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Susmita Dasgupta, Craig Meisner, David Wheeler, Nhan Thi Lam, Khuc Xuyen The World Bank and The National Institute of Occu...
Pesticide consumption (metric tons) in Vietnam Source : FAO, 2004 Pesticide consumption has more than doubled in the past ...
Alarming Composition/Application of Pesticides <ul><li>In 2000, a nation-wide survey by PPD found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2...
Vietnam has limited secondary data on Health Effects of pesticides <ul><li>Survey of Rice Farmers (pesticide applicators) ...
Application of pesticides: survey evidence
Health Effects of Organophosphates and Carbamates cited in Medical Literature <ul><li>Acute: </li></ul><ul><li>Mild headac...
Blood Test for the Detection of Acute and Chronic Pesticide Poisoning <ul><li>Cholinesterase Enzyme (AchE)Test:  (poisonin...
Specific Health Effects found in the Survey <ul><li>98%  of the farmers in the survey reported health problems </li></ul><...
Blood (Cholinesterase Enzyme) Test Results
(Correlation between each individual symptom and blood test results were conducted. The highest correlation found was 0.17...
Determinants of Cholinesterase Enzyme Inhibition: Regression Analysis
Determinants of Cholinesterase Enzyme Inhibition: Regression Results <ul><li>Farmers applying more hazardous pesticides (W...
Summary and Conclusions <ul><li>Health effects of organophosphates and carbamates is serious in Mekong Delta, Vietnam </li...
 
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Transcript of "Susmita Dasgupta, Craig Meisner, David Wheeler, Nhan Thi Lam ..."

  1. 1. Susmita Dasgupta, Craig Meisner, David Wheeler, Nhan Thi Lam, Khuc Xuyen The World Bank and The National Institute of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vietnam Pesticide Poisoning of Farm Workers: Implications of Blood Test Results from Vietnam
  2. 2. Pesticide consumption (metric tons) in Vietnam Source : FAO, 2004 Pesticide consumption has more than doubled in the past decade
  3. 3. Alarming Composition/Application of Pesticides <ul><li>In 2000, a nation-wide survey by PPD found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2,500 kg of banned pesticides (Methamidophos, DDT and others). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4,753 litres and 5,645 kg of illegally imported/ counterfeit pesticides. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 2000, another survey in the South found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>96.6% of the farmers over-use pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>95% of the farmers pour residual spray into canals/ ditches/ re-apply it on other plants/ over-apply it to the same crop to get rid of it. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Vietnam has limited secondary data on Health Effects of pesticides <ul><li>Survey of Rice Farmers (pesticide applicators) in Mekong delta. </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Exam </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Test </li></ul>Methodology: <ul><li>Questions of Interest: </li></ul><ul><li>What is the incidence of pesticide intoxication? </li></ul><ul><li>Are self-reported data good indicators of actual intoxication? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the determinants of pesticide intoxication? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Application of pesticides: survey evidence
  6. 6. Health Effects of Organophosphates and Carbamates cited in Medical Literature <ul><li>Acute: </li></ul><ul><li>Mild headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Flu-like symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Skin rashes </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred vision </li></ul><ul><li>Other neurological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic: </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiopulmonary problems </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological and hematological symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse dermal effects </li></ul>
  7. 7. Blood Test for the Detection of Acute and Chronic Pesticide Poisoning <ul><li>Cholinesterase Enzyme (AchE)Test: (poisoning from organophosphates and carbamates) </li></ul><ul><li>Low Acute Poisoning: Reduction of numerical value of AchE in red cells and in plasma >25% </li></ul><ul><li>High Acute Poisoning: Reduction of numerical value of AchE in red cells and in plasma >33% </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Poisoning: Reduction of numerical value of AchE in red cells >66% </li></ul>
  8. 8. Specific Health Effects found in the Survey <ul><li>98% of the farmers in the survey reported health problems </li></ul><ul><li>88% of the respondents experienced multiple health effects, with the maximum number of ailments as nine </li></ul>
  9. 9. Blood (Cholinesterase Enzyme) Test Results
  10. 10. (Correlation between each individual symptom and blood test results were conducted. The highest correlation found was 0.17) Self-reported symptoms are not reliable indicators of actual pesticide poisoning
  11. 11. Determinants of Cholinesterase Enzyme Inhibition: Regression Analysis
  12. 12. Determinants of Cholinesterase Enzyme Inhibition: Regression Results <ul><li>Farmers applying more hazardous pesticides (WHO Ia & Ib) are more likely to suffer </li></ul><ul><li>Incidence of pesticide poisoning can be significantly reduced by suitable averting behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticide poisoning in Vietnam revealed strong provincial pattern. This raises the concern that the environment in certain regions may have been contaminated from prolonged exposure to toxic pesticides </li></ul>
  13. 13. Summary and Conclusions <ul><li>Health effects of organophosphates and carbamates is serious in Mekong Delta, Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reported symptoms have very weak associations with actual poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable averting behavior while handling pesticides should be advocated </li></ul><ul><li>Significant provincial differences in poisoning incidence implies that pesticide contamination may be pervasive in certain areas </li></ul><ul><li>Tests of pesticide residues in surface/ground water and soil is necessary </li></ul>
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