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  • Good afternoon, I’m Dan Engebretson the Director of the Center for Research and Development of Light-Activated Materials, which is one of Governor Round’s 2010 Research Centers
  • The most common question I’m asked is “What are light-activated materials?” In the broadest sense it is anything – chemicals, materials, or processes – that produces light or is enabled by light. In the Center we focus in four general fields. Energy, Photocatalysis, Detectors and Sensors, and Bioadhesives. The long-term goal of this research is to create businesses and jobs based on the technology that is developed in the Center.
  • There are many examples of light-activated materials, many of them we encounter nearly everyday. Solar cells used to power calculators and watches are one example of light-activated materials used to produce energy. There is a new generation of building materials that are appearing that utilize photocatalysis to produce self-cleaning surfaces. This area is highlighted by PPG’s SunClean glass that utilizes a microscopic layer of light-activated material that is coated on the glass. The light-activated material absorbs ultraviolet light from the sun and decomposes dirt on the glass. The residue is then washed aay with rainfall. Many of the tests performed in medical laboratories use fluorescent probes to diagnose illness. Also in the healthcare arena light-activated at adhesives are used in dentistry for fillings and other work and yet another field that is growing is the development of therapies for acne and cancer that use light as one of the active agents.
  • The Center is a collaborative effort. We have researchers from the Departments of Chemistry and Physics at USD as well as the School of Medicine at USD. Bioadhesives research is conducted at SDSU’s Chemistry Department and at the Avera Research Institute. We also collaborate with PhotoBioMed Corporation that is working to commercialize the bioadhesive products by identifying application areas aw well as potential industry partners.
  • There are 11 researchers in the Center. Mary Berry and Stan May from the Chemistry Department at USD as well as Yongchen Sun from Physics are involved in our Energy research initiative. James Hoefelmeyer and Ranjit Koodali have just joined the Chemistry Department and have joined Grigoriy Sereda to investigate photocatalysis. Andrew Sykes, Grigoriy Sereda, and myself are involved in research related to fluorescent sensors and detectors. Kaia Kloster and Gudiseva Chandrasekher from the Medical School and Ron Utecht from SDSU Chemistry round out the CRDLM and and our research efforts in bioadhesives. The top photo is of Grigoriy Sereda analyzing newly created compounds in his laboratory and the lower photo is of Gudiseva Chandrasekher looking at samples with his microscope. Now that I’ve introduced you to the Center researchers and our collaborators I would like to tell you about the research that is occuring in the Center. I’m going to start with our most basic efforts and progress to our most commercially advanced research.
  • Our most basic area of research is solar energy. The research opportunity and commercial potential in this filed was recently pointed out by Smalley and Lewis, leading researchers in solar energy, where they noted: “Photovoltaics, the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, is the ONLY identified technology that can meet all four criteria: Affordable Reliable Secure Sustainable AND satisfy WORLD electricity demand….”
  • There are many fields of research encompassed by solar energy and we are teaming with scientists and engineers at both SDSU and SDSMT to produce a new generation of photovoltaics or solar cells. The role that our group plays in this multidisciplinary team is designing materials that can more efficiently harvest sunlight – this addresses one of the biggest problems in current solar cells. While sunlight appears white, it is actually composed of a rainbow of colors (top picture). Current solar cells only use a small portion of that light to generate electricity. Research efforts in the CRDLM will concentrate on developing new materials that will allow more of the spectrum to be used. Our strategy is similar to what happens in nature. Most of us are familiar with photosynthesis, where light is used by plants to convert carbon dioxide to sugar and produce oxygen. There are several pigments involved in photosynthesis (bottom picture), each is optimized to absorb different colors of light and the energy is transferred to a reaction center where sugar is produced. Our researchers are going to design materials that can be incorporated into the next generation of solar cells that harvest the energy from many different colors of light and transform that energy into usable electricity.
  • Another area that is exciting is photocatlysis. As I mentioned earlier there are new classess of building materials appearing in the market that essentially clean themselves. This is accomplished by a thin layer of light-activated material that is coated on the surface. When the surface is exposed to light it decomposes any dirt on the surface and makes it so the residue is easily rinsed off with rain. This is shown in the picture. On the left is conventional glass and you notice that water beads up on the glass and runs down as rivlets. On the SunClean side the water does not stick to the glass. This technology has been used in many building materials including windows and tiles as well as applied to air purification and sterilization.
  • While these are truly marvelous materials that are poised to revolutionize the build industry they do suffer from one substantial drawback – they require ultraviolet light to activate the process. While there is ample UV light outside, it is something we try and minimize indoors. Center researchers are working to modify the photocatlytic materials so they can work with visible light as well. Dr. Koodali of the USD Chemistry Department has made chemical modifications to the materials such that they absorb visible light. We believe that these new materials that are activated by visible light will allow materials to be used in interior as well as exterior applications – can you imagine bathroom mirrors or showers that don’t have to be cleaned?
  • There are many fields that use detectors and sensors – the automotive industry, the environmental industry, and the healthcare industry to name a few. Within the healthcare industry more than $20 billion was spent on diagnostic tests in 2005. And the nucleic acid testing market, which is a subset of diagnostic testing, is expected to grow nearly 300% over the five years. In the center we have research programs that are designing new sensing strategies that can be used to detect heavy metals such as lead as well as nucleic acids.
  • Particularly in the healthcare fields, tests are complex and require skilled technicians and specialized equipment. This adds a great deal of expense to the process and is one of the reasons for soaring healthcare costs. We are designing test kits that will only require minimal skills and equipment. One option we are considering is using a digital camera to analyze the test and provide test results.
  • Bioadhesives is our most commercially mature field of research. Dr. William Spotnitz recently commented on the need and opportunity for bioadhesives, “In the next five to 10 years, surgical tissue ADHESIVES will be delivered which will REVOLUTIONIZE the art of surgery by replacing sutures in the majority of operations performed in the country… the age of commercially produced, effective surgical adhesives is now arriving in the US.”
  • Most bioadhesive formulations, are either toxic or weak. In fact the most common formulas are based on cyanoacrylate chemistry which is the same chemistry used in Krazy Glue. While Krazy Glue may be useful for putting dolls and stuffed animals back together its own label warns of its health hazards to people. In the Center Dr. Kaia Kloster and Ron Utecht have been working for the past 10 years or so to create a formulation that is both safe and strong. This picture shows an arterial graft. There is no leakage from the graft, only from the ends where it is clamped in place. The goal for these grafts is to withstand pressures up to 300mmHg, nearly 1000mmHg pressure was applied which caused the tubing to swell (inset) but the graft continued to hold.
  • There are many applications for this technology. We have recently teamed with Dr. Vance Thompson, a local expert in the LASIK procedure, to test the adhesives in LASIK.
  • As I stated earlier, bioadhesives is our most commercially advanced project. To drive the commercialization we are collaborating with PhotoBioMed a Texas biotech company that is licensed in South Dakota. The primary role of PhotoBioMed is to identify industry partners that are interested in working with us on established applications or exploring new applications. We will look to these industry partners to provide funding to develop new product lines. PhotoBioMed has been active in raising the awareness of our technology by participating in technology competitions such as the World’s Best Technology which is attended my many venture capital firms and angel investors. They also Competed in and Won Governor Round’s Giant Vision Business Plan Competition this past spring with their Business Plan entitled: PhotoBioMed Corporation TM : Strong and Safe Medical Adhesives TM
  • The Center is just entering its second year and we have already been very successful in our primary goal of economic development. The Center has added five new people with four of the positions created by Center activities: *Daniel Engebretson, USD Chemistry Director CRDLM *Gudiseva Chandrasekher, USDSM Ophthalmologic Applications of Bioadhesives Ranjit Koodali, USD Chemistry Photoactivated Catalysis for Environmental Remediation *James Hoefelmeyer, USD Chemistry. Catalytic Activity of Metal Nanoparticles *Laura Koepsell, SDSU Chemistry 2004 USD Chemistry Graduate (B.S.)
  • In addition to job growth and important element of economic development is intellectual property – without intellectual property it is impossible to build a tech-based economy. We’ve had to IP disclosures this past year.
  • We’ve also been successful in obtaining outside funding for research in the center. We’ve had 8 grants awarded to 5 PIs. This is particularly impressive when you consider that there were only 7 researchers in the Center prior to this summer.
  • UR will help build for the future – employees and owners of businesses created by 2010 Centers

Power Point Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Center for Research and Development of Light-Activated Materials Daniel Engebretson, Director
  • 2. Light-Activated Research
    • Definition:
      • Materials or Processes that are produced or enabled by light
    • Fields:
      • Energy – Solar, Hydrogen
      • Photocatalysis – Environmental Remediation
      • Detectors and Sensors – Environmental, Biomedical
      • Bioadesives – Wound Healing, Drug Delivery
    • Goal:
      • Create businesses and jobs based on our technology
  • 3. Light-Activated Materials
    • Examples of Light-Activated Materials already in the Marketplace:
      • Energy – solar powered calculators, watches, etc.
      • Photocatalysts – anti-fog glass, self-cleaning glass, etc.
      • Detectors and Sensors – medical assays (diagnostics), hazardous materials
      • Healthcare
        • Bioadhesives – UV cure resins in dentistry
        • Photodynamic Therapy – acne, cancer
  • 4. Collaborators – Institutions
  • 5. Senior Researchers
    • USD Chem/Physics
      • Dan Engebretson
      • Mary Berry
      • James Hoefelmeyer
      • Ranjit Koodali
      • Stan May
      • Grigoriy Sereda
      • Yongchen Sun (Phys.)
      • Andrew Sykes
    • USDSM
      • Kaia Kloster (Avera)
      • Gudiseva Chandrasekher
    • SDSU Chemistry
      • Ron Utecht
  • 6. Solar Energy – Opportunity
    • Photovoltaics, the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, is the ONLY identified technology that can meet all four criteria:
      • Affordable
      • Reliable
      • Secure
      • Sustainable
    • AND satisfy WORLD electricity demand….
    -Smalley and Lewis, IEEE PVSC Jan. 2005
  • 7. Solar Energy
    • Teaming with Researchers from SDSU and SDSMT
    • Problem – Much of the solar spectrum unused
    • 2010 Solution – Design new molecules to “funnel” the solar spectrum
  • 8. Photocatalysis – Opportunity
    • Rapidly Expanding Market
    • Opportunities in:
      • Building Materials
      • Air Purification
      • Sterilization
    Image Copyright PPG, Inc.
  • 9. Photocatalysis
    • Problem – Most Applications Require Ultraviolet Light
    • 2010 Solution – Design New Materials that Utilize Visible Light
  • 10. Detectors and Sensors
    • In vitro diagnostics market >$20 billion in 2005
    • Nucleic Acid Testing to grow from $2.25 billion in 2004 to $6.5 billion in 2009
    Nucleic Acid Testing, Navigant Consulting, 2004
  • 11. Detectors – Opportunity
    • Problem – Most diagnostic tests require highly skilled technicians and specialized equipment
    • 2010 Solution – Design and develop test kits that require minimal skills and common equipment
  • 12. Bioadhesives – Opportunity
    • “ In the next five to 10 years, surgical tissue ADHESIVES will be delivered which will REVOLUTIONIZE the art of surgery by replacing sutures in the majority of operations performed in the country… the age of commercially produced, effective surgical adhesives is now arriving in the US.”
    -- Dr. William Spotnitz, Director of the Tissue Adhesive Center at the Virginia Health Sciences Center, 2000
  • 13. Bioadhesives
    • Problem – Current Bioadhesives are either toxic or weak
    • 2010 Solution – Design new Bioadhesives that are Safe and Strong
  • 14. Bioadhesives Research
    • Formulation Set for FDA Approval
    • Identified New Variants
      • Ability to “Tune” Bond Strength
    • Investigate Chemical Mechanisms
      • Understanding  Applications
    • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
      • Essential for in vitro Studies
  • 15. Bioadhesives – Applications
    • Ophthalmology
      • LASIK
      • Tethering Drugs
    • Dermatology
    • General Surgery
    • Cardiology
    • Orthopedics
  • 16. Commercial – PhotoBioMed
    • Licensed in South Dakota
    • Biotech Company Incorporated in Texas
    • Role: Identify Industry Partners
    • Bioadhesives Research Conducted in SD
    • Participated in World’s Best Technology Competition in Dallas, TX
    • Won Governor Round’s Giant Vision Business Plan Competition
      • PhotoBioMed Corporation TM : Strong and Safe Medical Adhesives TM
  • 17. Outcomes – Jobs Created
    • *Daniel Engebretson, USD Chemistry
      • Director CRDLM
    • *Gudiseva Chandrasekher, USDSM
      • Ophthalmologic Applications of Bioadhesives
    • Ranjit Koodali, USD Chemistry
      • Photoactivated Catalysis for Environmental Remediation
    • *James Hoefelmeyer, USD Chemistry.
      • Catalytic Activity of Metal Nanoparticles
    • *Laura Koepsell, SDSU Chemistry
      • 2004 USD Chemistry Graduate (B.S.)
    * New Position
  • 18. Intellectual Property
    • Andrew Sykes – USD Chemistry
      • Filed Disclosure on Luminescent Sensors for Lead Detection Based on a Novel Photodynamic Mechanism
    • Kloster and Utecht – USDSM/Avera and SDSU
      • Filed Disclosure on Alternative Chemical Formulations for Tissue Bonding
  • 19. Outcomes – Grant Activities
    • Eight Research Grants Awarded
      • 3 Related to Energy
      • 2 Related to Photocatalysis
      • 1 Related to Photodynamic Cancer Therapy
      • 2 Related to Undergraduate Research (Photodynamics and Synthesis)
    • 5 Different Principal Investigators
    • Total value of awards nearly $3 Million
    • Many others submitted and planned
    • Teaming with 2010 Center for Accelerated Applications at the Nanoscale for SD EPSCoR
  • 20. Outcomes – NPURC
    • NSF – Northern Plains Undergraduate Research Center
    • 7 Regional Colleges and Universities
      • University of South Dakota (Vermillion, SD)
      • Mount Marty College (Yankton, SD)
      • Augustana College (Sioux Falls, SD)
      • Sinte Gleska University (Rosebud Reservation, Mission, SD)
      • Fort Berthold Community College (Tribal College, New Town, ND)
      • Buena Vista University (Storm Lake, IA)
      • Dordt College (Sioux Center, IA)
  • 21. NPURC – Goals
    • Revise Curricula at Regional Schools
      • Introduce students to research early in their academic careers
    • Intensive Undergraduate Research
      • Summer research experiences for undergraduates
    • Engage High School Science Teachers
      • Better prepare high school students for college
    • Prepare Graduates to Participate in Tech-based Economy (Local or National)
      • Graduates are resources rather than products
  • 22. 2010 and Beyond
    • Annual Revenue ~$2 Million
    • 11 New Academic Jobs
      • 1 New Faculty
      • 10 New Postdoctoral Fellows/Research Scientists
    • 3 Small Businesses Started
      • Small Business Innovative Research
      • 10-15 New Jobs
    • Royalty and License $ from Bioadhesives
  • 23. South Dakota People
    • Dan Engebretson, Director
    • Kaia Kloster, USDSM/Avera
    • Laura Koepsell, SDSU Chemistry
  • 24. CRDLM/Community
    • Help Develop Innovative Applications
      • Sugar production
      • Feedlots
    • Provide Conducive Atmospheres to Small Businesses
      • Encourage citizenry to become “tech aware”
      • Libraries and Schools