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  • 1.
    • Tramaine Curtis
    • Phinecia Bright
    • Teonia Burton
    • Diana Medina
    • Cherlyne Norman
    • Chapter 29
    • Group 4
    • Lesson Title:
    • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
    • Topic:
    • Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI)
  • 2. Target Group:
    • Child-Bearing age women between the ages of 16- 35
  • 3. What is a STI?
    • Any infections contracted through sexual intercourse or other intimate sexual contact.
    • Most STIs spread during vaginal or anal sex, but other forms of sexual contact, such as oral sex, can also spread disease
  • 4. Why STI and not STD?
    • People must first be infected before they can have a sexually transmitted disease
    • An Infection means that a germ that can cause sickness is present inside a person’s body. An infected person may feel sick.
    • A disease means that the infection is actually causing the infected person to feel sick, or to notice something is wrong .
  • 5. In addition,
    • 15 million cases of STIs cases are reported annually in the United States
    • Can be transferred from one person to another through sexual contact
  • 6. STIs in Women
    • Women are more vulnerable biologically, culturally, socioeconomically
    • Most are asymptomatic (no symptoms)in women
  • 7. Bacterial vs. Viral
    • Bacterial Infections
    • Chlamydia
    • Gonorrhea
    • Viral Infections
    • HIV/AIDS
    • HPV
    • Herpes Simplex
  • 8.
    • Known as “Human Papillomavirus ”
  • 9. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
    • 20 million people are currently infected with HPV
    • Very common amongst sexually active college students
  • 10. Signs & Symptoms
    • Most common manifestation of HPV is warts
    • Includes warts on skin such as plantar warts or in the genital area, known as genital warts
  • 11. Signs & Symptoms
    • May be associated with discomfort such as itching, burning, or tenderness in the genital area
    • Most women with HPV do not have any symptoms at all
  • 12. Effects on Pregnancy
    • HPV has no effect on the fetus whatsoever during pregnancy and does not rule out a vaginal delivery
    • In some, the warts may be so large it can block the birth canal; in this case Cesarean section may be performed
  • 13. Treatment
    • No effective treatment
    • Warts may be treated with agents designed to reduce or remove the warts, including creams, oral medications, or surgery
    • The infection usually goes away without treatment, but for high risk HPV
  • 14.
    • Is caused by the Chlamydia Trachomatis bacteria
    • “ Silent disease”
  • 15. Chlamydia
    • Most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease in U.S.
    • 2.8 million Americans are infected with Chlamydia each year
  • 16. Signs and Symptoms
    • Some women still have no signs or symptoms
    • Abnormal vaginal discharge or a burning sensation when urinating
    • Symptoms usually appear within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure
  • 17. In addition,
    • Lower abdominal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, or bleeding between menstrual periods
  • 18. Effects on Pregnancy
    • Chlamydia can spread to other reproductive organs causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
    • Can lead to long-term pelvic pain, blocked fallopian tubes, infertility and ectopic pregnancy
  • 19. Effects on Pregnancy
    • Evidence that untreated chlamydial infections can lead to premature delivery
    • Babies born to infected mothers can get chlamydial infections in their eyes and respiratory tracts
  • 20. Treatment
    • Your doctor or other health care workers will probably give you a prescription for an antibiotic to treat people with Chlamydia infection
  • 21.
    • Scientifically known as the gonococcus, or Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • 22. Gonorrhea
    • 700,000 persons in the U.S. get new gonorrheal infections each year
    • Half of these infections are reported to CDC
  • 23. Signs & Symptoms
    • Most infected women have no symptoms
    • Include a painful or burning sensation when urinating, increased vaginal discharge, or vaginal bleeding between periods
  • 24. Signs & Symptoms
    • Infected women have higher risk of developing serious complications from the infection
    • A common complication of gonorrhea is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • 25. Effects on Pregnancy
    • Can also be spread from mother to child during birth
    • Can cause fertility problems, birth defects, skin problems, arthritis, blood poisoning, and heart and brain infections
  • 26. Treatment
    • Several antibiotics can successfully cure gonorrhea
    • Because of drug-resistance the successful treatment of gonorrhea is becoming more difficult
  • 27. In addition,
    • Many people with gonorrhea also have chlamydia, antibiotics for both infections are usually given together
    • Persons with gonorrhea should be tested for other STDs
  • 28.
    • Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-2), which is related to the viruses that belongs to the same family of viruses that cause chicken pox and shingles
    Herpes Simplex
  • 29. Herpes Simplex 1 & 2
    • 45 million people in the United States ages 12 and older have herpes
    • 1 out of 5 of the total adolescent and adult population, are infected with Herpes Simplex
  • 30. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
    • Type 1 (HSV-1) Cause lesions, cold sores “fever blisters” in the mouth or on the lips
    • Bumps form on the lips and sometimes in the mouth, tongue, and throat
    • Blisters crust over and heal within 10-16 days
  • 31. Herpes Simplex
    • May include fever, general muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, flu-like symptoms
    • Increased salivation and sometimes bleeding in the mouth
  • 32. Herpes Type 2 (HSV-2)
    • Cause lesions around and on the genital areas
    • Bumps form on the lips and sometimes in the mouth, tongue, and throat
    • Blisters crust over and heal within 10-16 days
  • 33. Effects on Pregnancy
        • Type 2 Viral shedding from cervix, vagina, vulva plays the primary role in transmitting the disease from mother to infant
        • About 60% of newborns infected and not treated will die or be severely damaged
  • 34. Effects on Pregnancy
        • Newborns develop skin sores; caesarean is performed if sores are present
        • Herpes keratitus- Ocular herpes
  • 35. Signs & Symptoms
    • Include fever, general muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, flu-like symptoms
    • Increased salivation and sometimes bleeding in the mouth
  • 36. Signs & Symptoms
    • Recurrence Period- virus lay dormant
    • Prodromal Symptoms- tingling at the sites commonly affected by blisters
  • 37. Treatment
    • Topical ointment, oral or injectable
    • Oral and injectable reduces viral shedding and duration severity of initial herpes outbreaks
    • Injection is used for most severe outbreaks
  • 38.
    • HIV-Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    • AIDS-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
  • 39. HIV/AIDS
    • HIV is the virus that causes AIDS
    • The definition of AIDS relates to
    • CD4+ T-cells Count
    • Healthy adults usually have CD4+ T-cell counts of 1,000 or more
    • Aids and some HIV sufferers have less than 200 CD4+ T-cells
  • 40. Furthermore,
    • Minority women in U.S are one of the fastest growing populations affected
    • Ranks among the top three leading causes of death for minority women aged 24-44
  • 41. Signs & Symptoms
    • rapid weight loss
    • dry cough
    • recurring fever or profuse night sweats
    • profound and unexplained fatigue
    • swollen lymph glands diarrhea
    • white spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, in the mouth, or in the throat
  • 42. Signs & Symptoms
    • pneumonia
    • red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids
    • memory loss, depression, and other neurological disorders
    • Do not assume if you have symptoms!
  • 43. Effects on Pregnancy
    • Spontaneous abortion
    • Stillbirth
    • Maternal mortality
    • Newborn mortality
    • Low birth weight
    • Preterm delivery
    • Amnionitis (inflammation)
  • 44. Effects of Pregnancy
    • 70% transmission occurs at the time of delivery 30% amount occurs antenatally (before delivery)
    • A significant contributor to transmission is breastfeeding
  • 45. Treatment
    • Antiviral drugs drug’s that boost the immune system have allowed many people with HIV to resist infections, stay healthy, and prolong their lives, but these medications are not a cure
  • 46. Treatment
    • There is no vaccine to prevent HIV and AIDS researchers are working on developing one
    • Doctors do not know of any way to rid the body of HIV
  • 47. Modes of Transmission
    • blood
    • blood products
    • sexual fluids
    • People can be infected and NOT look sick or even have AIDS but can still transmit HIV
  • 48. Other Common STIs/STDs
    • More than 20 known STIs
    • It is important to be tested for STIs if you are sexually active
    • syphilis
    • trichomonas
    • Hepatitis B
    • Hepatitis C
  • 49. STI Prevention
    • Abstain from sexual intercourse—vaginal, oral, or anal
    • Be in a monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner
  • 50. STI Prevention
    • For oral sex, use a condom over the penis and use a dental dam, plastic wrap, or cut-open condom to cover the vagina or anus
    • Dual protection is the use of condoms combined with another contraceptive method
  • 51. STIs in 2004
  • 52. Video Clip
  • 53. The End That’s All Folks!!!!