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Oral Health, Nutrition, Anatomy and Physiology 1
 

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    Oral Health, Nutrition, Anatomy and Physiology 1 Oral Health, Nutrition, Anatomy and Physiology 1 Document Transcript

    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology -1- 1
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology Review of Previous Module Review topics from the previous module to confirm understanding prior to presenting new material. Module Overview Preventing disease is much better than treating problems once they have begun. Oral health and nutrition are as interrelated as nutrition is to how all parts of the body function. Digestion begins in the mouth, where food is physically broken down by chewing and chemical digestion initiated by saliva. Cells throughout the body need nutrition in order to operate. These cells form tissues and organs which are synchronized collectively as a human being. As healthcare providers, it is important for dental assistants to understand how each of the body systems interact with each other, and specifically to know the structures and functions of the oral cavity, head and neck, as well as ways to avoid oral disease. The Big Picture Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology Module: Oral Health and NutritionNutrition and Anatomy and Physiology Section 1: Section 2: Section 3: Oral Health and Nutrition Anatomy and Head and Neck Physiology Anatomy Part A: Preventive Part A: Body Systems I Part A: Face and Oral Dentistry Part B: Body Systems II Cavity Part B: Nutrition Part B: Head and Neck Resources This module utilizes the following learner resources: 2
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology Textbooks: Dental Assisting, A Comprehensive Approach, 2nd edition, by Donna J. Phinney and Judy Halstead. Delmar Learning, 2004. ISBN 1-4018-3480-9. Dental Terminology, by Charline M. Dofka, Delmar Learning, 2000. ISBN 0-8273-9068-8. Workbook: Workbook to Accompany Dental Assisting, A Comprehensive Approach, 2nd edition, by Donna J. Phinney and Judy Halstead, prepared by Karen L. Waide, Delmar Learning, 2004. ISBN 1-4018-3483-3. Instructor’s Manual: Instructor’s Manual to Accompany Delmar’s Dental Assisting, A Comprehensive Approach, 2nd edition, by Donna J. Phinney and Judy Halstead. Delmar Learning, 2004. ISBN 1-4018-3482-5. Audiotape to Accompany Dental Terminology: Delmar Learning. Faculty CD-ROM: The faculty CD-ROM includes this Faculty Guide and the PowerPoint Presentation for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology. Additional Resources Electronic Classroom Manager to Accompany Delamr’s Dental Assisting, A Comprehensive Approach, 2nd edition, by Donna J. Phinney and Judy Halstead. Delmar Learning, 2004. ISBN: 1-4018-3484-1. -3- 3
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology Section 1: Oral Health and Nutrition Section Overview Dental health is directly related to diet, digestion, well-being, and proper oral hygiene. Optimum health of the mouth and body are examined in this section along with preventive measures to develop and preserve sound oral tissues. Outline of Section Teaching Tip Part A: Preventative Dentistry Helping learners to Part B: Nutrition focus on the positive can enable them to Learning Objectives and Competencies make the best of any situation. Encourage These learning activities directly address the Learning Objectives and them to look on the bright side of difficult Competencies as stated. circumstances or coursework. When our Knowledge mental attitude is in order, our physical 1. Define the Key Terms. reactions will be easier to direct towards our Comprehension goals. 2. Describe how plaque forms and its effect on oral tissue. 3. Explain fluoridation and forms of fluoride. 4. Identify the functions of vitamins, minerals, and water. 5. Discuss the importance of proper nutrition and its benefits. Application 6. Demonstrate various tooth brushing techniques. 7. Demonstrate proper flossing technique. 8. Demonstrate oral hygiene instruction. Learning Activities These learning activities directly address the Learning Objectives and Competencies as stated. [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Skills Competency Assessment (Part A, Objectives 6-8) [Insert Homework Assignment icon] Key Term Glossary (Part A, Objectives 1-5) [Insert Homework Assignment icon] Textbook and Workbook Assignment (Part A, All Objectives) [Insert Homework Assignment icon] Food Label Poster Preparation (Part A, Objectives 4-5) [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Food Label Poster (Part B, Objectives 4-5) 4
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology [Insert Homework Assignment icon] Diet Diary (Part B, Objective 4-5) Part A: Preventive Dentistry Overview Plaque is the principle cause of dental caries and periodontal disease. Healthy dentition is therefore dependent on a plaque-free mouth. The most important role of a dental assistant is as patient educator which is vital to ensure sound preventive practices for optimum oral health. Initial Questions and Activities 1. As dental assistants, how can we motivate our patients towards optimum oral The Adult Learner… health? responds well to cooperative tasks and In order to influence others we must first set the example. Our enjoyable competitive ones. They tend to attitude and personal oral hygiene will be apparent as we explain prefer these to individual, highly various plaque removal techniques to others. Explaining cause and repetitive tasks. Use group activities to build effect, as well as encouragement, in a supportive manner should rapport among learners and to strengthen their support of one another evoke a positive response from our patients and make us a valuable in addition to teaching them skills. member of the healthcare team. 2. Who of you floss every day? Learners will be timid in their responses. Describe to learners that brushing doesn’t clean between the teeth. Explain that using dental floss properly removes plaque and bacterial colonies from the gingival sulcus, in the interproximal areas, that toothbrushing alone will not eliminate, and that these soft deposits harden into calculus if not removed daily. Key Concepts References and Activities Slides Introduction to the Module Slides 1-2 Introduction to Section 1 Slides 3-4 Key Terms Slides 5-6 Preventive Dentistry Chapter ____, pp. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) Slides 7-13 [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Skills Competency Assessment [Insert Home Ass icon] Key Term Glossary -5- 5
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology Key Concepts References and Activities Slides [Insert Home Ass icon] Textbook and Workbook Assignment [Insert Home Ass icon] Food Label Poster Preparation [ ] Group Activities [ ] Homework [ ] Individual Activity [ ] Internet Activity [ ] In-Class Discussion [ ] In-Class Act [ ] Evaluation [Insert In-Class Act icon] In-Class Activities  Skills Competency Assessment (Part A, Objectives 6-8). Goal: To have learners use a disclosing agent to locate plaque, provide a patient plaque score, and present patient education in brushing and flossing techniques. Using each other as patients, have learners demonstrate how to provide a patient plaque score and how to teach good brushing and flossing techniques to their patients. After the activity, have the learners discuss what they saw in their patient’s mouths. What areas were most commonly missed during oral care? What did they learn about oral hygiene? [Insert In-Class Dis Ques icon] In-Class Discussion 1. Why is it important for dental personnel to wash their hands before and after patient treatment? Washing hands is the first basic step in infection control. The dental professional should wash his/her hands after seating the patient. Explain the importance of patients seeing this task being completed. After removing gloves the dental assistant needs to wash his/her hands again. The inside of the glove is a perfect environment for bacteria and other microorganisms to thrive. [Insert Home Ass icon] Homework Assignments Teaching Tip Key Term Glossary. Learners will define key terms listed in the PowerPoint Adults may not be use to presentation. They are to enter this glossary on disk, in a dedicated notebook or active learning in the classroom. Traditional in a designated part of a notebook. They are expected to augment information education has often been limited to lecture, reading, and exam. from text or lecture with other resources including any available in the school or They often expect this methodology. Spend public libraries or on the Internet and will be graded at the end of the module on time explaining active learning and your completeness and presentation. expectations. Textbook and Workbook Assignment. Learners are to read Chapter ____ (Phinney & Halstead). Learners are to also complete the workbook Chapter ____ questions and the Case Study, Review Questions and 6
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology Critical Thinking Questions in Chapter ____ (Phinney & Halstead). Learners should be prepared to review these in class. Food Label Poster Preparation: In preparation for the in-class poster activity in Part B, learners are to bring in a poster board and labels from the six different sections of The Food Guide Pyramid pictured in Chapter ____ (Phinney & Halstead). Presentation Tools Note: If you change Objectives or Assignments, don’t forget to change the slides accordingly. Slide 1 [Insert NA 1-1] Power Point Presentation for Oral Health, Nutrition, NA- Stands for Oral Health, and Anatomy and Physiology Module: Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology Nutrition, and Anatomy and Prior to introducing this module. Ask learners if any Physiology. The 1st number questions remain from the previous module. If questions indicates the module called remain review the material as needed. Nutrition and Anatomy and Introduce the module. nd Physiology. The 2 number indicates the slide number. Slide 2 [Insert NA 1-2] Module: Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology Introduce the sections and each part. Slide 3 [Insert NA 1-3] Section 1: Oral Health and Nutrition Discuss each objective in detail. Learners need to know what they will be learning and why. Try to relate it back to their careers as dental assistants. Slide 4 [Insert NA 1-4] Section 1: Oral Health and Nutrition (cont.) Continue to discuss each objective in detail. Slide 5 [Insert NA 1-5] Key Terms Review each key term and discuss. Slide 6 [Insert NA 1-6] Key Terms (cont.) Continue to review each key term and discuss. -7- 7
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology Slide 7 [Insert NA 1-7] Part A: Preventive Dentistry Describe characteristics of dental plaque and its detrimental consequences. Stress how bacteria in plaque use simple sugars as their food and then release acids on oral structures. Inform learners that a phase-contrast microscope allows bacteria to be viewed alive. When dental plaque is viewed in this manner, organisms such as protozoa, rods, and yeasts can be found, along with white blood cells whose job is to fight off the invading bacteria. Direct learners to the Figure in Chapter ___ (Phinney & Halstead) that demonstrates demineralization of enamel. Slide 8 [Insert NA 1-8] Plaque Control Explain the destructive results of plaque on teeth and gingival tissues and how it can be prevented with diligent oral care. Address the toxic effects of plaque on gum tissue and alveolar bone. Slide 9 [Insert NA 1-9] Oral Hygiene Explain to the learners that since dental plaque is invisible disclosing agents can be used to locate it for removal. Given that plaque is the source of dental disease, making plaque obvious can show patients, where they have missed in their oral care routine. Explain what a plaque score card is and discuss the importance of providing a plaque score to each patient. Discuss how patients undergoing cancer therapies, those with heart disease, or stroke victims will require extra 8
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology help with accomplishing their oral hygiene. Address the use of floss holders and mechanical toothbrushes to assist these individuals. Slide 10 [Insert NA 1-10] Toothbrushing Techniques Refer learners to the procedures in Chapter ___ (Phinney & Halstead) that demonstrate various recommended toothbrushing techniques. Point out to learners that whichever method the dentist prefers is the one they will instruct their patients to use and that the goal is to disrupt the bacterial matrix. Slide 11 [Insert NA 1-11] Dental Flossing Direct learners to the procedure in Chapter __ (Phinney & Halstead) for flossing technique. Ensure learners understand that the floss must be wrapped onto each tooth in a “C”-shape, and brought up and down against the tooth surface, in order to clean the gingival sulcus. Slide 12 [Insert NA 1-12] Prosthetic Devices Address the variety of aids available for removing plaque from dental appliances. Explain how dental assistants are responsible for patient education and need to be able to show their patients how to use these aids. Slide 13 [Insert NA 1-13] Fluoride Explain how fluoride strengthens tooth enamel thereby providing resistance to decay. Address how when applying topical fluoride during patient treatment patients must not swallow it due to the possible poisonous affects of ingesting excessive amounts of fluoride. Discuss how mottled enamel and fluorosis occurs and the aesthetic treatment these patients will seek for the -9- 9
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology discoloration it causes. In-Class Activity: Stop here for the Skills Competency Assessment activity. Homework Assignment: Stop here to assign and discuss the homework Part B: Nutrition Overview Teaching Tip Dental assistants need to ensure patients understand the negative effects poor Self-evaluation is important for adult learners. When nutrition has on the oral hard and soft tissues as well as on overall general they see themselves either successfully applying their health. The oral cavity reflects dietary habits, and counseling in the dental office knowledge and skills or not successfully applying their knowledge and skills, they may include more than comments of limiting sugar use. If our resistance is down, tend to pay attention more closely. Also, repetition of due to poor health, then damage to our teeth, gum tissues, and supporting learning is essential. Each time a learner makes an structures can occur. evaluation, the concept is more firmly established in their memory. Initial Questions and Activities 1. Why is it important for dental personnel to get exercise, plenty of rest, and maintain a balanced diet? In order to help others DAs must first take care of themselves. It is difficult to inform patients of how to maintain a healthy mouth and body if the DA isn’t also doing so. The beneficial effects of a healthy lifestyle enable us to live a longer, more enjoyable and productive life. Key Concepts References and Activities Slides Nutrition Chapter ____, pp. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) Slides 14-15 [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Food Label Poster [Insert Homework Ass icon] Diet Diary Assessment Questions Slide 16 [ ] Group Activities [ ] Homework [ ] Individual Activity [ ] Internet Activity [ ] In-Class Discussion [ ] In-Class Activity [ ] Evaluation [Insert In-Class Act icon] In-Class Activities  10
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology  Food Label Poster (Part B, Objectives 4-5). Goal: For learners to develop a better appreciation for nutrition details presented on food labels. Instructor should provide scissors, glue sticks, and markers. Learners should place their labels creatively on their posters, in the shape of The Agriculture Department’s pyramid, so their labels reflect foods that should be eaten more often on the bottom and those eaten less frequently on top. Once the posters have been created have each learner share their poster creations with the class. Throughout this project instructor should encourage creativity regarding material layout and presentation. [Insert In-Class Dis Ques icon] In-Class Discussion 1. Where does fluoride come from? Fluoride is a natural trace mineral derived from fluorine and is naturally found in water. [Insert Home Ass icon] Homework Assignments Diet Diary. Learners should keep a list of the foods they eat in one week, including beverages and water, and write down the nutrition content of the types of foods eaten in their diet. They should be prepared to discuss their diet diary in class. Ideas for learners struggling with this material …  Reading Prior to Lecture. Encourage learners to read the assignment prior to class (rather than after the lecture). Inform them that by doing so their reading will provide background information on the topic, as well as give them the chance to have information clarified in the lecture as needed. Ideas for learners who are ahead and want to learn more …  Fluoride Research. Have learners research the pros and cons of fluoride in our drinking water and the differences that various states and counties have for the amounts of fluoride required and allowed. Learners should be prepared to present their findings to the class. Presentation Tools Note: If you change Objectives or Assignments, don’t forget to change the slides accordingly. Slide 14 [Insert NA 1-14] Part B: Nutrition Review Part A. Review the homework from Part A and discuss material as needed. - 11 - 11
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology Introduce Part B. Go through each of the six categories of nutrients. Ensure learners know that protein is broken down into amino acids and that the essential amino acids, needed for tissue growth and repair, cannot be synthesized by the body, but must be supplied through diet. Slide 15 [Insert NA 1-15] Nutrition (cont.) Discuss the fact that each cell in the body needs fuel and that a balanced diet provides nutrients in order for the body to have energy to function properly. Describe to learners baby bottle mouth, or nursing bottle mouth syndrome, and how some children have extensive decay in their mouths from sweetened liquids sitting on their teeth for prolonged periods of time. Slide 16 [Insert NA 1-16] Assessment Questions Short Activity: Stop here and have learners answer the questions on the slide. Review material as needed to enhance understanding. In-Class Activity: Stop here for the Food Label Poster activity. Homework Assignment: Stop here to assign and discuss the homework. Section 2: Anatomy and Physiology Section Overview By knowing general anatomy and physiology of the body, the dental assistant will understand how different parts of the body function, how they relate to each other, and to dentistry. Dental assistants must also recognize terminology used to describe the location and function of body structures in order to aid the dentist in patient care. Outline of Section 12
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology Part A: Body Systems I Part B: Body Systems II Learning Objectives and Competencies These learning activities directly address the Learning Objectives and Competencies as stated. Knowledge 9. Define the Key Terms. 10. List the ten body systems. Comprehension 11. Discuss the function of the digestive system. Teaching Tip 12. Explain the function of each body system. Use good facilitation skills 13. Explain dental concerns related to the digestive, respiratory, and when conducting in-class discussion sessions. Make reproductive systems. good eye contact with learners. Ask those learners who are not participating Learning Activities questions that you think they can answer or to comment on These learning activities directly address the Learning Objectives and another learner’s question or comment. Walk around the Competencies as stated. room. Thank learners for their responses. [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Body System Planning (Part A, Objective 10-13) Acknowledge all responses, even if incorrect. Avoid shutting down learners by [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Body Cavity, Quadrants, and Regions (Part A, negative responses. Objective 10) [Insert Homework Assignment icon] Key Term Glossary (Part A, Objective 9) [Insert Homework Assignment icon] Textbook and Workbook Assignment (Parts A-B, All Objectives) [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Body System Presentations (Part B, Objectives 10-13) Part A: Body Systems I Overview It is important for healthcare providers to understand that the body systems are a network of integrated actions designed and coordinated to work together. This part discusses the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine and reproductive systems. The Adult Learner… more easily puts Initial Question and Activities information into long- term memory when 1. How will learning terminology, and word parts, help us understand certain several learning strategies are utilized: anatomical landmarks? drawing, association, color, discussion, seeing, hearing, - 13 - reading, writing, 13 saying, and so forth. Try to use all strategies in each class session.
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology Common prefixes and suffixes should be familiar to learners and help them in interpreting language describing structures and functions of the body. Key Concepts References and Activities Slides Introduction to Section 2 Slide 17 Key Terms Chapter ____, p. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) Slides 18-19 Body Systems Chapter ____, pp. ____, (Phinney & Halstead) Slides 20-29 [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Body System Planning [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Body Cavity, Quadrants, and Regions [Insert Homeword Ass icon] Key Term Glossary [Insert Home Ass icon] Textbook and Workbook Assignment [ ] Group Activities [ ] Homework [ ] Individual Activity [ ] Internet Activity [ ] In-Class Discussion [ ] In-Class Activity [ ] Evaluation [Insert In-Class Act icon] In-Class Activities  Body System Planning (Part A, Objective 10-13). Goal: To enhance learners’ understanding of all ten body systems. Separate learners into groups of 3 to 4 and have each group prepare a presentation on a selected body system given to the group by the instructor. These presentations will be given in Part B as a review.  Body Cavity, Quadrants, and Regions (Part A, Objective 10). Goal: To learn the body cavities and regions. In pairs, students learners are to point out on one another each of the different body cavities and regions, and state the main organs found in the cavity or region. Paired teams should alternate back and forth until all are named correctly. [Insert In-Class Dis Ques icon] In-Class Discussion 1. What is the difference between the prefixes hyper and hypo? The prefix hyper- means above, excessive, or more than. The prefix hypo- means low, deficient, or less than. 14
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology 2. Using the word parts peri, os, and um – what is the meaning of the term periosteum? The prefix peri- means around, the word part os or oste means bone, and the suffix –um means pertaining to. So the term periosteum means pertaining to around the bone. The periosteum is the outer covering of the bone. [Insert Home Ass icon] Homework Assignments Teaching Tip Key Term Glossary. Learners will define key terms listed in the PowerPoint Walk around during presentation. They are to enter this glossary on disk, in a dedicated notebook or learning activities and use the opportunity to provide individual feedback to in a designated part of a notebook. They are expected to augment information learners. Remember to comment on the things that from text or lecture with other resources including any available in the school or learners are doing well along with the areas in public libraries or on the Internet and will be graded at the end of the module on which they need to work. Adult learners need completeness and presentation. acknowledgement on their accomplishments. Positive Textbook and Workbook Assignment. Have learners read Chapter ____ feedback will go a long way toward motivating the learners to progress (Phinney & Halstead). Have learners also complete the questions in Chapter ____ steadily. of the workbook and the Case Study, Review Questions and Critical Thinking Questions in Chapter ____ (Phinney & Halstead). Ideas for learners struggling with this material …  Attending to Lecture: Encourage learners to speak up if they cannot hear you or read the writing on the board. Ask them to have you clarify any information they are having difficulties with. Ideas for learners who are ahead and want to learn more …  Web Research: Have learners go to http://www.lungusa.org and learn how to help patients stop smoking. Presentation Tools Note: If you change Objectives or Assignments, don’t forget to change the slides accordingly. Slide [Insert NA 1-17] Section 2: Anatomy and Physiology 17 Discuss each objective in detail. Learners need to know what they will be learning and why. Relate it back to their careers as dental assistants. Slide [Insert NA 1-18] Key Terms Review each key term and discuss the importance of 18 knowing the definition of each. - 15 - 15
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology Slide [Insert NA 1 -19] Key Terms (cont.) 19 Continue to review each key term and discuss. Short Activity: Stop here and review the Key Terms Glossary homework assignment. Make sure learners understand the importance of learning each term and acquiring new vocabulary. In-Class Activity: Stop here for the Body System Planning activity. Slide [Insert NA 1 -20] Part A: Body Systems I 20 Introduce learners to the first five body systems. Tell learners it is important for healthcare workers to know how the body is structured and how each structure functions. These functions are crucial to our patient’s health as well as our own. Have the learners refer to the body systems and functions on p. ____ (Phinney & Halstead). Slide [Insert NA 1-21] Body Systems I (cont.) 21 Structurally similar cells make up tissues designed to perform specific functions. Tissues are building blocks of organs. Organs are organized into organ systems. Have the learners refer to the body systems and functions on p.____ (Phinney & Halstead). Slide [Insert NA 1-22] Location In The Body 22 Refer learners to p.____ (Phinney & Halstead). Describe how specific terms are used to describe the location of areas in the body. Explain to learners that it is imperative for dental assistants to know where the patient’s problem is when the dentist is describing the 16
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology condition in technical terms. In-Class Activity: Stop here for the Body Cavity, Quadrants, and Regions activity. Slide [Insert NA 1-23] The Cell 23 Explain that the cell is the most fundamental component for body functions. Cells are specialized to perform specific actions and must obtain energy and nutrients from their environment. Their unique design provides for particular operations within the body, and are organized to form tissues of similar structure. Slide [Insert NA 1-24] The Skeletal System 24 Inform learners that the skeletal system provides support for the body, attachment for muscles, and protection for internal organs. The skeletal system also manufactures blood cells, and stores calcium and phosphorus, which are released into the body as needed. Refer learners to the divisions of the skeletal system as illustrated in the Figure in Chapter _____, p. ____ (Phinney & Halstead). Slide [Insert NA 1-25] The Skeletal System (cont.) 25 Describe to learners how the temporomandibular joint hinges the mandible to the temporal bone of the skull, and explain that many dentists treat TMJ dysfunction problems. Explain that these dysfunctions can be caused by missing teeth, poor occulsion, bruxism, and trauma. Refer learners also to the skeletal joints on p.____ (Phinney & Halstead). Inform learners that the periosteum, the outside covering - 17 - 17
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology of the bone is responsible for the life of the bone. Tell them it is rich in capillaries and osteoblasts, which are the bone forming cells. Explain that the periosteum tissue provides for muscle attachment, is necessary for bone growth and repair, provides nutrition, and assists with waste removal. Have the learners refer to anatomic features of bone on p.____ (Phinney & Halstead). Slide [Insert NA 1-26] The Muscular System 26 Inform learners that the muscular system moves the skeleton, controls movement of substances through hollow organs (the digestive tract and large blood vessels), and provides heart contractions. Slide [Insert NA 1-27] The Nervous System 27 Tell learners the nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Discuss how the nerve cells transmit information from one part of the body to another by means of electrical signals traveling through one neuron to another. Slide [Insert NA 1-28] The Nervous System (cont.) 28 Explain that the CNS receives and processes information and initiates action, and the PNS transmits signals between the CNS and the body. Inform learners that the brain receives, processes, initiates action, and stores information, while the spinal cord conducts signals from the brain. Explain that motor neurons carry messages controlling muscles and glands, while the sensory nerves carry signals to the CNS from sensory organs. Discuss the somatic nervous system controlling voluntary 18
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology movements by activating skeletal muscles, while the autonomic nervous system influences organs, glands, and smooth muscles; the involuntary responses. Slide [Insert NA 1-29] The Endocrine and Reproductive Systems 29 Discuss how the endocrine system contains many glands which release hormones: chemical messages that initiate changes in the cells that receive them. Ensure learners understand that these sensitive glands must be protected by exposure to radiation during dental x-rays. The dental assistant must use a lead apron, with a thyroid collar, in order to protect the patient’s vital organs. Homework Assignment: Stop here to assign and discuss the homework assignments. Part B: Body Systems II Overview Teaching Tip This part will examine the circulatory, digestive, respiratory, lymphatic and Remember that some immune systems. The circulatory and respiratory systems provide oxygen for learners are hesitant to do hands-on activities with their peers. Encourage them cells to function. The digestive system provides nutrients for all cells, and the often, provide positive feedback, and create a safe Lymphatic and immune systems work together with the circulatory system to learning environment. Also encourage them to work in defend the body against disease. The healthcare provider will appreciate the groups. Group work can lessen anxiety, increases importance of how each body system operates in harmony with others and that motivation, and reinforces learning. Many times all are necessary to support life. learners can explain a concept in a different way to a struggling learner. Initial Questions and Activities 1. What is the importance of ergonomics for dental personnel during patient treatment? Ergonomics is the study and analysis of humans at work. Sitting properly during patient treatment saves time and prevents muscle strain in the lower back and neck. 2. Why should the dental assistant place a lead apron over the patient’s neck as well as over the rest of the body? - 19 - 19
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology The collar on the lead apron protects the patient’s thyroid gland from getting too much radiation. The reproductive system should also be protected during exposure to x-rays. Key Concepts References and Activities Slides Body Systems Chapter ____, p. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) Slides 30-35 Assessment Questions [Insert Group Activity icon] Body System Slide 36 Presentations [Insert Home Ass icon] Textbook and Workbook Assignment [ ] Group Activities [ ] Homework [ ] Individual Activity [ ] Internet Activity [ ] In-Class Discussion [ ] In-Class Activity [ ] Evaluation [Insert In-Class Act icon] In-Class Activities  Body System Presentations (Part B, Objective 10-13). Goal: To enhance learners’ understanding of all ten body systems. Have groups present their information regarding the body system they were given to prepare in the in-class activity found in Part A. This activity will be done at the end of the section as a review of the material that has been discussed. [Insert In-Class Dis Ques icon] In-Class Discussion 1. Where are blood cells manufactured? The bone marrow produces both red and white blood cells. 2. Why is cancellous bone also called spongy bone? Cancellous bone is porous in order to permit circulation of nerve and blood vessels. Bone marrow is also found in the cavities of cancellous bone. [Insert Home Ass icon] Homework Assignments Textbook and Workbook Assignment. Learners are to read Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learners are to complete the workbook Chapter ____ questions. Learners should be prepared to review these in class. Have learners also complete the Case Study, Review Questions and Critical Thinking Questions in Chapter ____ (Phinney & Halstead). Ideas for learners struggling with this material … 20
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology  Pick Up On Instructor Clues: Assist learners in recognizing what is important during the lecture. Clues given by the instructor to signal importance might include repetition, writing it on the board and/or putting it into the slide presentation. Encourage learners to assess the instructor’s style and determine how the instructor points out the important information. Ideas for learners who are ahead and want to learn more …  Body System Research: Have learners research information on a body system that they may want to know more about. They should be prepared to present their information to the class. Presentation Tools Note: If you change Objectives or Assignments, don’t forget to change the slides accordingly. Slide [Insert NA 1-30] Part B: Body Systems II 30 Review Part A. Make sure that any remaining questions are answered. Review the homework from Part A. Introduce Part B. Slide [Insert NA 1-31] The Circulatory System 31 Explain to learners that the heart pumps blood though a system of vessels and this circulation of fluid allows for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, transportation of nutrients, hormones, and waste products. Inform learners that the circulatory system also regulates body temperature and protects the body from bacteria and viruses by conveying antibodies and white blood cells. Refer learners to the Figure in Chapter ____, pg. ___ (Phinney & Halstead) to illustrate the structures of the heart. Slide [Insert NA 1-32] The Digestive System 32 Explain to learners that this system supplies the body with - 21 - 21
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology nutrients that provide energy and materials for growth and maintenance. Slide [Insert NA 1-33] The Digestive System (cont.) 33 Discuss how digestion begins in the oral cavity with teeth and tongue each performing a role. Discuss how the consistency of saliva changes depending on a person’s chemical makeup, diet, or medications. Ask learners to think about how their saliva increases in response to the smell, feel, taste, and even the thought of food. Refer learners to the Figure in Chapter ____, pg. ____(Phinney & Halstead) to illustrate the structures of the digestive system. Slide [Insert NA 1-34] The Respiratory System 34 Explain how this system provides an area for gas exchange between the blood and the environment by allowing oxygen acquisition and elimination of carbon dioxide. Discuss how the dental assistant needs to be alert to ensure the patient doesn’t inhale dental materials into their lungs: injuring the respiratory system, or to swallow dental materials: affecting the digestive system. Slide [Insert NA 1-35] The Lymphatic and Immune Systems 35 Describe the lymphatic system as a network of capillaries and larger vessels that empty into the circulatory system. Explain that the lymphatic and immune systems work together to defend the body against foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses by means of white blood cells. Slide [Insert NA 1-36] Assessment Questions 22
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology 36 Short Activity: Ask the group to answer these questions to assess their comprehension of the material. In-Class Activity: Stop here for the Body System Presentations activity. Homework Assignment: Stop here to assign and discuss the homework. Section 3: Head and Neck Anatomy Section Overview Dental Assistants must have thorough knowledge of the structures of the head and oral cavity. This knowledge is necessary to identify facial landmarks during radiograph exposure, placement of the high volume evacuator in the mouth, and to recognize any existing abnormalities. This section explores the major intra oral and extra oral features of the oral cavity, head and neck that are of importance to dentistry. Outline of Section Part A: Face and Oral Cavity Part B: Head and Neck Learning Objectives and Competencies These learning activities directly address the Learning Objectives and Competencies as stated. Knowledge Teaching Tip Bring up your own real 14. Identify bones of the cranium, maxilla, and mandible. workplace experiences. Take time prior to class 15. Name the major nerves of the maxilla and mandible. to think seriously about the examples you can Comprehension use to assist learners in understanding the 16. Describe the major landmarks of the face and oral cavity. information you are presenting. Bring reality 17. Describe the muscles of mastication and facial expression. to the topic as much as possible by reciting real stories. Learning Activities These learning activities directly address the Learning Objectives and Competencies as stated. [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Food Taste Test (Part A, Objective 16) [Insert Homework Assignment icon] Textbook and Workbook Assignment (Part A, All Objectives) - 23 - 23
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Skull Labeling (Part B, Objective 14) Part A: The Face and Oral Cavity Overview The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food begins in the mouth – mechanically by the teeth, then salivary glands pour out saliva in response to the feel and taste. Dental assistants need to understand the many parts of the oral cavity and how they collectively function. The DA needs to be aware of delicate tissues as he/she evacuate the oral cavity, perform radiographs, and take impressions for patients. Initial Questions and Activities 1. What are the functions of the different teeth? The incisors cut food, the cuspids tear pieces, and the bicuspids and molars grind it. Key Concepts References and Activities Slides Introduction to Section Slide 37 Key Terms Chapter ____, pp. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) Slides 38-39 The Face and Oral Cavity Chapter ____, pp. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) Slides 40-44 [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Food Taste Test [Insert Home Ass icon] Textbook and Workbook Assignment [ ] Group Activities [ ] Homework [ ] Individual Activity [ ] Internet Activity [ ] In-Class Discussion [ ] In-Class Activity [ ] Evaluation [Insert In-Class Act icon] In-Class Activities  Food Taste Test. (Part A, Objective 16) Goal: For learners to develop an understanding off flavor and tongue taste buds, because they are one of the five senses that humans depend on for safety and survival. Taste is an important sense, as it prevents consumption of inappropriate food sources. Instructor should provide the following materials: lemon juice (sour), tonic water (bitter), salt water (salty), apple juice (fructose), 7-Up (sucrose), paper or plastic cups, q-tips, and water. Have each learner make a list, on paper, of the four sections of the tongue across the top of the paper: tip, side tip, side-back, middle-back, and list each of the five tastes down the left side of the paper. Learners should form partners and aid each other in order to taste different areas of the tongue with each solution, and mark their findings to get an idea of what regions of the tongue taste which flavors. Dip a different Q-tip each time and touch each tongue section. Rate the taste sensation for either: no taste, little taste, or strong taste. Make sure learners remember to rinse with water 24
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology between each sample and repeat for each taste, making notes of each procedure. Explain to your learners that their taste buds are located on the papillae, and that each papilla contains between 1 and 15 taste buds, and receptor cells that are attached to nerves. Different receptor cells are sensitive to different tastes. Time should be given for the class to discuss their findings. Note: Be sure to ask if any learners have food allergies that would prevent them from participating in this activity. Teaching Tip [Insert In-Class Dis Ques icon] In-Class Discussion Focus each overview 1. What do the terms anterior and posterior refer to? on why learners are learning this Anterior designates the front of something, while posterior refers to the information. Ask them directly why they think it back. is important. Sometimes the act of trying to find the reason 2. What does the word part pro mean? is enough to engage them and focus their Pro means in front of or before. attention on what you are about to teach them. [Insert Home Ass icon] Homework Assignments Textbook and Workbook Assignment. Learners are to read Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learners are to complete the workbook Chapter ____ questions. Learners should be prepared to review these in class, Have learners also complete the Case Study, Review Questions and Critical Thinking Questions in Chapter ____ (Phinney & Halstead). Ideas for learners struggling with this material …  Pre-read the Chapter. Have learners try making an outline of the text and then reading to fill in the outline. This will force them to think ahead about what they are reading Ideas for learners who are ahead and want to learn more …  Web Research. Those interested in knowing more about the oral cavity and the head should go to http://tmj.org and present to the class their findings on temporomandibular joint dysfunction, the symptoms, treatments available, and how patients can avoid TMJ surgery. Presentation Tools Note: If you change Objectives or Assignments, don’t forget to change the slides accordingly. - 25 - 25
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology Slide [Insert NA 1-37] Section 3: Head and Neck Anatomy 37 Discuss each objective for this section in detail. Learners need to know what they will be learning and why. Try to relate it back to their careers as dental assistants. Slide [Insert NA 1-38] Key Terms 38 Review each key term and discuss the importance of knowing the definition of each. Slide [Insert NA 1-39] Key Terms (cont.) 39 Continue to review each key term and discuss. Short Activity: Stop here and review the Key Terms Glossary homework assignment. Make sure learners understand the importance of learning each term and acquiring new vocabulary. Slide [Insert NA 1-40] Part A: The Face and Oral Cavity 40 Go through each landmark on the slide. Learners can refer to the landmarks of the face on p.____ (Phinney & Halstead). Have learners point these parts out on their own faces, using a mirror, or on their neighbors face. Remind learners of the importance of recognizing these landmarks, so they can realize when there is an abnormality for their patients. Slide [Insert NA 1-41] Landmarks of the Oral Cavity 41 Continue to go through each oral cavity landmark. Discuss how many of these parts will be important to remember in later modules, when they take alginate impressions of each other’s mouths. The frenums, tuberosity’s and retromolar areas must be achieved for quality patient maxillary and mandibular models. 26
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology Slide [Insert NA 1-42] The Tongue – Dorsal Side 42 Inform learners that the tongue acts as an organ of taste and speech. It also assists in mastication by rolling and kneading food against the teeth and hard palate, and in deglutition by pushing food backward into the oro- pharynx. Explain that the circumvallate papillae discern bitter, the fungiform papillae taste sweet, sour, and salty flavors, while the foliate papillae detect sour. Tell learners that the filiform papillae rarely have taste buds. Slide [Insert NA 1-43] The Tongue – Ventral Side 43 Explain to learners that the underside of the tongue contains many nerve and blood vessels as well as saliva ducts. Discuss how sensitive these areas can be during aspiration, retraction, and placement of x-ray film. Slide [Insert NA 1-44] Salivary Glands 44 Inform learners that saliva functions as a lubricating agent, aids in swallowing and digestion, promotes taste, and cleanses the mouth. Discuss the three salivary glands, their location, and which ducts convey saliva. Refer learners to the Figure in Chapter ____, pg. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) to illustrate salivary glands and ducts. In-Class Activity: Stop here for the Food Taste Test activity. Homework Assignment: Stop here to assign and discuss the homework. Part B: The Head and Neck Overview - 27 - 27
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology The many parts of the head and neck are complex and correspond with each other. The names of the bones, muscles, and even the tooth surfaces relate to one another. The importance of understanding where these anatomical landmarks are and how they correlate is emphasized in this part. Knowing specific structures of the head and neck are mandatory in order for dental assistants to perform their job. Initial Questions and Activities 1. What is the medical term for dry mouth? Why would some individual develop it? Xerostomia is excessive dryness of the mouth. It is caused by diabetes or radiation and chemotherapy. Xerostomia affects digestion and is especially uncomfortable for those patients wearing dentures. Key Concepts References and Activities Slides Bones of the Cranium and Face Chapter ____, pp. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) Slides 45-47 Temporomandibular Joint Chapter ____, pp. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) Slide 48 Muscles and Nerves of the Head and Chapter ____, pp. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) Slides 49-51 Neck Assessment Questions Chapter ____, pp. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) Slide 52 Summary of Module [Insert Group Activity icon]Skull Labeling Slide 53 [ ] Group Activities [ ] Homework [ ] Individual Activity [ ] Internet Activity [ ] In-Class Discussion [ ] In-Class Activity [ ] Evaluation [Insert In-Class Act icon] In-Class Activities  Skull Labeling. (Part B, Objective 14). Goal: For learners to gain a deeper understanding of the bones of the head. Instructor, if possible, should provide a model skull. If a skull is unavailable then use pictures taken from the textbook, without the labels included. Instructor needs to number each bone on the skull as given in Chapter___ (Phinney & Halstead), with a sticky piece of paper. Learners should take a sheet of notebook paper and write the numbers down the left side, then look at the skull and name the corresponding bone that goes with each number. This exercise should be turned in to be graded by the instructor. [Insert In-Class Dis Ques icon] In-Class Discussion 1. Define mastication. 28
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology Mastication is the act of chewing and is accomplished by coordinated movements of the teeth, the maxillary and mandibular jaws, along with the Teaching Tip cheeks and muscles. Sectretion of saliva also plays a large role during this Consider providing short periods where you ask learners to turn beginning part of the digestive process. to their classmate and explain a concept that you just discussed. Then ask learners to Ideas for learners struggling with this material … tell you if there were areas that were difficult to explain. Discuss as  Note-Taking Tips. Tell learners to listen actively and think before writing a class how to make things more clear. anything down. Let them know they should avoid the habit of just writing down everything they hear as fast as they can, but to listen for the most important points. Ideas for learners who are ahead and want to learn more …  Web Research. Have learners go to http://www.bellspalsy.com and find out about facial paralysis and its cause. Presentation Tools Note: If you change Objectives or Assignments, don’t forget to change the slides accordingly Slide [Insert NA 1-45] Part B: The Head and Neck / Bones of the Cranium 45 Review Part A. Discuss the homework from Part A as needed. Introduce Part B. As you go over each bones of the cranium. Refer to learners to the Figure in Chapter ____, pg. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) for the lateral aspect of the cranium. Slide [Insert NA 1-46] Bones of the Face 46 Refer to the Figure in Chapter ____, pg. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) as you review each bone of the face. Inform learners that the alveolar process is the part of bone containing sockets for teeth. - 29 - 29
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology Slide [Insert NA 1-47] The Maxilla and the Mandible 47 Describe to learners how the maxillary bone articulates with the zygomatic bones on each side of the face and that the maxilla contains infraorbital foramen under each eye socket; openings in the bone, through which blood and nerve vessels pass. As each mandibular landmark is reviewed refer to the Figures in Chapter ____, pg. ____ (Phinney & Halstead). Explain that the mandible is one bone, which is the strongest bone of the face, and that in it are two foramen, for passage of nerve and blood vessels, near the apices of mandibular bicuspids and are often seen on x-rays. Slide [Insert NA 1-48] The Temporomandibular Joint 48 Inform learners that this joint attaches the mandible to the maxilla at the temporal bone. Describe how complex this joint is, how it is held in position by muscles, enclosed in capsular ligaments, and moves by hinge and glide motions. Explain that the condyle of the mandible articulates with the maxillary gleoid fossa, and between them is a meniscus; a disc pad of dense connective tissue. Inform learners that if the disc becomes displaced, popping sounds called crepitus may result, or if the condyle becomes displaced anteriorly this is called subluxation. Bruxism, or excessive grinding of the teeth may cause temporomandibular joint dysfunction, and inflammation of this joint, as with any joint, may result in arthritis, due to wear and tear. 30
    • Module - Nutrition and Anatomy and Physiology Slide [Insert NA 1-49] Muscles of Mastication 49 Review these muscles that come in pairs. Refer learners to p._____ (Phinney & Halstead). Slide [Insert NA 1-50] Muscles of Facial Expression 50 Go through each muscle and discuss their function. Slide [Insert NA 1-51] Head and Neck 51 Explain to learners that in order for the dentist to perform restorative treatment for patients, first anesthetic must be administered. The nerves of the head and neck are complicated. Discuss how the Anterior superior alveolar innervated the maxillary central and lateral incisors as well as the cuspids. The Middle superior alveolar innervates the maxillary first and second bicuspids and the mesial buccal root of the first molar. The Posterior superior alveolar innervates the rest of the maxillary first molars, as well as the second and third molars. Inform learners that for routine patient treatment on mandibular teeth, the anesthetic infiltrated into the Inferior alveolar nerve numbs the entire side of the jaw. Explain the purpose of the arteries and veins of the face and oral cavity. Review the Figures provided in Chapter ____, pg. ___ (Phinney & Halstead) for discussion regarding each artery and vein. Slide [Insert NA 1-52] Assessment Questions 52 Short Activity: Ask the group to answer these questions to assess their comprehension of the material recently. Review material as needed. - 31 - 31
    • Faculty Teaching Guide for Oral Health, Nutrition, and Anatomy and Physiology In-Class Activity: Stop here for the group presentations jigsaw pa Slide [Insert NA 1-53] Summary of Module 53 Remind learners of the importance of understanding the material for their futures as dental assistants. Discuss the significance of acquiring new vocabulary and how much they have learned already. 32