MWEE and GLOBE Hydrology Denny Casey, Ph.D. Director of Education and Public Programs Virginia Museum of Natural History June 16, 2008
Watery words of wisdom…
When the well's dry, we know the worth of water.
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
Poor Richard's Almanac, 1746
G lobal L earning and O bservation to B enefit the E nvironment www.globe.gov
GLOBE is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education program.
GLOBE Mission To promote the teaching and learning of science, enhance environmental literacy and stewardship, and promote scientific discovery.
GLOBE Goals Improve student achievement across the curriculum with a focus on student research in environmental and Earth system science;
GLOBE Goals Enhance awareness and support activities of individuals throughout the world to benefit the environment;
GLOBE Goals Contribute to scientific understanding of Earth as a system;
GLOBE Goals Inspire the next generation of global scientists.
Since beginning in 1995, there are now more than 40,000 GLOBE-trained teachers representing over 20,000 schools around the world. GLOBE students have contributed more than 18 million measurements to the GLOBE database for use in their inquiry-based science projects.
Map of GLOBE Schools
In the United States… 14,684 schools 37,516 teachers
Virginia GLOBE Schools and Teachers
324 GLOBE schools
508 certified teachers
139 United States Partners – Partners are nonprofit or governmental organizations whose priorities focus on support of student inquiry and research.
8 Virginia Partners
Christopher Newport University, Newport News
Governor's School-University of Virginia's College at Wise, Wise
Hampton University, Hampton
James Madison University, Harrisonburg
Norfolk State University, Norfolk VA
Veritas Classical Christian School, Richmond
Virginia Museum of Natural History, Martinsville
Virginia Tech, Blacksburg
GLOBE Scientific Protocols Soil Soil Characterization, Soil Temperature, Gravimetric (Star Pattern, Transect, Depth Profile), Soil Moisture, Bulk Density, Soil Particle Density, Soil Particle Size Distribution, Soil pH, Soil Fertility, Digital Multi-Day Max/Min Soil and Air Temperatures, Digital Multi-Day Soil Temperatures, Automated Air and Soil Temperature Monitoring, Soil Moisture Sensor, Infiltration, Davis Soil Moisture and Temperature Station Atmosphere/Climate Cloud, Aerosols, Water Vapor, Barometric Pressure, Relative Humidity, Precipitation, Max/Min/Current Air Temperature, Digital Multi-Day Max/Min/Current Air and Soil Temperatures, Automated Air and Soil, Temperature Monitoring, Surface Temperature, Surface Ozone, WeatherBug Schools, Davis Weather Station, RainWise Weather Station, WeatherHawk Weather Station Hydrology Water Transparency, Water Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, Electrical Conductivity, Salinity, pH, Alkalinity, Nitrate, Freshwater Macroinvertebrates, Optional Salinity Titration Land cover/Biology Land Cover Sample Site, Biometry, Manual Land Cover Mapping, Computerized MultiSpec Land Cover Mapping, Land Cover Change Detection, Fire Fuel Phenology Budburst, Green-Up, Green Down, Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Phenological Gardens, Lilac Phenology, Arctic Bird Migration Monitoring, Seaweed Reproductive Phenology General GPS
Good temperatures are dependent on the type of body of water you are monitoring. Lowland streams, known as "warm water" streams, are different from mountain or spring fed streams that are normally cool. In a warm water stream temperatures should not exceed 89 degrees (Fahrenheit). Cold water streams should not exceed 68 degrees (Fahrenheit). Often summer heat can cause fish kills in ponds because high temperatures reduce available oxygen in the water.
Water clarity and turbidity Secchi disc Secchi depth is a measure of the clarity or turbidity of the water. Secchi depth is measured using a circular plate, called a Secchi disk, which is divided into quarters painted alternately black and white. The Secchi disk is lowered into the water until it is no longer visible, and that depth is measured. Secchi depth values that are high indicate clearer water, and low Secchi depths indicate high turbidity.
pH Level pH, in simple terms, is a chemical measure of whether or not something is an acid or a base. It is measured on a log scale of 0 to 14, with each unit representing a ten-fold change. A pH of 7 is considered neutral and a range of 5.5 to 8.5 is usually tolerated by most aquatic organisms.
Dissolved oxygen An example from the deep-water mid-Channel Chesapeake Bay showing low dissolved oxygen (DO) in the summer. The amount of oxygen dissolved in water is probably the single most important measure of habitat quality; without oxygen, all of the living resources familiar to us perish. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is measured as a concentration (mg/l – milligrams per liter). A measure of 5 mg/l is considered low; most of the more visible organisms will not survive in water of less than 1 mg/l for more than a few hours.
Nitrogen-containing compounds act as nutrients in streams and rivers. Nitrate reactions [NO3-] in fresh water can cause oxygen depletion. Thus, aquatic organisms depending on the supply of oxygen in the stream will die. The major routes of entry of nitrogen into bodies of water are municipal and industrial wastewater, septic tanks, feed lot discharges, animal wastes (including birds and fish) and discharges from car exhausts. Bacteria in water quickly convert nitrites [NO2-] to nitrates [NO3-].
Water with nitrite levels exceeding 1.0 mg/l should not be used for feeding babies. Nitrite/nitrogen levels below 90 mg/l and nitrate levels below 0.5 mg/l seem to have no effect on warm water fish.
Biological water quality monitoring Biological monitoring or bio-monitoring evaluates the presence, absence, and abundance of certain organisms in the stream. This type of monitoring gives an overall assessment of the health of the stream based upon the ecological conditions of the stream--what critters are making the stream their home.
Water quality monitoring with technology
easy to use
improves student understanding of science concepts
frees class time for student engagement in higher-level thinking skills, such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation
supports inquiry-based lab activities
addresses alternate learning styles
enables students to perform many new experiments with measurements not previously obtainable in the classroom
supports science education standards
Entering Online Database
Enter General Site Information
Data: water state, cloud cover, transparency
Data: transparency (continued), water temperature
Data: dissolved oxygen, conductivity
Data: conductivity (cont’d), pH
Data: salinity and tides
Data: salinity (cont’d), alkalinity
Data: alkalinity (cont’d), nitrate + nitrite
Data: nitrate + nitrite, metadata, and submit data
Mining the Data and Student-driven Inquiry
Mining the Data and Student-driven Inquiry
To Join the GLOBE Program Teachers and other educators who wish to lead students in GLOBE need to attend special workshops in order to fully participate in the program. Look up currently scheduled workshops and if you do not find a workshop you can attend, contact a Partner . Click here to see an agenda.
If I Could Be Water If I could be water I wouldn't be a pond Muddy and brown, I wouldn't be an ocean Big and alone, I wouldn't be rain Falling again and again, I wouldn't be ice Cold and frozen, I would be a river Long, wide and free. Bailey Bystry, age 11 2008 Finalist Glen Ellyn, Illinois Writers' Studio Teacher: Naazish Yarkan