Anatomy review-2-to-3-hours-option2 (1) (1)

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Anatomy review-2-to-3-hours-option2 (1) (1)

  1. 1. STOTT PILATES® ANATOMY REVIEW 1
  2. 2. Anatomy Review 2
  3. 3. Objectives Review anatomical terminology Review origins, insertions and actions of the major muscles of the body Understand how to analyze the functional anatomy of an exercise 3
  4. 4. Anatomical Terminology Provides a common language worldwide for people to describe the body clearly and to indicate the position of its parts and organs relative to each other Anatomical Position: › › › › Used as a reference position All descriptions are expressed in relation to this position All movement is categorized and defined from anatomical neutral Refers to a body position of: • head, gaze and toes directed forward (anteriorly) • arms by the sides with palms facing forward • lower limbs with feet close together 4
  5. 5. Anatomical Planes Movement descriptions are based on three anatomical planes that pass through the body in anatomical position Anatomical planes are used to describe movements Sagittal / Median plane › Vertical plane that runs from front to back and divides the body into right and left halves Coronal / Frontal plane › Vertical plane that runs from side to side and divides the body into front and back halves Transverse / Horizontal plane › A horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower halves 5
  6. 6. Planes of the body 6
  7. 7. Terms of Relationship & Comparison Various adjectives describe the location of parts of the body by comparing their relative positions from anatomical neutral › › › › › › › › › › 7 Superior (cranial) – closer to the head Inferior (caudal) – closer to the feet Anterior (ventral) – closer to the front Posterior (dorsal) – closer to the back Medial – closer to the midline Lateral - farther from the midline Proximal – closer to the trunk or point of origin Distal – farther from the trunk or point of origin Superficial – closer to or on the surface Deep – farther from the surface
  8. 8. Terms of Laterality Bilateral – paired structures that have left and right parts, using both sides of the body, both limbs or both sides of the muscle Unilateral – structure only on one side, using only one side of the body, limb or muscle Ipsilateral – occurs on the same side of the body Contralateral – occurs on the opposite side of the body 8
  9. 9. Terms of Movement Various terms describe movement of the limbs and other parts of the body Movements take place at joints where two or more bones articulate with one another › Flexion – bending of a part or decreasing the angle between body parts in the sagittal plane › Extension – straightening a part or increasing the angle between body parts in the sagittal plane › Abduction – movement away from the midline of the body › Adduction – movement toward the midline of the body › Lateral flexion – sideways bending of the trunk, neck or head › Dorsiflexion – movement of the dorsal surface of the foot toward the anterior leg, decreasing the angle of the joint › Plantar flexing – movement of the plantar surface of the foot away from the anterior leg, increasing the angle of the joint 9
  10. 10. Terms of Movement Rotation – moving a part of the body around its long axis › Medial rotation – turns the anterior surface medially › Lateral rotation – turns the anterior surface laterally › Upward rotation – movement of the scapula where the inferior angle moves laterally and the glenoid fossa moves superiorly › Downward rotation – movement of the scapula where the inferior angle moves medially and the glenoid fossa moves inferiorly Circumduction – circular movement of the limbs combining the sequence of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction Pronation – medial rotation of the forearm and hand Supination – lateral rotation of the forearm and hand 10
  11. 11. Terms of Movement Horizontal abduction/extension – from a 90 degree flexed arm position, the arm is extended out away from the midline of the body Horizontal adduction/flexion – from a 90 degree abducted arm position, he humerus is flexed in toward the midline of the body Inversion – the medial border of the foot lifts and the sole of the foot faces in toward the midline › Note: inversion is often interchanged with supination. Supination is a dynamic movement and is a combination of plantar flexion, inversion of the tarsals and forefoot adduction. Eversion – the lateral border of the foot lifts and the sole of the foot faces away from the midline › Note: eversion is often interchanged with pronation. Pronation is a dynamic movement and is a combination of dorsiflexion, eversion and forefoot abduction. 11
  12. 12. Joints Joints are classified by the amount of movement they permit or their structural makeup Immovable › Synarthrodial or fibrous joints – like the sutures in the skull Slighly movable › Amphiarthrodial or cartilagenous joints › Symphyses – bones are connected by cartilage like intervertebral disks Freely movable › Diarthrodial or synovial joints › Most common joints in the body › Characterized by • Articulating bones whose ends are capped with articular cartilage • Surrounded by ligaments • Contains a synovial membrane › Most Pilates exercises deal with freely movable joints, and movements are described as occurring at or ‘about’ a joint 12
  13. 13. Bony Prominences There are many types of prominences or depressions that provide attachment sites for muscles and tendons › › › › › › › › › › 13 Condyle Epicondyle Spine Tubercle Tuberosity Process Trochanter Crest Foramen Fossa
  14. 14. Bones Bones provide the structure to the body and act as attachment sites of muscles, ligaments, etc. 14
  15. 15. Muscles Muscles perform four important functions in the body › › › › 15 produce movement maintain posture stabilize joints generate heat
  16. 16. Types of Muscle Actions Isotonic › A muscle action in which muscle length changes Concentric › Active shortening of a muscle › The origin and insertion move closer together › Creates movement Eccentric › Active lengthening of a muscle › The origin and insertion move apart › Controls movement Isometric › A muscle action in which muscle length does not change › Occurs when the force created is matched by external force 16
  17. 17. Muscle Attachments Origin › Attachment point of a muscle to a primarily fixed structure Insertion › Attachment point of a muscle to a primarily moveable structure Action › The movement a muscular contraction produces › Often when the insertion moves toward the origin Reverse action › The reverse action of a muscular contraction › Often when the origin moves toward the insertion 17
  18. 18. Muscles In order to understand movement analysis, you must know where each muscle attaches and the movements it produces 18
  19. 19. Muscles Muscle names reflect: › › › › › 19 Shape - rhomboid Location – rectus femoris Fiber direction – external oblique Action – levator scapulae Attachment site - sternocleidomastoid
  20. 20. Anterior Trunk & Neck Rectus Abdominis › › › › Origin: pubic crest and symphysis Insertion: costal cartilages of rib 5 to 7 Action: bilaterally – forward flexion of the trunk; unilaterally – lateral flexion of the trunk to the same side External Oblique › Origin: rib 5 to 12 › Insertion: broad abdominal aponeurosis to the linea alba, anterior iliac crest › Action: bilaterally – forward flexion of the trunk; unilaterally – lateral flexion of the trunk to the same side and rotation of the trunk to the opposite side Internal Oblique › Origin: medial iliac crest and thoracolumbar fascia › Insertion: rib 10 to 12 › Action: bilaterally – forward flexion of the trunk; unilaterally – lateral flexion and rotation of the trunk to the same side 20
  21. 21. Anterior Trunk & Neck Sternocleidomastoid › Origin: sternal head – top of manubrium; clavicular head – medial third of the clavicle › Insertion: mastoid process and occipital bone › Action: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the head to the same side, rotation of the head to the opposite side; bilaterally – flexion of the head 21
  22. 22. Muscles of Respiration Transversus Abdominis › Origin: iliac crest; thoracolumbar fascia, rib 6 to 12 › Insertion: broad abdominal aponeurosis to the linea alba › Action: compression of abdominal viscera; stabilization of the lumbo-pelvic region Diaphragm › Origin: inner surface of the body wall: sternal portion – back of the xiphoid process; costal portion – inner surfaces of lower six ribs; lumbar portion – anterior bodies of lumbar vertebrae › Insertion: central tendon › Action: draws the central tendon downward increasing thoracic cavity volume during inhalation Pelvic Floor › refers to a group of muscles of the inferior pelvis › made up of the puborectalis, pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus (collectively the levator ani) and ischiococcygeus › extends from the body of the pubis to the coccyx and between the ischial spines › functions to stabilize the joints of the pelvis including the sacroiliac joint 22
  23. 23. Hip Psoas Major › Origin: transverse process and anterior surfaces of bodies of T12 to L5 › Insertion: lesser trochanter › Action: flexion and slight lateral rotation of the hip, maintains lordosis Iliacus › Origin: superior portion of iliac fossa › Insertion: lesser trochanter › Action: flexion and slight lateral rotation of the hip Iliopsoas › the combination of psoas major and iliacus 23
  24. 24. Hip Gluteus Maximus › Origin: posterior ilium, sacrum, coccyx › Insertion: gluteal tuberosity and iliotibial tract (band) › Action: extension and lateral rotation of the hip • Upper fibers – abduction of femur • Lower fibers – adduction of femur Gluteus Medius › Origin: lateral iliac crest › Insertion: greater trochanter › Action: abduction of the femur • Anterior portion – flexion of the hip and medial rotation of the femur • Posterior portion – extension of the hip and lateral rotation of the femur 24
  25. 25. Hip Gluteus Minimus › Origin: lateral ilium, inferior to gluteus medius › Insertion: greater trochanter (anterior surface) › Action: flexion of the hip, abduction and medial rotation of the femur Tensor Fasciae Latae › Origin: anterior ilium, anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) › Insertion: iliotibial band › Action: flexion of the hip, abduction and medial rotation of the femur 25
  26. 26. Hip Pectineus › Origin: superior surface of pubis › Insertion: pectineal line and proximal linea aspera › Action: adduction of the femur, aids in flexion and medial / lateral* rotation of femur Adductor Brevis › Origin: inferior ramus of pubis › Insertion: lesser trochanter, linea aspera, medial portion of femur › Action: adduction of the femur, aids in flexion and medial rotation of the femur * References differ on actions depending on the position of the femur 26
  27. 27. Hip Adductor Longus › Origin: anterior pubis › Insertion: medial portion of femur, linea aspera › Action: adduction of femur, aids in flexion and medial / lateral* rotation of femur Adductor Magnus › Origin: ischial tuberosity, inferior ramus of pubis › Insertion: medial portion of femur, adductor tubercle › Action: adduction and lateral rotation of the femur, extension of the hip * References differ on actions depending on the position of the femur 27
  28. 28. Hip Piriformis › Origin: sacrum (anterior surface) › Insertion: greater trochanter, superior aspect › Action: lateral rotation of the hip, aids in abduction of the hip Obturator Externus › Origin: external / outer surface of obturator foramen, superior and inferior ramus of pubis › Insertion: medial to greater trochanter › Action: lateral rotation of the hip Obturator Internus › Origin: internal / inner surface of obturator foramen › Insertion: trochanteric fossa, medial surface of greater trochanter › Action: lateral rotation of the hip 28
  29. 29. Hip Gemellus Superior › Origin: lateral ischial spine › Insertion: medial surface of greater trochanter › Action: lateral rotation of the hip Gemellus Inferior › Origin: superior portion ischial tuberosity › Insertion: medial surface greater trochanter › Action: lateral rotation of the hip Quadratus Femoris › Origin: lateral border ischial tuberosity › Insertion: inferior, posterior greater trochanter › Action: lateral rotation of hip • Note: the preceding six muscles are referred to as the deep six lateral rotators of the hip 29
  30. 30. Hip & Knee Rectus Femoris › Origin: anterior superior iliac spine, acetabulum › Insertion: patella, tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament › Action: extension of the knee, flexion of the hip Vastus Lateralis › Origin: lateral lip of linea aspera, lateral surface of gluteal tuberosity › Insertion: lateral border of patella, tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament › Action: extension of the knee, draws patella laterally 30
  31. 31. Hip & Knee Vastus Intermedius › Origin: anterior, lateral, superior part of femur › Insertion: superior border of patella, tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament › Action: extension of the knee Vastus Medialis › Origin: intertrochanteric line, medial lip of linea aspera › Insertion: medial border of patella, tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament › Action: extension of the knee, draws patella medially Note: the preceding four muscles are referred to as the quadriceps 31
  32. 32. Hip & Knee Biceps Femoris › Origin: long head - ischial tuberosity, short head – lateral lip of linea aspera › Insertion: lateral head of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia › Action: both heads - flexion and lateral rotation of the knee; long head - extension, adduction and lateral rotation of the hip Semitendinosus › Origin: ischial tuberosity › Insertion: medial tibia, inferior to condyle › Action: flexion, medial rotation of the knee; extension, adduction and medial rotation of the hip Semimembranosus › Origin: ischial tuberosity › Insertion: posterior, medial tibia, inferior to condyle › Action: flexion and medial rotation of the knee; extension, adduction and medial rotation of the hip Note: the preceding three muscles are referred to as the hamstrings 32
  33. 33. Hip & Knee Sartorius › Origin: anterior superior iliac spine › Insertion: anterior, medial tibia, inferior to condyle › Action: flexion, lateral rotation and abduction of the hip; flexion and medial rotation of the knee Gracilis › Origin: anterior symphysis pubis, inferior ramus of pubis › Insertion: anterior, medial tibia, inferior to condyle › Action: adduction and medial rotation of the hip; flexion and medial rotation of the knee Note: the sartorius, gracilis and semitendinosus all insert at the pes anserinas 33
  34. 34. Knee & Ankle Soleus › Origin: Origin – posterior surface of head and shaft of fibula; medial border of tibia › Insertion: calcaneus via Achilles tendon (common calcaneal tendon) › Action: plantar flexion of the ankle Gastrocnemius › Origin: lateral head - lateral condyle of femur; medial head - medial condyle of femur › Insertion: calcaneus via Achilles tendon (common calcaneal tendon) › Action: plantar flexion of the ankle, flexion of the knee Popliteus › Origin: lateral condyle of femur › Insertion: posterior, medial tibia › Action: medial rotation of the tibia on fixed femur; lateral rotation of femur on fixed tibia 34
  35. 35. Knee & Ankle Tibialis anterior › Origin: lateral condyle and lateral surface of tibia › Insertion: plantar surface of first metatarsal, medial plantar surface of first cuneiform › Action: dorsiflexion of the ankle and inversion of the foot Tibialis posterior › Origin: lateral posterior tibia, medial surface of fibula › Insertion: navicular, 3 cuneiforms and cuboid and 2nd, 3rd, and 4th metatarsals › Action: plantar flexion of the ankle and inversion of the foot 35
  36. 36. Knee & Ankle Peroneus tertius › Origin: distal half of anterior surface of fibula › Insertion: dorsal surface of the base of 5th metatarsal › Action: dorsiflexion of the ankle and eversion of the foot Peroneus longus › Origin: head and lateral surface of fibula › Insertion: lateral margin of plantar surface of 1st cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal › Action: plantar flexion of ankle and eversion of the foot Peroneus brevis › Origin: distal portion of lateral surface of fibula › Insertion: tuberosity of lateral side of base of 5th metatarsal › Action: plantar flexion of the ankle and eversion of the foot 36
  37. 37. Knee & Ankle Extensor hallucis longus › Origin: anterior surface of fibula › Insertion: dorsal base of distal end of the hallux › Action: extension of distal phalanx of 1st toe; aids in dorsiflexion of the ankle and inversion of the foot Extensor digitorum longus › Origin: lateral condyle of tibia, head and anterior surface of fibula › Insertion: dorsal surfaces of bases of the middle and distal phalanges 2nd – 5th toes › Action: extension of the lateral 4 toes, dorsiflexion of ankle and eversion of foot Flexor hallucis longus › Origin: distal posterior fibula › Insertion: plantar surface of the base of distal phalanx of the hallux › Action: flexion of the great toe; aids in plantar flexion of the ankle and inversion of the foot Flexor digitorum longus › Origin: posterior tibia › Insertion: plantar surfaces of bases of distal phalanges of the second to fifth toes › Action: flexion of the toes; plantar flexion of the ankle and inversion of the foot 37
  38. 38. Shoulder Deltoid – Anterior › Origin: lateral portion of clavicle › Insertion: deltoid tuberosity › Action: abduction, flexion, horizontal adduction and medial rotation of the shoulder Deltoid – Middle › Origin: acromion process › Insertion: deltoid tuberosity › Action: abduction of the shoulder Deltoid – Posterior › Origin: spine of scapula › Insertion: deltoid tuberosity › Action: abduction, extension, horizontal abduction and lateral rotation of the shoulder 38
  39. 39. Scapula Trapezius (upper fibers) › › › › Origin: occipital protuberance, spinous process of C1 to C7, ligamentum nuchae Insertion: lateral clavicle, acromion process Action: elevation and upward rotation of the scapula, aids in retraction of the scapula Reverse action: bilaterally – extension of cervical spine; unilaterally – lateral flexion of the head and neck to the same side, rotation to the opposite side Trapezius (middle fibers) › Origin: spinous process of T1 to T5 › Insertion: superior border spine of scapula, acromion process › Action: retraction of the scapula; aids in elevation of the scapula Trapezius (lower fibers) › Origin: spinous process of T6 to T12 › Insertion: medial portion of spine of scapula › Action: depression, retraction and upward rotation of the scapula 39
  40. 40. Scapula Levator Scapulae › › › › Origin: transverse process of C1 to C4 Insertion: superior angle of scapula (medial and upper portion) Action: elevation and downward rotation of the scapula, aids in retraction of the scapula Reverse Action: lateral flexion and slight rotation of the cervical spine to the same side Rhomboid Major › Origin: spinous process of T2 to T5 › Insertion: medial border of scapula, inferior to spine of scapula › Action: retraction and elevation of the scapula, aids in downward rotation of the scapula Rhomboid Minor › Origin: spinous process of C7 and T1 › Insertion: medial border of scapula, superior to spine of scapula › Action: retraction and elevation of the scapula, aids in downward rotation of the scapula 40
  41. 41. Scapula Serratus Anterior › Origin: superior, lateral surface of ribs 1 to 8, 9 › Insertion: medial border, anterior (costal) surface of scapula › Action: protraction and upward rotation of scapula, stabilization of scapula on rib cage Pectoralis Minor › Origin: anterior surface of ribs 3 to 5 › Insertion: coracoid process › Action: depression and downward rotation of the scapula, anteriorly tips the scapula 41
  42. 42. Rotator Cuff Supraspinatus › Origin: supraspinous fossa › Insertion: superior portion of greater tuberosity › Action: abduction of the humerus, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa Infraspinatus › Origin: infraspinous fossa › Insertion: posterior portion greater tubercle › Action: lateral rotation of the shoulder, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa 42
  43. 43. Rotator Cuff Teres Minor › Origin: lateral border of scapula › Insertion: inferior aspect of greater tubercle › Action: lateral rotation of the shoulder, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa Subscapularis › Origin: subscapular fossa › Insertion: lesser tuberosity › Action: medial rotation of the shoulder, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa Note: the preceding four muscles are referred to as the rotator cuff 43
  44. 44. Shoulder Pectoralis Major – Sternal division › Origin: sternum to rib 7 › Insertion: anterior, medial aspect of humerus, crest of greater tuberosity › Action: flexion, adduction, medial rotation and horizontal adduction of the shoulder Pectoralis Major – Clavicular division › Origin: medial half of clavicle › Insertion: anterior, medial aspect of humerus, crest of greater tuberosity › Action: flexion, adduction, medial rotation and horizontal adduction of the shoulder Coracobrachialis › Origin: coracoid process › Insertion: medial, surface of humerus, in line with deltoid tuberosity › Action: flexion of the shoulder, horizontal adduction, adduction and medial rotation of the humerus 44
  45. 45. Shoulder Latissmus Dorsi › Origin: aponeurosis from spinous process T6 to L5, posterior iliac crest, posterior sacrum, rib 9 to 12, inferior angle of scapula › Insertion: anterior humerus, crest of lesser tuberosity › Action: extension of the shoulder, adduction and medial rotation of the humerus Teres Major › Origin: inferior angle, lateral border of scapula › Insertion: anterior humerus, crest of lesser tuberosity › Action: extension of the shoulder, adduction and medial rotation of the humerus 45
  46. 46. Shoulder & Elbow Triceps Brachii › Origin: • Long head – infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula • Lateral head – posterior humerus • Medial Head – posterior humerus, inferior to lateral head › Insertion: all heads – olecranon process of ulna › Action: All heads – extension of the elbow; long head – extension and adduction of the shoulder Biceps Brachii › Origin: Short head – coracoid process › Long head – supraglenoid tubercle › Insertion: both heads - radial tuberosity, bicipital aponeurosis › Action: both heads - flexion of the elbow, supination of the forearm when flexed, flexion of the shoulder 46
  47. 47. Elbow & Forearm Brachioradialis › Origin: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus › Insertion: styloid process of radius › Action: flexion of the elbow, aids in pronation and supination of the forearm Brachialis › Origin: distal half of anterior humerus › Insertion: tuberosity and coronoid process of ulna › Action: flexion of the elbow 47
  48. 48. Deep spine Multifidus › Origin: sacrum, transverse process of L1 to T12 and the articular process of C4 to C7 › Insertion: spinous process of all vertebrae except C1 spanning 2 to 3 intervertebral spaces › Action: stabilization of the spine; unilaterally – rotation of the spine to the opposite side. lateral flexion of the spine to the same side; bilaterally – extension of the spine 48
  49. 49. Posterior Spine Semispinalis thoracis › Origin: transverse process of T6 to T12 › Insertion: spinous process of C6 to T4 › Action: unilaterally – rotation of the spine to the opposite side; bilaterally – extension of the spine Semispinalis cervicis › Origin: transverse process of T1 to T6 › Insertion: spinous process of C2 to C5 › Action: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the spine to the same side, rotation of the spine to the opposite side; bilaterally – extension of the spine Semispinalis capitis › Origin: transverse process of C5 to T6 › Insertion: occipital bone › Action: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the neck to the same side, rotation of the head and neck to the opposite side; bilaterally – extension of the head and neck 49
  50. 50. Posterior Spine Iliocostalis lumborum › Origin: thoracolumbar fascia from the sacrum to spinous process of T11 to L5 › Insertion: rib 6 to 12 › Action: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the spine to the same side; bilaterally – extension of the spine Iliocostalis thoracis › Origin: rib 6 to 12 › Insertion: rib 1 to 6 › Action: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the spine to the same side; bilaterally – extension of the spine Iliocostalis cervicis › Origin: rib 3 to 6 › Insertion: transverse process of C4 to C6 › Action: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the spine to the same side; bilaterally – extension of the spine 50
  51. 51. Posterior Spine Longissimus thoracis › Origin: thoracolumbar fascia on the lumbar spine › Insertion: transverse process of T1 to T12 and rib 6 to 12 › Action: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the spine to the same side; bilaterally – extension of the spine Longissimus cervicis › Origin: transverse process of T1 to T5 › Insertion: transverse process of C2 to C6 › Action: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the spine to the same side; bilaterally – extension of the spine Longissimus capitis › Origin: transverse process of C4 to T5 › Insertion: mastoid process › Action: unilaterally – lateral flexion and rotation of the head to the same side; bilaterally – extension of the head and neck 51
  52. 52. Posterior Spine Quadratus lumborum › Origin: posterior iliac crest › Insertion: 12th rib and transverse process of L1 to L4 › Action: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the spine; bilaterally – aids in extension of the spine 52
  53. 53. Exercise Analysis Analyze the following exercises and describe: › › › › Plane of motion Movement at all joints affected Muscles involved Type of contractions involved Ab Prep Breast Stroke (full) Roll Up Spine Stretch Forward Sibe Bend Side Kick Side Leg Lift #1 Saw 53

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