The ArticlesThe Articles
and theand the
(in 22 slides. . .)(in 22 slides. . .)
America in 1776:America in 1776:
Colony of Great Britain, butColony of Great Britain, but
govern themselves; had donegovern themselves; had done
so for over 150 years.so for over 150 years.
Great Britain fights France inGreat Britain fights France in
French and Indian War. NeedFrench and Indian War. Need
on money. Decide to taxon money. Decide to tax
Americans through the teeth.Americans through the teeth.
Americans have noAmericans have no
representatives in Britishrepresentatives in British
government. UNFAIR.government. UNFAIR.
Declaration of Independence:Declaration of Independence:
Americans cut ties withAmericans cut ties with
Britain. Fight RevolutionaryBritain. Fight Revolutionary
War (1776-1783). WinWar (1776-1783). Win
America in 1776 IIAmerica in 1776 II
USA really a group of 13USA really a group of 13
nation-states, not part ofnation-states, not part of
one union.one union.
Declaration ofDeclaration of
Independence proclaimedIndependence proclaimed
the colonies “free andthe colonies “free and
Heading: “The UnanimousHeading: “The Unanimous
Declaration of the thirteenDeclaration of the thirteen
unitedunited States of America.”States of America.”
New Country/New Government:New Country/New Government:
America now independent-America now independent-
What kind of government toWhat kind of government to
set up?set up?
Didn’t want monarchy: TooDidn’t want monarchy: Too
much power in the hands ofmuch power in the hands of
one person. Learned theirone person. Learned their
lesson from King George IIIlesson from King George III
(British king).(British king).
Want to keep all of the statesWant to keep all of the states
together, but not make thetogether, but not make the
national government toonational government too
strong (so it could take awaystrong (so it could take away
the states rights).the states rights).
States jealous of power-wantStates jealous of power-want
to hold it for themselves.to hold it for themselves.
New Country/New Government:New Country/New Government:
Again, fears of the new nation:Again, fears of the new nation:
1.1. Creation of a nationalCreation of a national
government that was too strong.government that was too strong.
2.2. Some states would dominateSome states would dominate
others in the nationalothers in the national
Thus, created a weak nationalThus, created a weak national
government that treated allgovernment that treated all
states, big and small, the same.states, big and small, the same.
Articles of Confederation (1781)Articles of Confederation (1781)
Drafted 1776-77. Ratified by allDrafted 1776-77. Ratified by all
Organized a weak nationalOrganized a weak national
government around Congress (onegovernment around Congress (one
house, the Confederationhouse, the Confederation
Every state had one vote (delegate).Every state had one vote (delegate).
For law to pass, 9 of 13 coloniesFor law to pass, 9 of 13 colonies
must agree (Balances little/big, butmust agree (Balances little/big, but
1-2 states could control if 1-2 states1-2 states could control if 1-2 states
didn’t send delegates).didn’t send delegates).
Changes in the Articles had to beChanges in the Articles had to be
unanimously approved.unanimously approved.
No executive branch (no president)No executive branch (no president)
or judicial branch.or judicial branch.
Articles of the Confederation (1781)Articles of the Confederation (1781)
Formed a “Formed a “confederationconfederation,” a firm,” a firm
league of friendship, but not really aleague of friendship, but not really a
Does not call the United States ofDoes not call the United States of
America a "nation" or "government,"America a "nation" or "government,"
but instead says, "The said Statesbut instead says, "The said States
hereby severally enter into a firmhereby severally enter into a firm
league of friendshipleague of friendship with eachwith each
other, for their common defense,other, for their common defense,
the security of their liberties, andthe security of their liberties, and
their mutual and general welfare,their mutual and general welfare,
binding themselves to assist eachbinding themselves to assist each
other, against all force offered to, orother, against all force offered to, or
attacks made upon them, or any ofattacks made upon them, or any of
them, on account of religion,them, on account of religion,
sovereignty, trade, or any othersovereignty, trade, or any other
pretense whatever."pretense whatever."
Articles began to falter. . .Articles began to falter. . .
Only powers of nationalOnly powers of national
government? Conductgovernment? Conduct
foreign affairs, makeforeign affairs, make
treaties, declare war.treaties, declare war.
No central authority. . .just aNo central authority. . .just a
bunch of squabblingbunch of squabbling
delegates in Congress. Toodelegates in Congress. Too
many had to agree to getmany had to agree to get
anything done.anything done.
Near economic collapse;Near economic collapse;
depression lasting 1784-89.depression lasting 1784-89.
No state had to listen toNo state had to listen to
Congress; their decisionsCongress; their decisions
were just advisory.were just advisory.
Articles began to falter II:Articles began to falter II:
Couldn’t change Articles: If oneCouldn’t change Articles: If one
state held out, no changes werestate held out, no changes were
Congress could not tax anyone.Congress could not tax anyone.
Had to ask states for money.Had to ask states for money.
No power to regulateNo power to regulate
commerce: Serious disputescommerce: Serious disputes
broke out between states withbroke out between states with
no courts to make decisions.no courts to make decisions.
Like a bunch of out of controlLike a bunch of out of control
children at Target. . .children at Target. . .
European nations began toEuropean nations began to
drool. . .could invade and takedrool. . .could invade and take
back parts of territories (babyback parts of territories (baby
yak, right?).yak, right?).
From “Plain Honest Men” (2009)From “Plain Honest Men” (2009)
The Articles of Confederation suffered from three fatalThe Articles of Confederation suffered from three fatal
(1) It didn’t allow the continental government(1) It didn’t allow the continental government the powerthe power
of the purseof the purse – the power either to levy taxes directly or– the power either to levy taxes directly or
to compel the states to pay their fair share of theto compel the states to pay their fair share of the
expenses of the government.expenses of the government.
(2) It required(2) It required unanimous approval of the stateunanimous approval of the state
legislatures for any amendment to the Articleslegislatures for any amendment to the Articles ––
including any amendment that might provide a remedyincluding any amendment that might provide a remedy
for the government’s inability to raise revenuesfor the government’s inability to raise revenues
(3) And it failed to provide for(3) And it failed to provide for a chief executivea chief executive capablecapable
of giving energy and direction to the new centralof giving energy and direction to the new central
government as it sought to carry out its essential tasks.government as it sought to carry out its essential tasks.
How bad was it?How bad was it?
War ended in 1783. During the war,War ended in 1783. During the war,
(under Articles), states were asked to(under Articles), states were asked to
pay troops...didn’t.pay troops...didn’t.
No blankets, provisions, pay,No blankets, provisions, pay,
pensions. Soldiers, officers ticked off.pensions. Soldiers, officers ticked off.
In 1783, as the war ended, addressIn 1783, as the war ended, address
circulated hinting that the army maycirculated hinting that the army may
not disband or fight to defend USA ifnot disband or fight to defend USA if
demands were not met (demands were not met (TheThe
Newburgh ConspiracyNewburgh Conspiracy).).
How bad was it?How bad was it?
At Newburg NY, WashingtonAt Newburg NY, Washington
met with leaders. Angry, didn’tmet with leaders. Angry, didn’t
show him respect/deference ofshow him respect/deference of
GW gave impassioned speech:GW gave impassioned speech:
Be patient with Congress.Be patient with Congress.
Washington felt they wereWashington felt they were
Took out a letter from aTook out a letter from a
member of Congress to read tomember of Congress to read to
them, fumbled with histhem, fumbled with his
How bad was it?How bad was it?
"Gentlemen, you will permit me to"Gentlemen, you will permit me to
put on my spectacles, for I haveput on my spectacles, for I have
not only grown gray but almostnot only grown gray but almost
blind in the service of my country.“blind in the service of my country.“
Men moved to tears, conspiracyMen moved to tears, conspiracy
Washington believed thisWashington believed this
“experiment” must be given a“experiment” must be given a
chance, but things were not good.chance, but things were not good.
Officers got partial pension, butOfficers got partial pension, but
soldiers still angry.soldiers still angry.
Wasn’t over: Weeks later, PNWasn’t over: Weeks later, PN
militia marched in Phil., forcedmilitia marched in Phil., forced
Congress to flee to Princeton, N.J.Congress to flee to Princeton, N.J.
Shay’s Rebellion (1786-87)Shay’s Rebellion (1786-87)
Armed rebellion of farmers/veterans inArmed rebellion of farmers/veterans in
western Massachusetts.western Massachusetts.
Issue? Debt and taxes. Farmers goingIssue? Debt and taxes. Farmers going
out of business, being jailed for notout of business, being jailed for not
paying off debts, interest, and then beingpaying off debts, interest, and then being
taxed unfairly on top of it.taxed unfairly on top of it.
Much of it due to worthless moneyMuch of it due to worthless money
printed by states/feds.printed by states/feds.
Had enough: Shut down courts to stopHad enough: Shut down courts to stop
debt collection. Began to organize armeddebt collection. Began to organize armed
Marched on a federal arsenal. RepelledMarched on a federal arsenal. Repelled
by private militia paid by Bostonby private militia paid by Boston
merchants. Fired into crowd killing four.merchants. Fired into crowd killing four.
Disorganized defense by federal troopsDisorganized defense by federal troops
caused fear in Washington and others.caused fear in Washington and others.
Saw the need for a stronger federalSaw the need for a stronger federal
Discussion of a new government:Discussion of a new government:
Began in March, 1785; conference toBegan in March, 1785; conference to
discuss navigation of the Potomac Riverdiscuss navigation of the Potomac River
between MD and VA at Mt. Vernon (GW).between MD and VA at Mt. Vernon (GW).
Led to another conference in Annapolis MDLed to another conference in Annapolis MD
in Sept. 1786 to discuss trade in general.in Sept. 1786 to discuss trade in general.
Focus moved on to govt as a whole. SetFocus moved on to govt as a whole. Set
mtg. for May 1787 in Philadelphia (only tomtg. for May 1787 in Philadelphia (only to
revise the Articles, not replace them).revise the Articles, not replace them).
Pretty soon, began talk of starting all over:Pretty soon, began talk of starting all over:
making a much stronger nationalmaking a much stronger national
government based on the will of the people.government based on the will of the people.
Some delegates alarmed-what about state’sSome delegates alarmed-what about state’s
power? The rights of the people?power? The rights of the people?
Worried a strong central government wouldWorried a strong central government would
abuse states/people’s rights.abuse states/people’s rights.
Constitutional Convention (1787)Constitutional Convention (1787)
Called at first to “modify” theCalled at first to “modify” the
Still, many thought theyStill, many thought they
needed to start all over.needed to start all over.
James Madison: Prepared,James Madison: Prepared,
brought a plan as a startingbrought a plan as a starting
point (Virginia Plan).point (Virginia Plan).
Didn’t end up being the finalDidn’t end up being the final
plan, but it gave theplan, but it gave the
delegates something to talkdelegates something to talk
Virginia PlanVirginia Plan
Three branchesThree branches instead ofinstead of
one (legislative, executive,one (legislative, executive,
Two housesTwo houses in legislaturein legislature
(House of Representatives(House of Representatives
(people elect), Senate(people elect), Senate
(elected by House from(elected by House from
lists nominated by legis oflists nominated by legis of
in both houses.in both houses.
Virginia Plan IIVirginia Plan II
Legislative branch would have muchLegislative branch would have much
more powermore power than in Articles ofthan in Articles of
Would be able to make laws toWould be able to make laws to
regulate trade, strike down state lawsregulate trade, strike down state laws
that violated the federal Constitution,that violated the federal Constitution,
call forth the armed forces against thecall forth the armed forces against the
states (really put states in their place).states (really put states in their place).
Also would elect the executive andAlso would elect the executive and
judicial branch members.judicial branch members.
With proportional representation, thisWith proportional representation, this
plan seemed to favor the big statesplan seemed to favor the big states
(like, oh. . .say. . .(like, oh. . .say. . .VirginiaVirginia. . .where. . .where
Madison is from. . .hmmm).Madison is from. . .hmmm).
New Jersey PlanNew Jersey Plan
Smaller states nervous. . .seems they willSmaller states nervous. . .seems they will
be squashed by the larger states.be squashed by the larger states.
William Patterson (NJ) submitted plan ofWilliam Patterson (NJ) submitted plan of
his own (The New Jersey Plan).his own (The New Jersey Plan).
Plan like the Articles (all states getPlan like the Articles (all states get samesame
numbernumber of representatives).of representatives).
Added more powers to Congress (taxes,Added more powers to Congress (taxes,
trade) and get more control over the states.trade) and get more control over the states.
Three branches. Executive branch wouldThree branches. Executive branch would
be made up of people selected bybe made up of people selected by
Judicial branch: Members chosen byJudicial branch: Members chosen by
Was rejected (too much like Articles)Was rejected (too much like Articles)
Great Compromise (CT)Great Compromise (CT)
Still, concerns from smallerStill, concerns from smaller
states on # of representatives.states on # of representatives.
Compromise (William ShermanCompromise (William Sherman
of CT):of CT):
1.1. House of reps: ProportionalHouse of reps: Proportional
representation (based onrepresentation (based on
2.2. Senate: Equal representation.Senate: Equal representation.
3.3. House: Given power to developHouse: Given power to develop
all tax bills. . .but Senate had toall tax bills. . .but Senate had to
approve (CHECK!).approve (CHECK!).
4.4. Taxes divvied out based onTaxes divvied out based on
population (so bigger states paidpopulation (so bigger states paid
more taxes because of size).more taxes because of size).
ESSAY FOR TESTESSAY FOR TEST
Explain what the Articles of ConfederationExplain what the Articles of Confederation
are and why it/they failed.are and why it/they failed.