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  • 1. PowerPoint ® Presentation for Dental Radiology with Labs Module: Dental Radiology
  • 2. Module: Dental Radiology Dental Radiography Part A: Radiation and Safety Part B: Radiographs Part C: Processing and Mounting Part D: Extraoral Radiographs and Landmarks
  • 3. Module: Dental Radiology
    • Learning Objectives
    • 1. Define the Key Terms.
    • 2. Name the different sizes and types of dental
    • x-ray film.
    • 3. Identify safety precautions needed when using
    • radiation.
    • 4. List the types of extraoral dental radiographs.
    • 5. Describe the biological effect of radiation.
    • 6. Discuss the difference between bisecting and
    • paralleling techniques.
    • 7. Describe the most common radiographic errors.
  • 4. Module: Dental Radiology
    • Learning Objectives
    • 8. Describe proper automatic and manual
    • processing techniques.
    • 9. Define the difference between normal and
    • abnormal radiographic landmarks.
    • 10. Demonstrate infection control during
    • radiography procedures.
    • 11. Demonstrate x-ray exposure using paralleling and bisecting angle techniques.
  • 5. Module: Dental Radiology
    • Learning Objectives
    • 12. Demonstrate occlusal x-ray exposure.
    • 13. Demonstrate manual and automatic
    • processing of radiographs.
    • 14. Demonstrate duplication of radiographs.
    • 15. Demonstrate proper mounting of full
    • mouth radiographs.
  • 6. Key Terms
    • ALARA
    • Anode
    • Automatic processing
    • Basal cells
    • Bisecting technique
    • Bite-wing
    • Blurred images
    • Cassette
    • Cathode
    • Central beam
    • Cephalometric radiographs
    • Collimator
    • Computed tomography
    • Cone cutting
    • Contrast
    • Cross-section technique
  • 7. Key Terms
    • Density
    • Developer solution
    • Digital imaging technology
    • Double exposure
    • Duplication technique
    • Electromagnetic energy
    • Elongation
    • Extraoral film
    • Fixer solution
    • Focal spot
    • Focusing cup
    • Foreshortening
    • Frankfort plane
    • Gray (GY)
    • Herringbone pattern
    • Horizontal angulation
  • 8. Key Terms
    • Intensifying screens
    • Interproximal
    • Intraoral
    • kV
    • Latent period
    • Leakage radiation
    • Long wavelengths
    • MRI
    • Manual processing
    • MPD
    • mA
    • mr
    • Mitosis
    • Occlusal radiographs
    • Overlapping
    • Panoramic technique
    • Paralleling technique
  • 9. Key Terms
    • Periapical
    • Primary radiation
    • rad
    • Radiolucent
    • Radiopaque
    • Radiosensitive
    • “ Rare earth” phosphors
    • rbe
    • Reticulation
    • rem
    • Roentgens
    • Scatter radiation
    • Secondary radiation
    • Short wavelengths
  • 10. Key Terms
    • Sv
    • Thermionic emission
    • Topographic technique
    • Tragus of the ear
    • Transcranial radiograph
    • Tubehead
    • Vertical angulation
    • x-rays
    • x-ray tube
  • 11. Part A: Radiation and Safety 1895 Roentgen discovers x-rays 1895 First dental radiograph taken 1896 First intraoral radiograph taken 1913 Hot cathode x-ray tube invented 1923 GE develops dental x-ray machine
  • 12. Development of Dental Techniques 1905 Bisecting technique developed 1920 Paralleling technique developed 1959 Panoramic technique developed 1980 Panorex II developed
  • 13. Electromagnetic Energy
  • 14. Atoms
    • Subatomic particles:
      • Protons
      • Neutrons
      • Hadrons
      • Leptons
      • Quarks
    Nucleus Electrons
  • 15. Types of Radiation
  • 16. Effects of Radiation on Cells
    • Division of cells:
      • Somatic
      • Genetic
    • Cell types:
      • Radiosensitive cells
      • Radioresistant
  • 17. Radiation Measurement Terms Sievert (Sv) 1 Sv Radiation equivalent man (REM) 100 rems = Dose equivalent Gray (GY) 1 Gy Radiation absorbed dose (RAD) 100 rads = Dose Couloumb per kilogram 1 c/kg Roentgen (R) 3.88 x 10 R = Exposure (C/kg) Metric Equivalent or Système Internationale (SI) Standard System (Traditional)
  • 18. Radiation Exposure Standards MPD
  • 19. Radiation Exposure Detection Badge
  • 20. Control Panel on a Dental X-Ray Unit
  • 21. Dental Arm Assembly and Tubehead
  • 22. Radiographic Safety and Quality Assurance Manufacturer’s responsibility Dentist’s responsibility DA’s responsibility Patient’s responsibility
  • 23. Part B: Radiographs Dental x-ray film
  • 24. X-Ray Exposure
  • 25. Types of Film Exposures
  • 26. Film Exposure Techniques Bisecting technique Paralleling technique
  • 27. Full Mouth Series
    • Bite-wing
      • Horizontal positioning
      • Vertical positioning
    • Maxillary arch
      • Incisors, cuspids, premolars, molars
    • Mandibular arch
      • Incisors, cuspids, premolars, molars, premolar bite-wing, molar bite-wing
  • 28. Special Types of Radiographs Occlusal radiographs Pediatric radiographs Edentulous radiographs Endodontic radiographs Radiographs for patients with special needs
  • 29. Producing a Quality Radiograph
  • 30. Film Exposing Errors Blurred image Cone cutting Foreshortening Overlapping Distortion Elongation Radiopaque film images Backward film Underexposed film Overexposed film Double exposure Clear film
  • 31. Film Processing Errors Film artifacts Torn/scratched film Partial image Dark film image Light film image Fogged film Reticulation Air bubbles on film Streaks
  • 32. Part C: Processing and Mounting
  • 33. Processing Solutions Developer solution Fixer solution
  • 34. Automatic Processor
  • 35. Duplicating X-Rays
  • 36. Mounting Dental Radiographs
    • Labial mounting
    • Lingual mounting
  • 37. Patient Radiographs Stored in the patient treatment record Legal records never destroyed Property of the dentist
  • 38. Part D: Extraoral Radiographs and Landmarks
  • 39. Cephalometric Radiographs
  • 40. Radiographic Interpretation Terminology
    • Anatomical landmarks
    • Radiopaque
    • Radiolucent
    • Diagnosis
    • Interpretation
    • Superimposition
  • 41. Landmarks
  • 42. Landmarks Mandibular landmarks Maxillary landmarks
  • 43. Advanced Technology in Dental Radiology CT scanning MRI Digital imaging
  • 44. Summary of Module
    • Key Terms
    • History of radiography
    • Dental techniques
    • Radiation
    • Components of a dental x-ray unit
    • Radiographic safety and quality assurance
    • Film exposure techniques
    • Special types of radiographs
    • Errors to avoid in film exposing and processing
    • Processing and mounting
    • Extraoral radiographs and landmarks