The Romantic Period


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The Romantic Period

  1. 1. 1825-1900
  2. 2. The Romantic Period 1825-1900 <ul><li>The Romantic period was a cultural movement that stressed emotion, imagination, individualism and freedom of expression </li></ul><ul><li>Important writers of the time were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walt Whitman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edgar Allen Poe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Shelly </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Romantic Period <ul><li>People were extremely interested in Middle Ages/Medieval themes such as chivalry, romance and Goth – caused an architectural Gothic revival </li></ul><ul><li>People more sensitive to nature and thus nature reflected in art </li></ul><ul><li>Romanticism coincided with industrial revolution that causes social and economic changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More interest in the working class and poor </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Important Romantic Composers <ul><li>Franz Schubert Peter Tchaikovsky </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Schumann Antonin Dvorak </li></ul><ul><li>Clara Schumann Johannes Brahms </li></ul><ul><li>Frederic Chopin Giuseppe Verdi </li></ul><ul><li>Franz Liszt Giacomo Puccini </li></ul><ul><li>Felix Mendelssohn Richard Wagner </li></ul><ul><li>Hector Berlioz </li></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of the Romantic Period <ul><li>Individuality of Style emphasis on self-expression and individual style (Tchaikovsky sounds like Tchaikovsky, not Chopin) </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive Aims and Subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers very interested in all aspects of nature, fantastic and diabolical ideas, Middle Age subjects, expressive feelings like love, intimacy, melancholy, longing </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Characteristics (continue) <ul><li>Nationalism – Feeling of pride in one’s country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in music to deliberately create music with a specific national identity using folk songs, dances, legends, and history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music may sound German, Russian, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exoticism – Music written for another’s country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Bizet who is French could write an opera set in Spain and has a Spanish feel to it </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Characteristics (continue) <ul><li>Program Music - Instrumental music written with a specific story, idea, poem or scene in mind . (Example: Romeo and Juliet </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute Music – music with no story or program </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive tone color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tone color or timbre is the specific quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument or voice from another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expressive Tone Color was used to create new sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New ways of combining instruments or voices together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More people in the orchestra (100) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More brass including trombones and tubas in the orchestra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Added the piccolo, bass clarinet, English horn and contrabassoon to the woodwinds </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Characteristics (continue) <ul><li>Expressive tone color (continue) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More percussion instruments introduced such as the triangle, and cymbals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piano became the favorite instrument of the period due to greater range and better tone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harmony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New chords were invented using chromatic, major and minor scales that added intensity and colorful, complex harmonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers added intentional dissonance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers changed keys rapidly </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Characteristics (continue) <ul><li>Extended range of dynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers dynamic ranges from ffff to pppp and used frequent crescendos and decrescendos as well as sudden dynamic changes (f-p) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extended range of pitches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers wanted to use extreme high and low sounds (inclusion of the piccolo and contrabassoon, adding more keys to the piano) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Characteristics (continue) <ul><li>Extended use of Tempo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers often used accelerandos ( increasing in speed ), ritardandos ( slowing in speed ), and rubato ( slight holding back or pushing forward of tempo ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Miniature to Monumental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Music was written that was very short to extremely long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symphonies averaged 45 minutes as opposed to 25 from the classical period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operas were several hours long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All concertos, string quartets, sonatas, etc. were longer than Classical composers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Life of a Romantic Composer <ul><li>Beethoven opened the door for more composers to be strictly freelance </li></ul><ul><li>Composers now writing music for personal enjoyment, not just to make money </li></ul><ul><li>Composers also thought about leaving a mark in history and a legacy to be remembered by </li></ul>
  12. 12. Life of a Romantic Composer (continue) <ul><li>Most composers now come from a middle class family that may not be musical </li></ul><ul><li>Due to family background, often composers wrote music for non-music people or people without a lot of musical training </li></ul><ul><li>Due to French Revolution and Napoleonic wars, many musicians lost jobs, opera houses closed because aristocrats could not afford their private orchestras and opera houses. Musicians were forced to become free lance to survive. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Life of a Romantic Composer (continue) <ul><li>Most composers had to do a variety of jobs to make money </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taught privately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had patron to support them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private music making was on the increase and the favorite instrument was the piano </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piano was in every middle class home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More piano music had to be written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symphonies and operas were transcribed or arranged for piano </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Life of a Romantic Composer (continue) <ul><li>Romantic composers wrote mostly for the middle class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle class grew as cities grew and more people wanted to hear and play music as a result of the industrial revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public concerts became regular events </li></ul><ul><li>New orchestras were founded like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>London Philharmonic Society (1813) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New York Philharmonic (1842) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Life of a Romantic Composer (continue) <ul><li>Romantic period also started the funding of conservatories ( music schools ) in Europe and U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicago, Cleveland, Boston, Philadelphia, and Oberlin (Ohio) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now more men and women could study music to become a professional musician </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People were astounded by virtuosos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtuoso – people with great technical skill that do what others cannot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Franz Liszt (piano), Niccolo Paganini (violin), Frederic Chopin (piano) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Forms of Music During the Romantic Period <ul><li>Art Song – music of solo voice and piano accompaniment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The accompaniment acts as a partner with the soloist, not just for harmony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry set to music; poetry inspired by nature, love, legend, unrequited love, flowers, trees, brooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually set in the composers native language (mostly used by German composers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called Lied (song) or plural Lieder </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Forms (continue) <ul><li>Strophic – music that repeats for each stanza on words, like a modern day hymn or pop song </li></ul><ul><li>Through composed – music is always changing and never repeats </li></ul><ul><li>Song Cycle – a group of songs with a unified story that runs through all songs or linked with musical ideas (Schubert and Schumann) </li></ul><ul><li>Etude – study or exercise intended to help improve a skill </li></ul>
  18. 18. Forms (continue) <ul><li>Music Drama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A term Richard Wagner used for his opera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fused music, drama, dance and painting to make each equal in importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music never stops for speech or scene changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used huge orchestras and treated them like the singers voices and vice versa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used leitmotif or short musical ideas associated with a person or object in the drama </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Franz Schubert 1797-1828 <ul><li>Born in Vienna, Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Father was a schoolmaster </li></ul><ul><li>Showed early musical talent </li></ul><ul><li>Became a teacher but at 21 gave it up to devote himself to music </li></ul><ul><li>At 25 contracted a venereal disease </li></ul><ul><li>Most known for his art songs having wrote 143 of them plus 2 symphonies, an opera and a mass </li></ul>
  20. 20. Robert Schumann 1810-1856 <ul><li>Born in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Father was a bookseller </li></ul><ul><li>Played piano and studied law at Leipzig University but skipped classes to play and compose music </li></ul><ul><li>Married piano teacher’s daughter, Clara – also a gifted piano player and composer </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to commit suicide by throwing himself off a bridge-had himself committed to an asylum </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote mostly piano pieces and song cycles that are autobiographical </li></ul>
  21. 21. Frederic Chopin 1810-1849 <ul><li>Born in Warsaw, Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Attended Warsaw Conservatory </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to Paris and became good friends with Liszt and Berlioz </li></ul><ul><li>Was shy and gave relatively few public performances </li></ul><ul><li>Had a 9 yr. relationship with Aurore Dudevant whose pen name was George Sand </li></ul><ul><li>Died of tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote music and played only piano </li></ul>
  22. 22. Franz Liszt (1811-1886) <ul><li>Born in Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Father worked for same Esterhazy family as Haydn </li></ul><ul><li>Studied in Vienna and met Schubert and Beethoven </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced the piano 8-12 hrs/day </li></ul><ul><li>Quit touring to become a conductor, composer and music critic </li></ul><ul><li>Had 2 long term relationships, one produced a daughter – Cosima, that later married Wagner </li></ul><ul><li>Toward later years devoted life to religious studies and took holy orders and became Abbe Liszt </li></ul>
  23. 23. Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) <ul><li>Born in France </li></ul><ul><li>Father was a doctor and wanted Hector to be a doctor too </li></ul><ul><li>Studied music at Paris Conservatory </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Symphonie Fantastique to depict love for actress Harriett Smithson </li></ul><ul><li>Used unconventional orchestration and harmonics that irritated opera houses and concert societies </li></ul><ul><li>Directors would not play his music so he hired his own musicians to play it </li></ul><ul><li>Was passed over for conductor positions and academic honors due to unusual way of composing music </li></ul>
  24. 24. Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) <ul><li>Born in Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Father a mining inspector </li></ul><ul><li>Become a government clerk </li></ul><ul><li>Started studying music at 21 at St. Petersburg Conservatory </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to drown himself after weeding to conceal homosexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Had a patron for 14 yrs. Named Nadezhda von Meck with the condition they never meet </li></ul><ul><li>Most well known for Nutcracker Ballet and 1812 Overture </li></ul>
  25. 25. Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904) <ul><li>From Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Father was an innkeeper and butcher </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to Prague to study music </li></ul><ul><li>Brahms recommended Dvorak’s music to publisher </li></ul><ul><li>Went to New York and was director of the National Conservatory of Music for 3yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Became interested in Native American and African American melodies and spirituals and incorporated these in his music </li></ul><ul><li>Also well known for incorporating traditional and folk tunes from Czech in music </li></ul>
  26. 26. Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) <ul><li>Born in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Father was a string bassist </li></ul><ul><li>Was close friends with Robert and Clara Schumann </li></ul><ul><li>Helped Clara Schumann raise children and lived with her while Robert was in asylum </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to Vienna and conducted Viennese musical society </li></ul><ul><li>Reintroduced a lot of forgotten Handel, Bach and Mozart </li></ul><ul><li>Loved Beethoven </li></ul>
  27. 27. Richard Wagner (1813-1883) <ul><li>Born in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Grew up in actors would (many family members actors) </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to be a playwright but became a composer because he loved Beethoven’s music </li></ul><ul><li>Enrolled in Leipzig University but partying got in the way of studies </li></ul><ul><li>Never really mastered an instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote mostly operas or music dramas </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutions in Europe caused Wagner to flee to Switzerland because he was wanted for arrest due to enormous debt </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest music drama was the Ring Cycle which be began in 1848 and finished in 1874 </li></ul><ul><li>Fell in love with Cosima von Bulow – Liszt’s daughter, who was married to friend Han. Cosima had two of Wagner's children while married to Han. When Han died, Wagner and Cosima married </li></ul><ul><li>Had opera house build for the Ring Cycle music dramas funded by King Ludwig </li></ul>
  28. 28. Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) <ul><li>Born in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>From a church musician and organist family </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to become an opera composer </li></ul><ul><li>Studied at Conservatorio Reale and Lucca’s Conservatorio </li></ul><ul><li>1 st several operas failures </li></ul><ul><li>Most well known operas are La Boheme , Madame Butterfly and Turnandot </li></ul><ul><li>Compared with Verdi </li></ul><ul><li>Died of throat cancer </li></ul>
  29. 29. Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) <ul><li>Born in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Considered Italy’s greatest composer </li></ul><ul><li>Father was an innkeeper </li></ul><ul><li>Took 1 st music lesson on organ by church organist, but sent away to study music at age 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Applied to conservatory but was denied because he was too old (19) so studied privately </li></ul><ul><li>Wife and children died </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous opera are Rigloetto , La Traviata and Il Trovatore </li></ul><ul><li>Was in Italy’s Parliament for 5 yrs </li></ul>