herpetic lesions
d. All of the above*
25. What oral surgical procedures has the YSGG been
b. Implant uncovery