Kanban 101


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Introduction to Kanban for Knowledge Work: Kanban is emerging in Software Development and IT Operations as a method of improving transparency, predictability, and value. Learn how to get started with Kanban. See how Kanban can help you achieve the benefits of Pull, Value-Focus, and Capability-Improvement. Find out if Kanban is right for you.

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  • A physical whiteboard or corkboard although electronic boards can also be usedKanbans indicate where in the process a piece of work isThe board is typically organized into columns, each one of which represents a stage in the process or a work buffer or queueOptional rows indicating the allocation of capacity to classes of serviceEach kanban should have sufficient information, such as the name and ID of the work item and due date (if any), to enable project-management decisions by the team without the direction of a managerThe goal is to visually communicate enough information to make the process self-organizing and self-expediting at the team level. The board is directly updated by team members throughout the day as the work proceedsHigh-level blocking issues are discussed during daily stand-up meetings – the board provides status.
  • Limiting work in progress reduces average lead timeImproves the quality of the work produced and thereby increasesoverall productivity of your teamReducing lead time also increases your ability to deliver valuable functionality frequentlywhich helps to build trust with your stakeholdersEvery team is different, you will have different WIP limits that you'll need to set and then evolve yourself based on empirical results from experimentation
  • Kanban 101

    1. 1. Kanban 101<br />Improving Economic Outcomes<br />Through Evolutionary Change<br />
    2. 2. What is Kanban?<br />Kanban is a method to:<br />enable evolutionary change …<br />help implement and scale Agile …<br />establish a culture of ongoing improvement.<br />
    3. 3. Roots of Kanban: Lean<br />Muda, Muri, Mura<br />Waste, Unreasonableness, Unevenness<br />Goals of Lean<br />Improve Quality, Eliminate Waste, Reduce Time, Reduce Total Costs<br />
    4. 4. System of Profound Knowledge<br />How to achieve evolutionary change, implement and scale Agile, establish a culture of ongoing improvement?<br />Understand the system<br />Operate with variability<br />Understand how to act on the system<br />Understand human psychology<br />PDSA<br />Plan, Do, Study, Adjust<br />But the cycles have to be very fast<br />
    5. 5. Roots of Kanban: Opposite of Push<br />Push Systems: Plan-Driven<br />Gantt Chart<br />Start as soon as possible<br />Committed Finish Dates<br />Drives delaying and value destroying behavior<br />
    6. 6. How Push Creates Value Destroying Behavior<br />Start date is planned up front<br />Finish date is planned up front<br />But we don’t know exactly what we need to build and how long it will take to build it<br />(how long will it take to test and fix the problems you find on a piece of code we haven’t clearly defined?)<br />So we estimate at the 99% likelihood for each task – which is typically double the likely duration.<br />Because we are focused on the Finish Date we operate with the 50% duration in mind and deliver late 50% of the time anyway.<br />So we add more pad to our estimates.<br />Ensures late delivery or excessive padding in estimates (usually both)<br />
    7. 7. Roots of Kanban: Pull<br />Kanban: a card that represents a unit of work<br />Flow work in single units or small batches<br />Pace the work by limiting WIP<br />Use signaling to trigger pull<br />The number of kanban equals capacity<br />New work can start only when a space is available<br />A space becomes available when previous work is complete<br />Level of mix and quantity to spread risk and optimize portfolio<br />
    8. 8. Types of Pull<br />Maintaining the system at the pace of the bottleneck (Herbie) – breaks down when a failure occurs before the bottleneck<br />DBR<br />CapWIP<br />ConWIP<br />Kanban<br />DBR with protective WIP limit before the bottleneck – for when a failure occurs before the bottleneck<br />In a stochastic process, the bottleneck moves – ConWIP provides protective WIP limit across the system – doesn’t highlight current bottleneck<br />Supports a stochastic process - highlights current bottleneck<br />
    9. 9. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Columns for each Work Type<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
    10. 10. Manual Testing Okay
    11. 11. PO Acceptance
    12. 12. Doco Complete
    13. 13. Design Complete
    14. 14. Test Case Examples Done
    15. 15. UIX Input Ready
    16. 16. Code Complete
    17. 17. Source Checked In
    18. 18. Unit Tests Green
    19. 19. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
    20. 20. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />WIP Limits –Maximum number of kanban in each column<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
    21. 21. Manual Testing Okay
    22. 22. PO Acceptance
    23. 23. Doco Complete
    24. 24. Design Complete
    25. 25. Test Case Examples Done
    26. 26. UIX Input Ready
    27. 27. Code Complete
    28. 28. Source Checked In
    29. 29. Unit Tests Green
    30. 30. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
    31. 31. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Split Work Types between doing and done<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
    32. 32. Manual Testing Okay
    33. 33. PO Acceptance
    34. 34. Doco Complete
    35. 35. Design Complete
    36. 36. Test Case Examples Done
    37. 37. UIX Input Ready
    38. 38. Code Complete
    39. 39. Source Checked In
    40. 40. Unit Tests Green
    41. 41. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
    42. 42. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Criteria for Done defined at the for each column<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
    43. 43. Manual Testing Okay
    44. 44. PO Acceptance
    45. 45. Doco Complete
    46. 46. Design Complete
    47. 47. Test Case Examples Done
    48. 48. UIX Input Ready
    49. 49. Code Complete
    50. 50. Source Checked In
    51. 51. Unit Tests Green
    52. 52. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
    53. 53. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
    54. 54. Manual Testing Okay
    55. 55. PO Acceptance
    56. 56. Doco Complete
    57. 57. Design Complete
    58. 58. Test Case Examples Done
    59. 59. UIX Input Ready
    60. 60. Code Complete
    61. 61. Source Checked In
    62. 62. Unit Tests Green
    63. 63. Build Succeeds</li></ul>In this case, all the queues are full. No more work can be added to the Kanban.<br />Criteria<br />
    64. 64. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
    65. 65. Manual Testing Okay
    66. 66. PO Acceptance
    67. 67. Doco Complete
    68. 68. Design Complete
    69. 69. Test Case Examples Done
    70. 70. UIX Input Ready
    71. 71. Code Complete
    72. 72. Source Checked In
    73. 73. Unit Tests Green
    74. 74. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
    75. 75. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
    76. 76. Manual Testing Okay
    77. 77. PO Acceptance
    78. 78. Doco Complete
    79. 79. Design Complete
    80. 80. Test Case Examples Done
    81. 81. UIX Input Ready
    82. 82. Code Complete
    83. 83. Source Checked In
    84. 84. Unit Tests Green
    85. 85. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
    86. 86. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
    87. 87. Manual Testing Okay
    88. 88. PO Acceptance
    89. 89. Doco Complete
    90. 90. Design Complete
    91. 91. Test Case Examples Done
    92. 92. UIX Input Ready
    93. 93. Code Complete
    94. 94. Source Checked In
    95. 95. Unit Tests Green
    96. 96. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
    97. 97. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Doing<br />Doing<br />Done<br />Done<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
    98. 98. Manual Testing Okay
    99. 99. PO Acceptance
    100. 100. Doco Complete
    101. 101. Design Complete
    102. 102. Test Case Examples Done
    103. 103. UIX Input Ready
    104. 104. Code Complete
    105. 105. Source Checked In
    106. 106. Unit Tests Green
    107. 107. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
    108. 108. Getting Started with Kanban<br />Agree on Goals<br />Visualize the Work<br />Limit WIP<br />Measure and Manage Flow<br />Make Process Policy Explicit<br />Use Models to Identify Improvement Opportunities<br />
    109. 109. Agree on Goals<br />Business Goals<br />Improve Lead Time Predictability<br />Optimize Existing Processes<br />Improve Time to Market<br />Control Costs<br />Management Goals<br />Provide Transparency<br />Enable Emergence of High Maturity<br />Deliver Higher Quality<br />Simplify Prioritization<br />Organizational Goals<br />Improve Employee Satisfaction<br />Provide Slack to Enable Improvement<br />
    110. 110. Capture and Identify All WIP<br />Analyze<br />Develop<br />Accept<br />Prod<br />Ready<br />Doing<br />Done<br />Doing<br />Done<br />Doing<br />Done<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Maint<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Task<br />Urgent<br />Criteria<br />Change<br />Feature<br />Task<br />Days in work-On board<br />Blocked<br />Days in queue<br />Defect<br />Maint<br />Days Blocked<br />
    111. 111. Visualize the Work<br />Tracking<br />Description:<br />TR: 1245Size: M<br />Business Value:<br />As a … I want to … so that …<br />Entry Date:<br />Due Date:<br />Start:Finish:<br />Days in queue<br />Days Blocked<br />
    112. 112. Change Management Benefits of Visualizing Work<br />Transparency<br />Alignment<br />Shared Goals<br />Expand the Tribe<br />
    113. 113. WIP and Multi-tasking<br />A reduction in WIP also reduces bad multi-tasking which will help with the stability of the system<br />
    114. 114. Determine & Visualize WIP Limits<br />Work Queue WIP Limits<br /> as small as possible <br />One or two stories per resource in each queue<br />Use a limited item done buffers to keep work flowing – enough to keep the team busy but still avoid premature work and excess inventory<br />WIP Limit Doing and Done Together<br />Strive for lowest possible WIP Limits<br />
    115. 115. Kanban BoardPull and Swarming<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br />Business Analysts or Developers can work to exploit the constraint or relieve the bottleneck.<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
    116. 116. Manual Testing Okay
    117. 117. PO Acceptance
    118. 118. Doco Complete
    119. 119. Design Complete
    120. 120. Test Case Examples Done
    121. 121. UIX Input Ready
    122. 122. Code Complete
    123. 123. Source Checked In
    124. 124. Unit Tests Green
    125. 125. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
    126. 126. Limit WIPPull and Swarming<br />Limiting WIP highlights where the inherent variability of the system and work type has shifted the bottleneck<br />WIP limits will block the line – responding to these blocks leads to swarming behavior<br />Remember - flow trumps waste<br />If the bottleneck is consistently in a specific location this points to a system level bottleneck that should be addressed<br />
    127. 127. Measure and Manage Flow<br />Lead Time / Cycle Time<br />Waiting Time<br />Blocks<br />Issues – Work Not Ready<br />Defects<br />
    128. 128. Measure and Manage FlowOn the Card<br />ED: Entry Date<br />SPD: Start Processing Date<br />FD: Finish Date<br />Days in Queue: Count the blue dots<br />Days Blocked: Count the red dots<br />Calculate<br />Total Waiting: SPD – ED + Blue Dots<br />Total Lead Time: FD – ED<br />Lead Time (Cycle Time): FD - SPD<br />
    129. 129. Change Management Benefits of Managing and Measuring Flow<br />Understand the system<br />Create targets to organize around<br />Promote data supported decisions<br />Show costs and benefits<br />Sustain improvements<br />Promote higher maturity behavior<br />
    130. 130. Make Process Policies Explicit<br />Involve upstream and downstream stakeholders as collaborators to agree on the rules of the game. This will enable collaborative behavior later, when the system is put under stress.<br />Use data to define and verify process policies.<br />
    131. 131. Make Process Policies ExplicitService Level Agreements<br />WIP Limits<br />Lead-Time Targets<br />Classes of Service<br />Prioritization<br />Negotiating Policy<br />Due Date Performance<br />Release Planning<br />It is all about making commitments you can keep(most of the time)<br />
    132. 132. Classes of Service<br />Silver Bullet<br />Expedite <br />Fixed Delivery Date<br />Standard<br />Intangible<br />
    133. 133. Change Management Benefits ofMake Process Policies Explicit<br />Make promises you can keep<br />Identify targets for upstream and in-team planning<br />Enable collaborative behavior later, when the system is put under stress<br />Build interest in the system<br />Build trust in the team<br />Delay commitment to the last responsible moment<br />
    134. 134. Use Models to Identify Improvement Opportunities<br />Deming: Reduce Variability<br />Goldratt: Theory of Constraints<br /><ul><li>Lean: Waste, Overburden, Unevenness
    135. 135. Communication: About the work and about the system</li></li></ul><li>Question?<br />Advanced Topics<br />Estimating<br />Prioritization<br />Handling Defects<br />Scaling Across Complex Projects<br />