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  • 1. in modern organization +DENPONG SOODPHAKDEE, Ph.D. VP.ACAD.IT @KKU Proper Communication
  • 2. Demography: Era and People • Traditionalists: born prior to 1946 • Brand and retail store loyal, gone through the depression and war • Baby Boomers: born 1946-64 • Reminded to eat the plate clean. Into home and kitchens upgrade; enjoys gourmet food • Generation X: born 1965-81 • Likes to be educated and informed; no major enduring hard economical times • Gen Y, Net-Geners/Millenials: born 1982-2000 (14 -32) • Live, breath, shop, link up on the web. Well informed. • Our students on campus • Gen Z: born after 2001 (below 13) • Group activities • Multi-cultural, experiential, media-savvy
  • 3. Gen Y •Tech savvy • Continually connected with IM, SMS • Socially connected with devices •Cosmopolitan • Influenced by peers •Short attention span • Skim text and information quickly •Achievement oriented • Seek recognition, fame and feedback • Wants meaningful work and a solid learning curve •Team-Oriented • Value teamwork and seek the input and affirmation of others • Loyal, committed and wants to be included and involved
  • 4. Down Memory Lane
  • 5. Today
  • 6. Can be defined as the process by which information is exchanged and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior. Communication
  • 7. © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Downward, Upward, and Horizontal Communication in Organizations SOURCE: Adopted from Richard L. Daft and Richard M. Steers, Organizations; A Micro- Macro Approach, 538 Copyright 1986 by Scott, Foresman and Company, Used by permission.
  • 8. Vertical and Horizontal Communication Vertical Communication The flow of information both up and down the chain of command Formal communication Recognized as official Status and power are not equal among participants in vertical communication Horizontal Communication • The flow of information between colleagues and peers • Informal communication • Does not follow the chain of command • Not recognized as official
  • 9. © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Downward Communication  Messages sent from top management down to subordinates.  Most familiar and obvious flow of formal communication.  Major problem is drop off.  Another concern, distortion.
  • 10. © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Upward Communication  Messages that flow from the lower to the higher levels in the organizations.  Upward communications mechanisms: 1. Suggestion boxes. 2. Employee surveys. 3. MIS reports. 4. Face to face conversations.
  • 11. © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Horizontal Communication  Lateral or diagonal exchange of messages among peers or coworkers.  Horizontal communication’s three categories: 1. Intradepartmental problem solving. 2. Interdepartmental coordination. 3. Change initiatives and improvements.
  • 12. Receiver Encode feedback Form feedback Sender Form message Encode message Transmit Message Transmit Feedback Noise Communication Process Model Decode message Receive encoded message Decode feedback Receive feedback
  • 13. Improving Communication Coding/Decoding 1. Both parties have motivation and ability to communicate through the channel 2. Both parties carry the same “codebook” 3. Both parties share similar mental models of the communication context 4. Sender is experienced at communicating the message topic
  • 14. How E-Mail has Altered Communication  Now preferred medium for coordinating work  Tends to increase communication volume  Significantly alters communication flow  Reduces some selective attention biases
  • 15. Problems with E-Mail  Communicates emotions poorly  Reduces politeness and respect  Inefficient for ambiguous, complex, novel situations  Increases information overload
  • 16. Social Networking Communication Social network communication clusters people around interests/expertise Several types of social network communication • Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn • Online discussion forums • Avatar sites (e.g. Second Life) • Instant messaging • Wikis
  • 17. Nonverbal Communication  Actions, facial gestures, etc.  Influences meaning of verbal symbols  Less rule bound than verbal communication  Important part of emotional labor  Most is automatic and nonconscious
  • 18. Emotional Contagion  The automatic process of sharing another person’s emotions by mimicking their facial expressions and other nonverbal behavior  Serves three purposes: 1. Provides continuous feedback to speaker 2. Increases emotional understanding of the other person’s experience 3. Communicates a collective sentiment -- sharing the experience
  • 19. Choosing the Best Communication Channel: Social Acceptance How well the communication channel is approved and supported by the organization, team, and individual: 1. Communication channel norms 2. Individual communication channel preferences 3. Symbolic meaning of the communication channel
  • 20. Choosing the Best Communication Channel: Media Richness The channel’s data-carrying capacity needs to be aligned with the communication activity High richness when channel: 1. conveys multiple cues 2. allows timely feedback 3. allows customized message 4. permits complex symbols Use rich communication media when the situation is nonroutine and ambiguous
  • 21. Oversimplified Zone Overloaded Zone Nonroutine/ Ambiguous Rich Media Richness Situation Hierarchy of Media Richness Routine/clear Lean
  • 22. Factors that Override Media Richness  Ability to multi-communicate with lean channels  More varied proficiency levels  Social distractions of rich channels
  • 23. Persuasive Communication  Changing another person’s beliefs and attitudes.  Spoken communication is more persuasive because: 1. accompanied by nonverbal communication, adding emotional punch to the message. 2. has high quality immediate feedback whether message is understood and accepted. 3. has high social presence, so receiver is more sensitive to message content and more motivated to accept the message.
  • 24. Communication Barriers  Perceptions  Filtering  Language • Jargon • Ambiguity  Information Overload
  • 25. Information Overload Information Load Episodes of information overload Employee’s information processing capacity Time
  • 26. Managing Information Overload  Solution 1: Increase info processing capacity • Learn to read faster • Scan through documents more efficiently • Remove distractions • Time management • Temporarily work longer hours  Solution 2: Reduce information load • Buffering • Omitting • Summarizing
  • 27. Cross-Cultural Communication  Verbal differences • Language • Voice intonation • Silence/conversational overlaps  Nonverbal differences • Interpreting nonverbal meaning • Importance of verbal versus nonverbal ©Mark M. Lawrence/Corbis
  • 28. Getting Your Message Across 1. Empathize 2. Repeat the message 3. Use timing effectively 4. Be descriptive Courtesy of Microsoft.
  • 29. Active Listening Active Listening Process & Strategies Sensing • Postpone evaluation • Avoid interruptions • Maintain interest Evaluating • Empathize • Organize information Responding • Show interest • Clarify the message
  • 30. Communicating in Hierarchies  Workspace design • Clustering people in teams • Open office arrangements  Web-based organizational communication • Wikis -- collaborative document creation • Blogs -- personal news/opinion for sharing • E-zines -- rapid distribution of company news  Direct communication with management • Management by walking around (MBWA) • Town hall meetings
  • 31. Organizational Grapevine  Early research findings • Transmits information rapidly in all directions • Follows a cluster chain pattern • More active in homogeneous groups • Transmits some degree of truth  Changes due to internet • Email becoming the main grapevine medium • Social networks are now global • Public blogs and forums extends gossip to everyone
  • 32. © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. The Grapevine  Will always exist in organizations.  Used to fill in information gaps.  Tends to be more active during periods of change.  About 80% of topics are business related.  About 70-90% of details of grapevine are accurate.
  • 33. Grapevine Benefits/Limitations  Benefits • Fills in missing information from formal sources • Strengthens corporate culture • Relieves anxiety • Signals that problems exist  Limitations • Distortions might escalate anxiety • Perceived lack of concern for employees when company info is slower than grapevine
  • 34. http://slideshare.net/denpong denpong@kku.ac.th http://facebook.com/denpong.s