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  • 1. Tourette’s Syndrome
  • 2. What is Tourette’s?
    • Neurological disorder
    • Characterized by:
      • Repetitive involuntary movements called tics
      • Obscene language is manifested in only 15% of patients
  • 3. Symptoms
    • Noticed first in early childhood
    • Tics classified either simple or complex
      • Simple: eye blinking, facial grimacing, shoulder shrugging, or head jerking
      • Complex: facial grimacing combined with head twist and shoulder shrug
      • Most common are: eye blinking, head jerking, throat clearing, sniffing and tongue clicking
  • 4. Tics
    • Often worse with excitement or anxiety
    • Better during calm, focused activities
    • Experiences can trigger tics:
      • Collars on shirts may trigger neck tics
      • Hearing another person cough may trigger similar sounds
        • Tics do not go away when sleeping but they are diminished
  • 5. Occurrences
    • Tics come and go over time
    • First symptoms usually occur in the head and neck area
  • 6. Can people control their tics?
    • Symptoms are involuntary, can suppress, camouflage or manage their tics
    • Patients report build up tension when suppressing tics:
      • Tic must then be expressed
  • 7. Causes
    • Cause of tourette’s is unknown:
      • Research points to abnormalities in brain regions
      • Inherited disorder
        • Many genes with smaller effects and environmental factors may play a role in TS
  • 8. Disorders associated with TS
    • ADHD - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    • Problems with reading, writing, math
    • Obsessive - compulsive symptoms
    • Depressions, anxiety problems
  • 9. Diagnosis
    • Diagnosed after symptoms persist for 1 year
    • Common tics are often misdiagnosed
    • No blood or lab tests needed for diagnosis
    • Use MRI, CT, EEG scans to diagnose
  • 10. Treatment
    • Medications are available for patients who cannot function correctly:
      • Medications vary from person to person
      • Psychotherapy: Help patient cope with TS
  • 11. Prognosis
    • No cure for TS
    • Symptoms get better for patients in late teens or early adulthood
    • Only 10% of patients have disabling tics that last into adulthood
  • 12. Do children have special needs?
    • Same IQ range as other children without TS
    • Help by teachers should include:
      • Using tape recorders
      • Computers to assist reading and writing
  • 13. What kind of future do TS patients have?
    • Lead productive lives
    • Have normal life span
    • May reach high levels of achievement
  • 14. Sources
    • www.tsa-usa.org
    • www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tourette/detail_tourette.html
    • http://members.tripod.com/~tourette13/
    • http://www.mentalhealth.com/book/p40-gtor.html