Patents 101

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Слайды с семинара Марка Белобородова. Все вопросы можно задавать ему (контакты в самой презентации) или организаторам семинара www.growthup.com

Слайды с семинара Марка Белобородова. Все вопросы можно задавать ему (контакты в самой презентации) или организаторам семинара www.growthup.com

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  • 1. PATENTS 101 ОСНОВЫ ПАТЕНТНОГО ПРАВАМарк Белобородов ДЛЯ ИЗОБРЕТАТЕЛЕЙ,5 ноября 2012 ПРЕДПРИНИМАТЕЛЕЙ, И ИНВЕСТОРОВ
  • 2. About Me Mark L. Beloborodov, Esq. Senior Intellectual Property Counsel at Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Prior to Philips Intellectual Property Counsel at Color Kinetics (Boston, MA) • a pioneer in LED lighting, acquired by Philips in Aug’07 for ~$800M Patent Attorney at two major Boston law firms • represented adidas, Agfa, Boston Scientific, e-Ink, RSA Security, and many other technology companies in IP matters2
  • 3. Agenda Блок 1 • Введение • Что такое "патент"? • Анатомия патента • Юридические требования для получения патента • Популярные заблуждения о патентах Блок 2 • Успешная IP стратегия и примеры из мира бизнеса • Практические советы по защите Вашего изобретения4
  • 4. What is “Intellectual Property”? Protectable product of intellectual labor • distinct types of creations of the mind for which a set of exclusive rights are recognized by law5
  • 5. Intellectual Property Subjects & Rights Intellectual Property Subject Intellectual Property Right Text, images, sound Copyright Shape, appearance Design Patent Distinguishing attribute Trademark Know-How Trade Secret Technical solutions Utility Patent6
  • 6. Design Patents7
  • 7. Trade Secrets Any proprietary information that provides a competitive advantage, for example, • Customer lists • Marketing strategy • Undetectable unpatented inventions • Formulas and recipes • Manufacturing processes and best practices • Other “know-how”8
  • 8. Trade Secrets As long as reasonably kept No protection, if secret information secret, the proprietary is information is legally protected • independently developed against improper appropriation - reverse engineering is OK, • potentially infinite duration unless specifically prohibited by contract • accidentally disclosed to public9
  • 9. ЧТО ТАКОЕ "ПАТЕНТ"?
  • 10. Что такое "патент"?  Документ дающий экслюзивное право на внедрение или использование Вашего изобретения  Сертификация Вашего изобретения государством  Научная статья о результатах Ваших новаторских исследований  Техническое описание работающего прототипа Вашего изобретения11
  • 11. Что такое "патент"? Временная монополия на техническое решение согласно "формуле изобретения", а именно • право запретить другим производить, использовать, продавать, внедрять или импортировать устройства, вещества, и методы защищенные патентом, независимо от того были ли они скопированы или независимо изобретены • Установленная государством в обмен на полное и инструктивное описание изобретения • "Срок годности" - 20 лет с момента подачи заявки • Вступает в силу после выдачи и только в стране где выдан12
  • 12. АНАТОМИЯ ПАТЕНТА
  • 13. Anatomy of a U.S. Patent • Title Page • Figures • Specification ("Техническое описание“) • Claims ("Формула изобретения“)14
  • 14. Title Page • Patent Number • Issue Date • Title • Names of inventors • Assignee • Filing Date • Abstract • List of “prior art” references considered by the USPTO during examination • Representative Drawing 1515
  • 15. Figures • Required when necessary to understand the invention • Provide helpful outline for describing the invention • Legal protection is not limited by what is illustrated, if the patent application is drafted properly 1616
  • 16. Specification • Background of the Invention • Summary of the Invention • Description of the Drawings • Detailed Description 1717
  • 17. Claims • Define the protectable invention • similar to “metes and bounds” of a deed to a plot of land, i.e. anything that meets the definition of the claims infringes the patent • Each claim includes a list of elements that make up the invention, and relationship between them • Two types: • independent claims • dependent claims 1818
  • 18. Claims • Interpreted in view of – but not limited by - the specification, • e.g., improper to “read” particular examples of the invention disclosed in the description “into” the claims • If an idea appears in the description, but is not covered by claims, it is dedicated to the public 1919
  • 19. Example Title of the invention: • “Device for Elevated Sitting” Background: • Sitting on hard ground is uncomfortable Detailed description: • My invention is a device for supporting a person’s hindquarters in a sitting position at a distance above ground, substantially as described in FIG. 1 CLAIM: FIG. 1 1. A sitting device, comprising: • a substantially planar member having a surface for supporting a person’s hindquarters; and • at least three legs, each directly coupled to and supporting the planar member .20
  • 20. Infringing Products? 2121
  • 21. How to Study Patents of Others? • To evaluate their relevance to the invention you are trying to protect: - focus on the specification and the figures, i.e. what the patent discloses or “teaches” • To see whether your product infringes a competitor’s patent (or vice versa) - focus on the claims22
  • 22. ЮРИДИЧЕСКИЕ ТРЕБОВАНИЯ ДЛЯПОЛУЧЕНИЯ ПАТЕНТА
  • 23. Legal Requirements for Patentability Invention is patentable in the USA/EPC countries, if: • It falls under one of several categories of “patentable subject matter” • It is useful • It is new • It is not obvious / has inventive step • It is adequately described and enabled24
  • 24. Patentable Subject Matter 35 USC 101 • “any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvements thereof” • NOT ELIGIBLE:  Laws of nature  Mathematical formulas  Abstract scientific principles  Naturally occurring matter 25 2525
  • 25. Software and patent protection Invention Realization in Realization in Realization in hardware and hardware software software Two-thirds of today’s high-tech inventions involve software26
  • 26. Patentability of Software in the USA: • State Street (Fed Cir 1998) • claimed method invention, including software, is eligible for patent protection if it involved some practical application and “produces a useful, concrete and tangible result” • transformation of data by a machine into a final share price in State Street was a practical application of an algorithm and is therefore patentable • no “business method” exception to patentability • In re Bilski (Fed Cir 2008) • a claimed method of hedging risks in commodities trading is not patentable • “a claimed process is patent-eligible under § 101 if: (1) it is tied to a particular machine, or (2) it transforms a particular article into a different state” (= “machine-or-transformation”) • the "useful, concrete and tangible result" test by State Street is inadequate • business methods and software still patentable – if meet the MOT test (but unclear whether general purpose computer qualifies as a “particular machine or apparatus”) • In re Bilski (S.Ct. 2010) • affirmed unpatentability of Bilski claims as “abstract ideas” based on early cases • BUT reversed Federal Circuit exclusive reliance of MOT test as too restrictive • refused to address the larger issues of software patentability, leaving State Street intact27
  • 27. Patentability of Software in Europe: EPC, Art. 51: Patentable Inventions: (1) European patents shall be granted for any inventions, in all fields of technology (2) The following in particular shall not be regarded as inventions …: (a) discoveries, scientific theories and mathematical methods; (b) aesthetic creations; (c) schemes, rules and methods for performing mental acts, playing games or doing business, and programs for computers; (d) presentations of information. (3) Paragraph 2 shall exclude the patentability of the subject-matter or activities referred to therein only to the extent to which a European patent application or European patent relates to such subject-matter or activities as such. 1998: T 1173/97: IBM – Computer program product, i.e. software with further technical effect, is patentable (beyond normal computer/software interaction)28
  • 28. Novelty 35 USC 102 • The invention is different from the prior art • No single “prior art” document describes all of the elements of the invention • “Prior Art” = evidence of what was known by others prior to the filing date • Scientific or technical articles; • Patents and published patent applications • Commercially available products • Inventor’s own public disclosure of the invention before filing a patent application  one-year limited grace period in the U.S. only29
  • 29. Statutory Bar to Patentability If otherwise patentable invention is publicly disclosed before filing a patent application PATENT PROTECTION IN MOST COUNTRIES IS NO LONGER LEGALLY POSSIBLE • This includes non-confidential disclosures by the inventor himself! • Publications (including over the Internet) • Presentations • Non-experimental use in public • NDAs can help in some circumstances (unless breached)30
  • 30. Nonobviousness (“Inventiveness”) 35 USC 103 • Invention must be non-obvious to a “person of ordinary skill in the art” as of the filing date • Often the invention is examined in view of a combination of prior art documents • U.S. Supreme Court (2005)  “Combination of familiar elements according to known methods is likely to be obvious when it does no more than yield predictable results”  Mere substitution of one element for its known equivalent with a predictable result  Selection of one of a limited number of options to solve a known problem  Solution naturally flowing from a recognition of a problem31
  • 31. Written Description & Enablement 35 USC 112 • Invention must be sufficiently described such that (1) it is clear that the inventor was “in possession” of the invention (2) one of ordinary skill in the art is “enabled” or taught how to make and use the invention without “undue experimentation” • NOT REQUIRED: - to have actually build a prototype, - to prove that the invention works, or - to submit a sample  recall that the patent exclusivity is granted in exchange for description of the invention to advance technical progress32
  • 32. ПОПУЛЯРНЫЕЗАБЛУЖДЕНИЯ О ПАТЕНТАХ 33 33
  • 33. Популярные заблуждения о патентах 1. Можно запатентировать идею 2. Можно запатентировать только по-настоящему новаторские изобретения 3. Можно запатентировать только работающие решения 4. Можно запатентировать все что угодно если работать с грамотным юристом 5. Патентная заявка - это просто форма для заполнения изобретателем 6. Самое главное - поскорее подать патентную заявку, всегда можно ее потом дополнить и расширить34
  • 34. Популярные заблуждения о патентах 7. Патент дает эксклюзивное право на производство и внедрение Вашего изобретения 8. Патент защищает Ваше изобретение от копирования автоматически 9. Нельзя быть виновным в неумышленном нарушении чьих-то патентных прав 10. Любой патент всегда можно обойти 11. Можно получить мировой патент 12. Конкуренты не имеют права патентировать усовершенствования Вашего запатентованного продукта35
  • 35. УСПЕШНАЯ IP СТРАТЕГИЯ ИПРИМЕРЫ ИЗ МИРА БИЗНЕСА 36 36
  • 36. Patents can be: 1. asserted offensively, i.e. enforced against others 2. when sued, asserted defensively or used to invalidate other party’s patents, 3. licensed or cross-licensed, 4. “assigned”, i.e. completely sold, 5. used as a collateral to raise capital 6. used to lend credibility to your company’s technology and investments in R&D37
  • 37. IP Strategy = alignment of your patenting efforts with your company’s business objectives • REMEMBER, patents are NOT inherently commercially valuable Proactive plan to realize the value of the company’s patents and leverage its investment in innovation by: • protecting its profits and marketshare by excluding competition from entering the market; • generating royalties revenue via licensing; • securing freedom to operate through cross-licensing and managing risks of infringing of 3rd party patents; • securing financing on favorable terms38
  • 38. IP Strategy – Start-Ups 1. foster a culture of market-focused innovation from Day 1 2. identify and protect key technologies and key opportunities in alignment with business objectives 3. monitor technology trends to identify next generation of products and applications 4. monitor patenting trends 5. protect investments in R&D through targeted enforcement 3939
  • 39. Evaluating Inventions for Patenting COSTS Inventors’ time Drafting, prosecution, and maintenance Licensing and enforcement VS VALUE AS BUSINESS ASSET Exclusion of competition Licensing Opportunities Investment Value40
  • 40. Evaluating Inventions for Patenting Questions to consider • Relevant to company’s business objectives? • Broadly patentable + infringement detectable? - if not, keep as trade secret? • How likely to be used by the company or 3rd parties? • How easy to design around? • Does it work? • Need to protect R&D investment?41
  • 41. ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЕ СОВЕТЫ ПО ЗАЩИТЕ ВАШЕГО ИЗОБРЕТЕНИЯ 42 42
  • 42. Patent Filing Considerations • Do you have a patentable invention?  new and unobvious?  sufficiently developed, at least mentally? • Scope of potential protection  prior art considered? • Useful life of invention vs. pendency of application and patent term • Pursue patent or keep as a trade secret?  detectable?  key advantages protectable? • Varying levels and aspects of protection  printer having cartridge, cartridge, or ink for refilling the cartridge • Geography of protection  national /regional markets to protect sales  competitors’ “back yard” • Costs vs. Benefits43
  • 43. Patent Filing Considerations Key Questions to Consider: • What is the technical problem addressed by your invention or what motivated you to invent? • How, if at all, others tried to solved that technical problem • What is your solution? • How is it different? • Why is it better? • How is it detectable, if copied? • How does it work, if implemented? 4444
  • 44. Best Approach to Defining Inventions Problem-Solution Statement: • Invention is a concept, not a thing  focusing on specific implementation often leads to defining – and claiming!! - the invention too narrowly • PSS is a broad yet concise definition of the invention, setting forth the problem and your conceptual solution to it in view of prior art  the goal is to distill the invention to its essential elements, eliminating unnecessary details45
  • 45. Patentability Search • Helps determine if the invention can be patented at all and the scope of potential protection • Conducted before filing a patent application • Optional  Inventor is an expert in the field (often illusory)  Inventor is in a rush • Focuses primarily on novelty, less so on non-obviousness • The quality of a patentability search depends on:  Sufficiency of the invention disclosure  Searcher’s skills  Focus of the search  Budget46
  • 46. Patentability Search Important: • Search helps evaluate the scope of prior art to obtain the broadest protection for the invention VS. • Claims can be amended during examination, but new text can’t be added to the specification  Need to know about prior art when drafting the application47
  • 47. Searching for Patent Rights of Others Freedom to Operate (“FTO”) and Landscape Study WHY? • Proceed to use your technology with reasonable confidence of lack of infringement • Avert potential crisis • Identify potential competitors, licensees, and/or partners • Reallocate the resources • Monitor technology trends and navigate potential obstacles48
  • 48. Freedom to Operate Search • Whether you are able to make, use, and sell products and services implementing your inventions without risk of infringement  proceed with confidence and avoid potential roadblocks • What to search  Issued Patents for currently enforceable patent rights  Published Patent Applications for intelligence on potential future patent rights  Expired patents for solutions already public domain (“safe harbor”) • Where to search?  in countries you are planning to market the product • What to do if bad news?  designing around third-party patents;  in-licensing third-party patents; or  developing arguments for non-infringement or invalidity of third-party patent claims and obtaining a competent and comprehensive legal opinion to that effect to avoid treble damages for willful infringement49
  • 49. Landscape Study • State-of-the-art search • Maps out past and present IP activity of various players in specified technology areas • Conducted to determine whether to enter a specific technical area – Monitors market of interest – Identify gaps in and improve your research and development – Help to determine potential value of your patents – Confirm which inventions are now in a public domain – Better understand current competitors and identify future ones50
  • 50. Patenting Process Priority 12 monthsApplication Drafting and Filing(US or UA) of Regular Application Paris Convention Cooperation Patent Treaty 18 months Patent Term – 20 years
  • 51. US Provisional Application PROS • Relatively inexpensive • No requirements as to form • Establishes the priority without decreasing the life of the patent • Enables public disclosure of the invention without compromising future patentability • Kicks off “Patent Pending” period • Kept secret, unless followed up by regular application • Recognized in foreign jurisdictions CONS • May cause “false sense of security” yet fail as a priority document, if did not sufficiently disclose and teach the invention as claimed later • “Anything you say can and will be used against you”  certain statements may limit claims in subsequent regular applications  may inadvertently (and unnecessarily) disclose sensitive information • Expires after 12 months52
  • 52. Patent Ownership and Inventorship • U.S. patent applications are filed in the name of actual inventors and initially owned by them, not their employers or investors  after filing, inventors can assign or license their future rights  patents can be jointly owned (not recommended) Inventorship must have contributed in an essential way to the conception of at least one aspect of the invention (as later defined by the claims) • Improper inventorship complicates enforcement and may invalidate a patent altogether 5353
  • 53. Common Mistakes to Avoid • Disclosing the invention prematurely and non-confidentially • No professional searching and/or disregarding prior art • Counting on someone else to pay your patenting expenses • Insufficient or non-enabling disclosure • Limiting claimed invention unnecessarily • Naming “wrong“ inventors or omitting “actual” inventors • Failing to secure ownership rights54
  • 54. ANYМарк Белобородов QUESTIONS?BELOBOR@GMAIL.COM