seizure

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seizure

  1. 1. NERVOUS SYSTEM-Seizure <ul><li>GROUP MEMBERS: </li></ul><ul><li>1-) MAHEEN HANIF </li></ul><ul><li>2-) HIBA TABASSUM </li></ul><ul><li>3-) SABEEN ZEHRA </li></ul><ul><li>4-) ZEHRA RIZVI </li></ul><ul><li>5-) ZUBIA NAEEM </li></ul><ul><li>6-) ANUM REHAN </li></ul><ul><li>CONDUCTED BY: </li></ul><ul><li>MRS ARSHIA SAEED </li></ul>
  2. 2. PATIENT’S INFORMATION <ul><li>FEMALE </li></ul><ul><li>18 YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>5’5” and 130 lbs </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistani </li></ul><ul><li>Physically unfit </li></ul><ul><li>No history of disease </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT IS SEIZURE? <ul><li>A seizure occurs when part of the brain receives a burst of abnormal electrical signals that temporarily interrupts normal electrical brain function. </li></ul>
  4. 4. CAUSES <ul><li>IN INFANTS: </li></ul><ul><li>birth trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital (present at birth) problems </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic or chemical imbalances in the body </li></ul><ul><li>IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS : </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol or drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Head trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Infection </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown reasons </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER POSSIBLE CAUSES : </li></ul><ul><li>Brain tumor </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological problems </li></ul><ul><li>Drug withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>medications </li></ul>
  5. 5. SYMPTOMS <ul><li>Staring </li></ul><ul><li>Jerking movements of the arms and legs </li></ul><ul><li>Stiffening of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing problems </li></ul><ul><li>Appearing confused or in a haze </li></ul><ul><li>Sleepiness and irritable upon waking in the morning </li></ul><ul><li>Nodding the head </li></ul><ul><li>Periods of rapid eye blinking and staring </li></ul>
  6. 6. SEVERE SYMPTOMS <ul><li>Loss of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing stops </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of bowel or bladder control </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden loss of muscle tone </li></ul><ul><li>Not responding to noise and words for some period </li></ul>
  7. 7. DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE <ul><li>PHYSICAL EXAMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>During the examination , the physician obtains a complete medical history of the person and family. </li></ul><ul><li>Seizures may be due to neurological problems and require further medical follow up. </li></ul><ul><li>DIAGNOSTIC TESTS </li></ul><ul><li>Blood tests </li></ul><ul><li>Electroencephalogram </li></ul><ul><li>(EEG) </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) </li></ul><ul><li>Computed tomography scan(CT or CAT scan) </li></ul><ul><li>Lumbar puncture. </li></ul>
  8. 8. TREATMENT <ul><li>Treatments may include: </li></ul><ul><li>MEDICATIONS : </li></ul><ul><li>Medications are elected based on the type of seizure, age of the patient, side effects, the cost of the medication, and the adherence with the use of medication. </li></ul><ul><li>Medications used at homes are in the form of capsules, tablets, sprinkles, or syrup. </li></ul><ul><li>Some can be given rectally. </li></ul><ul><li>If the person is in hospital. Medication by injection or intravenous (IV). </li></ul>
  9. 9. TREATMENT II <ul><li>While taking medications, different tests may be done to monitor the effectiveness of the medication, like </li></ul><ul><li>BLOOD WORK </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the blood work level (therapeutic level) ,the physician may increase or decrease the dose of the medication.It may also be done to monitor the effects of medication on the body organs. </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG) </li></ul><ul><li>EEG is done to monitor how the medication is helping the electrical programs in the brain . </li></ul>
  10. 10. TREATMENT III <ul><li>SURGERY : </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery may be considered in a person who has seizures : </li></ul><ul><li>that are unable to be controlled with medications. </li></ul><ul><li>that always start in one area of the brain . </li></ul><ul><li>in a part of the brain that can be removed without disrupting important behaviors such as speech , memory or vision . </li></ul><ul><li>The operation may remove the part of the brain where seizures are occurring or, sometimes , help to stop the spread of the bad electrical currents through the brain </li></ul>
  11. 11. TREATMENT IV <ul><li>VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION (VNS) : </li></ul><ul><li>Small pulses of energy are sent to the brain through vagus nerve by surgically placing a small battery into the chest wall.When the person feels a seizure coming on ,he/she may activate the impulses by holding a small magnet over the battery. In many cases ,it will help to stop the seizure .Its side effects may include : </li></ul><ul><li>Hoarseness . </li></ul><ul><li>Pain or discomfort in the throat </li></ul><ul><li>Change in voice . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Seizures SEIZURES Partial Generalized Infantile Febrile Epilepsy Complex Simple Absence (petit mal) Atonic GTC (grand mal) Myoclonic
  13. 13. RESOURCE <ul><li>INTERNET </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-seizure.htm </li></ul>

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