The ArticlesThe Articles
and theand the
ConventionConvention
(in 22 slides. . .)(in 22 slides. . .)
America in 1776:America in 1776:
Colony of Great Britain, butColony of Great Britain, but
govern themselves; had donegover...
America in 1776 IIAmerica in 1776 II
USA really a group of 13USA really a group of 13
nation-states, not part ofnation-sta...
New Country/New Government:New Country/New Government:
America now independent-America now independent-
What kind of gover...
New Country/New Government:New Country/New Government:
Again, fears of the new nation:Again, fears of the new nation:
1.1....
Articles of Confederation (1781)Articles of Confederation (1781)
Drafted 1776-77. Ratified by allDrafted 1776-77. Ratified...
Articles of the Confederation (1781)Articles of the Confederation (1781)
Formed a “Formed a “confederationconfederation,” ...
Articles began to falter. . .Articles began to falter. . .
Only powers of nationalOnly powers of national
government? Cond...
Articles began to falter II:Articles began to falter II:
Couldn’t change Articles: If oneCouldn’t change Articles: If one
...
From “Plain Honest Men” (2009)From “Plain Honest Men” (2009)
The Articles of Confederation suffered from three fatalThe Ar...
How bad was it?How bad was it?
War ended in 1783. During the war,War ended in 1783. During the war,
(under Articles), stat...
How bad was it?How bad was it?
At Newburg NY, WashingtonAt Newburg NY, Washington
met with leaders. Angry, didn’tmet with ...
How bad was it?How bad was it?
"Gentlemen, you will permit me to"Gentlemen, you will permit me to
put on my spectacles, fo...
Shay’s Rebellion (1786-87)Shay’s Rebellion (1786-87)
Armed rebellion of farmers/veterans inArmed rebellion of farmers/vete...
Discussion of a new government:Discussion of a new government:
Began in March, 1785; conference toBegan in March, 1785; co...
Constitutional Convention (1787)Constitutional Convention (1787)
Called at first to “modify” theCalled at first to “modify...
Virginia PlanVirginia Plan
Three branchesThree branches instead ofinstead of
one (legislative, executive,one (legislative,...
Virginia Plan IIVirginia Plan II
Legislative branch would have muchLegislative branch would have much
more powermore power...
New Jersey PlanNew Jersey Plan
Smaller states nervous. . .seems they willSmaller states nervous. . .seems they will
be squ...
Great Compromise (CT)Great Compromise (CT)
Still, concerns from smallerStill, concerns from smaller
states on # of represe...
ESSAY FOR TESTESSAY FOR TEST
Explain what the Articles of ConfederationExplain what the Articles of Confederation
are and ...
4 articles of confed
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4 articles of confed

  1. 1. The ArticlesThe Articles and theand the ConventionConvention (in 22 slides. . .)(in 22 slides. . .)
  2. 2. America in 1776:America in 1776: Colony of Great Britain, butColony of Great Britain, but govern themselves; had donegovern themselves; had done so for over 150 years.so for over 150 years. Great Britain fights France inGreat Britain fights France in French and Indian War. NeedFrench and Indian War. Need on money. Decide to taxon money. Decide to tax Americans through the teeth.Americans through the teeth. Americans have noAmericans have no representatives in Britishrepresentatives in British government. UNFAIR.government. UNFAIR. Declaration of Independence:Declaration of Independence: Americans cut ties withAmericans cut ties with Britain. Fight RevolutionaryBritain. Fight Revolutionary War (1776-1783). WinWar (1776-1783). Win independence.independence.
  3. 3. America in 1776 IIAmerica in 1776 II USA really a group of 13USA really a group of 13 nation-states, not part ofnation-states, not part of one union.one union. Declaration ofDeclaration of Independence proclaimedIndependence proclaimed the colonies “free andthe colonies “free and independentindependent StatesStates.”.” Heading: “The UnanimousHeading: “The Unanimous Declaration of the thirteenDeclaration of the thirteen unitedunited States of America.”States of America.”
  4. 4. New Country/New Government:New Country/New Government: America now independent-America now independent- What kind of government toWhat kind of government to set up?set up? Didn’t want monarchy: TooDidn’t want monarchy: Too much power in the hands ofmuch power in the hands of one person. Learned theirone person. Learned their lesson from King George IIIlesson from King George III (British king).(British king). Want to keep all of the statesWant to keep all of the states together, but not make thetogether, but not make the national government toonational government too strong (so it could take awaystrong (so it could take away the states rights).the states rights). States jealous of power-wantStates jealous of power-want to hold it for themselves.to hold it for themselves.
  5. 5. New Country/New Government:New Country/New Government: Again, fears of the new nation:Again, fears of the new nation: 1.1. Creation of a nationalCreation of a national government that was too strong.government that was too strong. 2.2. Some states would dominateSome states would dominate others in the nationalothers in the national government.government. Thus, created a weak nationalThus, created a weak national government that treated allgovernment that treated all states, big and small, the same.states, big and small, the same.
  6. 6. Articles of Confederation (1781)Articles of Confederation (1781) Drafted 1776-77. Ratified by allDrafted 1776-77. Ratified by all 17811781 Organized a weak nationalOrganized a weak national government around Congress (onegovernment around Congress (one house, the Confederationhouse, the Confederation Congress).Congress). Every state had one vote (delegate).Every state had one vote (delegate). For law to pass, 9 of 13 coloniesFor law to pass, 9 of 13 colonies must agree (Balances little/big, butmust agree (Balances little/big, but 1-2 states could control if 1-2 states1-2 states could control if 1-2 states didn’t send delegates).didn’t send delegates). Changes in the Articles had to beChanges in the Articles had to be unanimously approved.unanimously approved. No executive branch (no president)No executive branch (no president) or judicial branch.or judicial branch.
  7. 7. Articles of the Confederation (1781)Articles of the Confederation (1781) Formed a “Formed a “confederationconfederation,” a firm,” a firm league of friendship, but not really aleague of friendship, but not really a nation.nation. Does not call the United States ofDoes not call the United States of America a "nation" or "government,"America a "nation" or "government," but instead says, "The said Statesbut instead says, "The said States hereby severally enter into a firmhereby severally enter into a firm league of friendshipleague of friendship with eachwith each other, for their common defense,other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, andthe security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare,their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist eachbinding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, orother, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any ofattacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion,them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any othersovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever."pretense whatever."
  8. 8. Articles began to falter. . .Articles began to falter. . . Only powers of nationalOnly powers of national government? Conductgovernment? Conduct foreign affairs, makeforeign affairs, make treaties, declare war.treaties, declare war. No central authority. . .just aNo central authority. . .just a bunch of squabblingbunch of squabbling delegates in Congress. Toodelegates in Congress. Too many had to agree to getmany had to agree to get anything done.anything done. Near economic collapse;Near economic collapse; depression lasting 1784-89.depression lasting 1784-89. No state had to listen toNo state had to listen to Congress; their decisionsCongress; their decisions were just advisory.were just advisory.
  9. 9. Articles began to falter II:Articles began to falter II: Couldn’t change Articles: If oneCouldn’t change Articles: If one state held out, no changes werestate held out, no changes were made.made. Congress could not tax anyone.Congress could not tax anyone. Had to ask states for money.Had to ask states for money. No power to regulateNo power to regulate commerce: Serious disputescommerce: Serious disputes broke out between states withbroke out between states with no courts to make decisions.no courts to make decisions. Like a bunch of out of controlLike a bunch of out of control children at Target. . .children at Target. . . European nations began toEuropean nations began to drool. . .could invade and takedrool. . .could invade and take back parts of territories (babyback parts of territories (baby yak, right?).yak, right?).
  10. 10. From “Plain Honest Men” (2009)From “Plain Honest Men” (2009) The Articles of Confederation suffered from three fatalThe Articles of Confederation suffered from three fatal flaws.flaws. (1) It didn’t allow the continental government(1) It didn’t allow the continental government the powerthe power of the purseof the purse – the power either to levy taxes directly or– the power either to levy taxes directly or to compel the states to pay their fair share of theto compel the states to pay their fair share of the expenses of the government.expenses of the government. (2) It required(2) It required unanimous approval of the stateunanimous approval of the state legislatures for any amendment to the Articleslegislatures for any amendment to the Articles –– including any amendment that might provide a remedyincluding any amendment that might provide a remedy for the government’s inability to raise revenuesfor the government’s inability to raise revenues independently.independently. (3) And it failed to provide for(3) And it failed to provide for a chief executivea chief executive capablecapable of giving energy and direction to the new centralof giving energy and direction to the new central government as it sought to carry out its essential tasks.government as it sought to carry out its essential tasks.
  11. 11. How bad was it?How bad was it? War ended in 1783. During the war,War ended in 1783. During the war, (under Articles), states were asked to(under Articles), states were asked to pay troops...didn’t.pay troops...didn’t. No blankets, provisions, pay,No blankets, provisions, pay, pensions. Soldiers, officers ticked off.pensions. Soldiers, officers ticked off. In 1783, as the war ended, addressIn 1783, as the war ended, address circulated hinting that the army maycirculated hinting that the army may not disband or fight to defend USA ifnot disband or fight to defend USA if demands were not met (demands were not met (TheThe Newburgh ConspiracyNewburgh Conspiracy).).
  12. 12. How bad was it?How bad was it? At Newburg NY, WashingtonAt Newburg NY, Washington met with leaders. Angry, didn’tmet with leaders. Angry, didn’t show him respect/deference ofshow him respect/deference of before.before. GW gave impassioned speech:GW gave impassioned speech: Be patient with Congress.Be patient with Congress. Washington felt they wereWashington felt they were unmoved.unmoved. Took out a letter from aTook out a letter from a member of Congress to read tomember of Congress to read to them, fumbled with histhem, fumbled with his glasses.glasses.
  13. 13. How bad was it?How bad was it? "Gentlemen, you will permit me to"Gentlemen, you will permit me to put on my spectacles, for I haveput on my spectacles, for I have not only grown gray but almostnot only grown gray but almost blind in the service of my country.“blind in the service of my country.“ Men moved to tears, conspiracyMen moved to tears, conspiracy collapsed.collapsed. Washington believed thisWashington believed this “experiment” must be given a“experiment” must be given a chance, but things were not good.chance, but things were not good. Officers got partial pension, butOfficers got partial pension, but soldiers still angry.soldiers still angry. Wasn’t over: Weeks later, PNWasn’t over: Weeks later, PN militia marched in Phil., forcedmilitia marched in Phil., forced Congress to flee to Princeton, N.J.Congress to flee to Princeton, N.J.
  14. 14. Shay’s Rebellion (1786-87)Shay’s Rebellion (1786-87) Armed rebellion of farmers/veterans inArmed rebellion of farmers/veterans in western Massachusetts.western Massachusetts. Issue? Debt and taxes. Farmers goingIssue? Debt and taxes. Farmers going out of business, being jailed for notout of business, being jailed for not paying off debts, interest, and then beingpaying off debts, interest, and then being taxed unfairly on top of it.taxed unfairly on top of it. Much of it due to worthless moneyMuch of it due to worthless money printed by states/feds.printed by states/feds. Had enough: Shut down courts to stopHad enough: Shut down courts to stop debt collection. Began to organize armeddebt collection. Began to organize armed forces.forces. Marched on a federal arsenal. RepelledMarched on a federal arsenal. Repelled by private militia paid by Bostonby private militia paid by Boston merchants. Fired into crowd killing four.merchants. Fired into crowd killing four. Disorganized defense by federal troopsDisorganized defense by federal troops caused fear in Washington and others.caused fear in Washington and others. Saw the need for a stronger federalSaw the need for a stronger federal government.government.
  15. 15. Discussion of a new government:Discussion of a new government: Began in March, 1785; conference toBegan in March, 1785; conference to discuss navigation of the Potomac Riverdiscuss navigation of the Potomac River between MD and VA at Mt. Vernon (GW).between MD and VA at Mt. Vernon (GW). Led to another conference in Annapolis MDLed to another conference in Annapolis MD in Sept. 1786 to discuss trade in general.in Sept. 1786 to discuss trade in general. Focus moved on to govt as a whole. SetFocus moved on to govt as a whole. Set mtg. for May 1787 in Philadelphia (only tomtg. for May 1787 in Philadelphia (only to revise the Articles, not replace them).revise the Articles, not replace them). Pretty soon, began talk of starting all over:Pretty soon, began talk of starting all over: making a much stronger nationalmaking a much stronger national government based on the will of the people.government based on the will of the people. Some delegates alarmed-what about state’sSome delegates alarmed-what about state’s power? The rights of the people?power? The rights of the people? Worried a strong central government wouldWorried a strong central government would abuse states/people’s rights.abuse states/people’s rights.
  16. 16. Constitutional Convention (1787)Constitutional Convention (1787) Called at first to “modify” theCalled at first to “modify” the Articles.Articles. Still, many thought theyStill, many thought they needed to start all over.needed to start all over. James Madison: Prepared,James Madison: Prepared, brought a plan as a startingbrought a plan as a starting point (Virginia Plan).point (Virginia Plan). Didn’t end up being the finalDidn’t end up being the final plan, but it gave theplan, but it gave the delegates something to talkdelegates something to talk about.about.
  17. 17. Virginia PlanVirginia Plan Three branchesThree branches instead ofinstead of one (legislative, executive,one (legislative, executive, judicial).judicial). Two housesTwo houses in legislaturein legislature (House of Representatives(House of Representatives (people elect), Senate(people elect), Senate (elected by House from(elected by House from lists nominated by legis oflists nominated by legis of states).states). ProportionalProportional representationrepresentation in both houses.in both houses.
  18. 18. Virginia Plan IIVirginia Plan II Legislative branch would have muchLegislative branch would have much more powermore power than in Articles ofthan in Articles of Confederation.Confederation. Would be able to make laws toWould be able to make laws to regulate trade, strike down state lawsregulate trade, strike down state laws that violated the federal Constitution,that violated the federal Constitution, call forth the armed forces against thecall forth the armed forces against the states (really put states in their place).states (really put states in their place). Also would elect the executive andAlso would elect the executive and judicial branch members.judicial branch members. With proportional representation, thisWith proportional representation, this plan seemed to favor the big statesplan seemed to favor the big states (like, oh. . .say. . .(like, oh. . .say. . .VirginiaVirginia. . .where. . .where Madison is from. . .hmmm).Madison is from. . .hmmm).
  19. 19. New Jersey PlanNew Jersey Plan Smaller states nervous. . .seems they willSmaller states nervous. . .seems they will be squashed by the larger states.be squashed by the larger states. William Patterson (NJ) submitted plan ofWilliam Patterson (NJ) submitted plan of his own (The New Jersey Plan).his own (The New Jersey Plan). Plan like the Articles (all states getPlan like the Articles (all states get samesame numbernumber of representatives).of representatives). Added more powers to Congress (taxes,Added more powers to Congress (taxes, trade) and get more control over the states.trade) and get more control over the states. Three branches. Executive branch wouldThree branches. Executive branch would be made up of people selected bybe made up of people selected by Congress.Congress. Judicial branch: Members chosen byJudicial branch: Members chosen by executive.executive. Was rejected (too much like Articles)Was rejected (too much like Articles)
  20. 20. Great Compromise (CT)Great Compromise (CT) Still, concerns from smallerStill, concerns from smaller states on # of representatives.states on # of representatives. Compromise (William ShermanCompromise (William Sherman of CT):of CT): 1.1. House of reps: ProportionalHouse of reps: Proportional representation (based onrepresentation (based on population)population) 2.2. Senate: Equal representation.Senate: Equal representation. 3.3. House: Given power to developHouse: Given power to develop all tax bills. . .but Senate had toall tax bills. . .but Senate had to approve (CHECK!).approve (CHECK!). 4.4. Taxes divvied out based onTaxes divvied out based on population (so bigger states paidpopulation (so bigger states paid more taxes because of size).more taxes because of size).
  21. 21. ESSAY FOR TESTESSAY FOR TEST Explain what the Articles of ConfederationExplain what the Articles of Confederation are and why it/they failed.are and why it/they failed.

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