1.
WIND ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF
TALL BUILDINGS
Peter A. Irwin
RWDI
Los Angeles Tall Building Structural Design Council
May 7, 2010
2.
Wind Issues for Structural Design
Structural integrity under ultimate loads
Deflections under service loads
Building motions and occupant comfort
Uncertainties in building structural properties
(stiffness, damping)
Uncertainties in wind loading
Uncertainties in wind climate
Codes and standards
Computational Fluid Dynamics
3.
Relationship between importance of
wind and height
Importance
of wind
loads
Building height
4.
Vortex shedding
Shedding frequency N is
given by
U
N =S
b
S = Strouhal number
U = wind speed
b = building width
Directions of
fluctuating
force
wind
5.
Peak response due to vortex excitation
Magnitude of
peak response
1
∝
density × damping
14.
151 storey tower in Korea
Creation of bleed slots at edges to suppress vortex shedding
Full scale rendering
1:500 wind tunnel model
15.
Use of corner slots to bleed air through
corners on a tall building
Plan view Plan view with
without slots slots
Crosswind Base moments
motion reduced by
60%
Wind Wind
16.
With vortex
excitation 700 yr
10 yr 50 yr
Without
vortex
excitation
(a) (b)
With vortex 50 yr 700 yr
excitation
Without
vortex
excitation
(c) (d)
17.
where
where
Reliability considerations for flexible buildings
Expression for load factor λw
1 α 2 β Vw
λW = e
Kw
Vw = Coefficient of variation of wind load
β= Reliability index
Kw = Bias factor
α= Combination factor
18.
First order, second moment reliability
analysis for rigid buildings
Code analysis method
Vw = (Vqi + Van )1 / 2 = (0.2 2 + 0.32 )1 / 2 = 0.36
2 2
1 α 2 β Vw 1 ( 0.752 ×3.5×0.36 )
λW = e = e = 1.56
Kw 1 .3
Wind tunnel method
Vw = (0.22 + 0.12 )1 / 2 = 0.22
1 ( 0.752 ×3.5×0.22 )
λW = e = 1.54
1 .0
Both the coefficient of variation and bias factor are
smaller in the wind tunnel method. Load factor ends up
at about the same.
19.
Reliability of flexible buildings with
monotonic response
Wind load varies as power law
W ∝U n
Rigid building
Vw = (Vqi + Van )1 / 2
2 2
Flexible building
Vw = (Vqi + Van + Vdyn )1 / 2
2 2 2
Vdyn ≈ ndampVς2 + ( n − 2) 2V f2 + ( n − 2) 2VV2
2
Damping term Frequency term Velocity sensitivity term
20.
Required load factors for flexible
buildings with monotonic response
Rigid building
Vw = (Vqi + Van )1 / 2 = (0.2 2 + .12 )1 / 2 = 0.22
2 2
( 0.752 ×3.5×0.22 )
λW = e = 1.54
Typical flexible building
Vw = (Vqi + Van + Vdyn )1 / 2 = (0.2 2 + 0.12 + 0.112 )1 / 2 = 0.249
2 2 2
( 0.752 ×3.5×0.249 )
λW = e = 1.63
Highly flexible building
Vw = (Vqi + Van + Vdyn )1 / 2 = (0.2 2 + 0.12 + 0.22 2 )1 / 2 = 0.31
2 2 2
( 0.752 ×3.5×0.31)
λW = e = 1.84
Note:- Wind tunnel method is assumed in all cases.
21.
Wind loads determined directly at
ultimate return period by wind
tunnel method
Building Required Actual
type n ndamp Load Factor Load Factor Ratio
1.264n
Rigid 2 0 1.54 1.60 1.04
Flexible 2.5 0.25 1.63 1.80 1.10
Very
Flexible 3 0.5 1.84 2.02 1.10
Slightly conservative
22.
Consequence of vortex shedding on
reliability assessment – Nakheel Tower
Low ratio of 1000 year to 50 year loads
Uncertainty in loads is
mostly dictated by
uncertainty in this peak
Need to carefully assess uncertainty in peak vortex shedding response
since the normal assumption that uncertainty in wind speed governs is no
longer valid. Damping and frequency uncertainties become important.
23.
Reynolds number effects
Originate from viscosity of air
Can cause changes in flow patterns on a small
scale model relative to full scale
Not a concern on sharp edged structures
Can be a concern on curved shape buildings
Is lessened by high turbulence and surface
roughness
24.
Effect of Reynolds number on pressure
coefficient around a circular cylinder
1.0
U
0.5 θ b
θ degrees
0
20 60 100 140
Cp -0.5
Reynolds number
-1.0
Ub
Re = -1.5
ν
-2.0
Sub-critical Re < 2×105
-2.5
Kinematic
viscosity of
air Transcritical Re > 3×106
25.
1:50 Scale Model of Upper Portion of Burj Khalifa
High Reynolds Number Tests, Re ~ 2x106
Note:
Full scale Re~7x107
26.
Comparison of Mean Pressure Coefficients
at Low and High Reynolds Number - Burj
Dubai
Pressure
Taps
27.
High Reynolds number tests on
Shanghai Center
Example of Mean Pressure Coefficients
Pressure tap count
28.
Damping and dynamic response
beyond the elastic limit
F2 k2
F1
k1
1 δE1/ 2
ζ eff =
2π E
x 1 x2
η = ( x2 − x1 ) / x1
k 2 1 k2 2
1 − η +
η
1 k1 2 k1
ζ eff =
π k
1 + 2η + 2 η 2
k1
29.
Effect of stiffness reductions and inelastic
deflections on effective viscous damping ratio
1 δE1/ 2
ζ eff = k2/k1=0.5
2π E
Example: For 20% k2/k1=0.75
deflection beyond
elastic limit effective
increment in damping
ratio = 0.024.
This would be additive
to the damping ratio
below the elastic limit
which is typically ( x2 − x1 ) / x1
assumed to be 0.01 to
0.02.
30.
Damping and inelastic response
research
Non-linear time domain analysis of structures under
realistic wind loading will allow us to evaluate whether
more efficient structures can be developed.
How feasible is it to load the structure beyond its elastic
limit and how far can one go with this?
Can we learn how to keep the structure stable and robust
after going plastic. What can be learnt from earthquake
engineering?
More full scale monitoring needed at representative
deflections.
31.
Building motions and criteria
Problem is complex due to variability amongst
people
What return period should be used?
What quantity best encapsulates comfort:
acceleration; jerk; something in between; angular
velocity; noises combined with motion, etc?
Designers have to make decisions and move on.
What is the actual experience using traditional
approaches?
33.
Summary of computed frequencies
of 19 buildings
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
50 100 150 200 250 300
Buil di ng Hei ght , H ( m )
fx fy f = 33/H Fitting Curve
34.
Summary of Predicted and
Improved Acceleration Responses
30
25
Acceleration ( milli - g )
20
15
10
5
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Building #
15-18 milli-g range accelerations Above 15-18 milli-g range accelerations
Reduced acceleration responses using SDS
35.
Buildings with Supplemental Damping System
Building Name and
Location 10-Year Peak Resultant
Acceleration
Building ( milli – g )
Number SDS Type
Installed
Without SDS With SDS
1 Park Tower, Chicago, IL TMD 24.0 16.6
11 Random House, New TLCD 25.3 15.4
York, NY
12 Wall Centre, Vancouver, TLCD 28.0 15.2
BC
18 Bloomberg Tower, New TMD 22.5 15.5
York, NY
19 Trump World Tower, New TMD 27.4 17.3
York, NY
36.
Park Tower, Random House and Wall Center with
Damping Systems
Chicago New York
Vancouver
37.
Trump world Tower and Bloomberg Center with
Damping Systems
New York
New York
38.
Chicago Spire – Very Long period – Higher
Mode Effects
39.
Higher modes can affect response
~ questions re frequency dependent motion criteria
such as ISO comfort criteria.
700
600
500
2 nd harmonic 1st harmonic
400
Height, m
300
200
100
0
-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
Mode deflection shape
40.
Chicago spire - motion and deflection control through use of damping system.
41.
Assessing building motions.
25
ISO Criteria for 20
Peak acceleration, milli-g
single frequency 15
Resid Co
entia mmercial
10 l
5
Moving room 0
simulations of multiple 0.1
Frequency, Hz
1
frequencies
Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. You can keep your great finds in clipboards organized around topics.