1. Human Becoming Theory(man living health theory) Rosemarie Rizzo ParseINTRODUCTION The Parse theory of human becoming guides nurses in their practice to focus on quality of life as it is described and lived The human becoming theory of nursing presents an alternative to both the conventional bio-medical approach and the bio-psycho-social-spiritual (but still normative) approach of most other theories of nursing. The human becoming theory posits quality of life from each persons own perspective as the goal of nursing practice Rosemarie Rizzo Parse first published the theory in 1981 as the "Man-living-health" theory The name was officially changed to "the human becoming theory" in 1992 to remove the term "man," after the change in the dictionary definition of the word from its former meaning of "humankind."ABOUT THE THEORIST Dr. Parse is a graduate of Duquesne University in Pittsburgh. MSN and Ph.D. from University of Pittsburgh Published her theory of nursing, Man-Living-Health in 1981 Name changed to Theory of Human Becoming in 1992 Editor and Founder, Nursing Science Quarterly Published eight books and hundreds of articles about Human Becoming Theory Professor of Loyola University, Chicago President of discovery international,inc,an organization to promote excellence in nursing science. She is also founder of the Institute of Humanbecoming. Dr. Parse is a Fellow in the American Academy of NursingTHEORY DEVELOPMENT The theory is structured around three abiding themes: meaning, rhythmicity, and transcendence. PRINCIPLES 1.The first theme, MEANING, is expressed in the first principle of the theory, which states that "Structuring meaning multidimensionally is cocreating reality through the languaging of valuing and imaging." This principle means that people coparticipate in creating what is real for them through self-expression in living their values in a chosen way. The first principle contains three concepts-valuing,imaging and languaging.
2. imaging is the creatingofreality,and one’s reality reflects who one is as a unitary person. Valuing is the process of choosing and embracing what is important. Languaging is about the ways persons are with the world and in relationships about how to be with others. 2.The second theme, RHYTHMICITY, is expressed in the second principle of the theory, which states that "Cocreating rhythmical patterns of relating is living the paradoxical unity of revealing-concealing and enabling-limiting while connecting- separating." This principle means that the unity of life encompasses apparent opposites in rhythmic patterns of relating. It means that in living moment-to-moment one shows and does not show self as opportunities and limitations emerge in moving with and apart from others. Revealing-concealing concerns the ways persons disclose and do not disclose meanings,thoughts,feelings,values,concerns and hope. Connecting-separating concerns the ways persons can be with others while at the same time being separate from them or how persons can be together without being in the same location. The third theme, TRANSCENDENCE, is expressed in the third principle of the theory, which states that "Cotranscending with the possibles is powering unique ways of originating in the process of transforming." This principle means that moving beyond the "now" moment is forging a unique personal path for oneself in the midst of ambiguity and continuous change. Poweringis the pushing-resisting process that propels people in life Originating is about human uniqueness and the ways persons create their own becoming as they choose from all possibles that could be. Transforming is about integrating unfamiliar ideas or activities into ones’s life.ASSUMPTIONS About man * The human is coexisting while coconstituting rhythmical patterns with the universe. * The human is open, freely choosing meaning in situation, bearing responsibility for decisions. * The human is unitary, continuously coconstituting patterns of relating. * The human is transcending multidimensionally with the possibles About Becoming * Becoming is unitary human-living-health. * Becoming is a rhythmically coconstituting human-universe process. * Becoming is the human’s patterns of relating value priorities. * Becoming is an intersubjective process of transcending with the possibles. * Becoming is unitary human’s emerging Three Major Assumptions of Human Becoming
3. Meaning Human Becoming is freely choosing personal meaning in situations in the intersubjective process of living value priorities Man’s reality is given meaning through lived experiences Man and environment cocreatRhythmicity Human Becoming is cocreating rhythmical patterns of relating in mutual process with the universe. Man and environment cocreate ( imaging, valuing, languaging) in rhythmical patternsTranscendence Human Becoming is cotranscendingmultidimensionally with emerging .possible. Refers to reaching out and beyond the limits that a person sets One constantly transforms SUMMARY OF THE THEORY Human Becoming Theory includes Totality Paradigm  man is a combination of biological, psychological, sociological and spiritual factors Simultaneity Paradigm  Man is a unitary being in continuous, mutual interaction with environmentNURSING PARADIGMS AND PARSES THEORYPERSON  Open being who is more than and different from the sum of the partsENVIRONMENT  Everything in the person and his experiences  Inseparable, complimentary to and evolving withHEALTH  Open process of being and becoming. Involves synthesis of valuesNURSING  A human science and art that uses an abstract body of knowledge to serve peopleSTRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES
4. Strengths * Differentiates nursing from other disciplines * Practice - Provides guidelines of care and useful administration * Useful in Education * Provides research methodologies * Provides framework to guide inquiry of other theories (grief, hope, laughter, etc.)Weaknesses * Research considered to be in a “closed circle” * Rarely quantifiable results - Difficult to compare to other research studies, no controlgroup, standardized questions, etc. * Does not utilized the nursing process/diagnoses * Negates the idea that each person engages in a unique lived experience * Not accessible to the novice nurse * Not applicable to acute, emergent careAPPLICATION OF THE THEORYNursing Practice * A transformative approach to all levels of nursing * Differs from the traditional nursing process, particularly in that it does not seek to “fix”problems * Ability to see patients perspective allows nurse to “be with” patient and guide themtoward desired health outcomes * Nurse-person relationship cocreates changing health patternsResearch * Enhances understanding of human lived experience, health, quality of life and quality ofnursing practice * Expands the theory of human becoming