Protecting You and Your Community from


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  • West Nile Virus is an RNA flavivirus. The family of viruses includes Yellow Fever, Dengue, St. Louis Encephalitis and Japanese Encephalitis. WNV is an arbovirus, meaning that it is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected mosquito. Although less common, spread from person to person has been documented through blood and organ donors and through breast feeding. The incubation period from exposure to illness is generally 3-14 days with a range of 2 to 15 days.
  • Protecting You and Your Community from

    1. 1. Protecting You and Your Community from West Nile Virus Utah Public Health Departments and Partners 2005
    2. 2. What is West Nile virus? <ul><li>West Nile virus causes illness in people, horses, and birds. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people are not seriously affected however, West Nile illness can be very serious and cause death or disability. </li></ul>
    3. 3. How do you get West Nile virus? <ul><li>It is spread from the bite of infected mosquitoes. </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot get West Nile virus directly from other people, horses, or birds. </li></ul><ul><li>Less common ways it is spread: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is very rare, but possible, to get West Nile virus by receiving blood or an organ transplant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is NOT possible to get West Nile virus by donating blood or an organ. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnant or nursing mothers may pass the infection to their baby. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Is West Nile Virus New? <ul><li>Previously found in Africa, Middle East, West and Central Asia, and Eastern Europe. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The name, “West Nile Virus”, comes from the place in Uganda where it was discovered. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1999, it was found in New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1999, it has moved westward across the United States. </li></ul>
    5. 5. 1999 WNV activity in animals only Human illnesses reported <ul><li>7 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>1 state (NY) </li></ul><ul><li>Illness onset: 8/2 – 9/24/1999 </li></ul>
    6. 6. 2000 <ul><li>2 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>3 states (NY, CT,NJ) </li></ul><ul><li>Illness onset: 7/20 – 9/27/2000 </li></ul>WNV activity in animals only Human illnesses reported
    7. 7. 2001 <ul><li>7 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>10 states </li></ul><ul><li>Illness onset: 7/13 - 12/7/2001 </li></ul>WNV activity in animals only Human illnesses reported
    8. 8. 2002 <ul><li>284 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Est. 300K – 500K infections </li></ul><ul><li>39 states & D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Illness onset: 5/19 – 12/19/2002 </li></ul>WNV activity in animals only Human illnesses reported
    9. 9. 2003 <ul><li>264 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>44 states & D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>WNND; 2866, WNF; 6830 </li></ul><ul><li>Illness onset: 3/28 – 10/21/2002 </li></ul>WNV activity in animals only Human illnesses reported
    10. 10. 2004 <ul><li>100 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>WNND; 1142, WNF; 1269 </li></ul><ul><li>40 states + DC </li></ul>Cumulative data for 2004 reported as of January 11 th , 2005
    11. 11. <ul><li>3 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>38 states </li></ul><ul><li>109 cases </li></ul><ul><li>WNND; 31, WNF; 69 </li></ul>2005 West Nile virus activity data, reported as of July 5th, 2005 2005
    12. 12. West Nile virus Human Disease <ul><li>People get West Nile virus through the bite of an infected mosquito. </li></ul><ul><li>People may become ill 2 to 14 days later. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people will not have severe symptoms. </li></ul>
    13. 13. West Nile Fever <ul><li>Some people will get a flu-like illness known as West Nile Fever: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headache and body aches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people have a rash </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This illness usually lasts several days, but may last up to several weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no treatment for West Nile Fever (antibiotics don’t work!) </li></ul><ul><li>People recover completely. </li></ul>
    14. 14. West Nile Neurologic Disease <ul><li>About 1 in 150 infected people develop a severe form of the disease: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meningitis (inflammation of the spinal cord) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fever, stiff neck, and severe headache </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fever, severe headache, possible mental confusion, convulsions, coma. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness or paralysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>About 10% of people with neurologic disease will die. </li></ul><ul><li>Others may have long-lasting or permanent nerve damage similar to a stroke. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no treatment for West Nile virus infection, but supportive treatment may be needed. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Severe Disease and Death <ul><li>People over age 50 are more likely to develop severe disease than are people under age 50. </li></ul><ul><li>For people over the age of 50, the risk of severe disease rises with increasing age. </li></ul><ul><li>Most deaths due to West Nile virus occur in people over 50. </li></ul>
    16. 16. WNV Human infection pyramid
    17. 17. How do you know it’s West Nile virus? <ul><li>The symptoms of West Nile virus are similar to other viruses or even stroke. </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone with fever, severe headache, and stiff neck should see a doctor immediately. A rash sometimes accompanies West Nile Fever. </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone with convulsions, paralysis, or serious mental confusion or muscle weakness should see a doctor immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>Although there is no treatment for West Nile virus, you will need a doctor’s care if you develop the serious form of West Nile virus. </li></ul>
    18. 18. West Nile Virus Human Disease Summary <ul><li>Usually no symptoms or mild illness but can be very serious </li></ul><ul><li>No treatment (antibiotics won’t work) </li></ul><ul><li>No human vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention is key! </li></ul>
    19. 19. Prevention <ul><li>Personal protection </li></ul><ul><li>Mosquito control </li></ul>
    20. 20. Personal Protection Avoid Mosquito Bites! <ul><li>Public health encourages active, healthy behaviors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent mosquito bites from dusk to dawn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use repellents with DEET </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adults use repellents with up to 35% DEET </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children 2mo-12yr use up to 10% DEET </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children under 2 mo do not use DEET </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For additional protection wear pants and long sleeved-shirts. </li></ul></ul></ul>DEET DEET DEET DEET DEET DEET
    21. 21. Is DEET Safe? <ul><li>DEET has been used for years. </li></ul><ul><li>DEET is well tested. </li></ul><ul><li>DEET is the most effective insect repellent available. </li></ul><ul><li>DEET keeps mosquitoes off of you, it does not kill mosquitoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Repellents without DEET are much less effective and put you and your family at risk of West Nile virus. </li></ul>
    22. 22. DEET and Mosquito Repellent <ul><li>Higher concentrations of DEET protect longer! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines length of protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30% lasts about 5 hours, 10% lasts 2 hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>When should I reapply DEET? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DEET works at short distances, so you may still see mosquitoes flying around. Only reapply if they begin biting you. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who should use DEET, and how much? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adults: up to 35% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children older than 2 months: about 10% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnant women CAN use DEET </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Mosquito Control <ul><li>Repair/replace screens on doors and windows. </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle old tires. </li></ul><ul><li>Fix sprinklers so that you don’t have “swampy” areas in your yard. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider using mosquito fish or mosquito dunks in ponds or stock tanks. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Mosquito Control <ul><li>Mosquito control begins at home! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empty water from buckets, cans, pool covers, flowerpots, old tires, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discard or cover up items that you aren’t using. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean pet water bowls and bird baths weekly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean out rain gutters. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mosquitoes can lay eggs in a very small amount of water! </li></ul>
    25. 25. Report Dead Birds <ul><li>Notify your local Division of Wildlife Resources if you see a dead: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corvid (such as a crow, raven, or jay) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raptor (such as a hawk or eagle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Owl </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The bird must be fresh (not decomposed) and there should not be an obvious means of death (not killed by car or flying into window). </li></ul><ul><li>Small birds, such as sparrows, wrens, robins, etc. are not good indicators of West Nile virus. Carefully discard all small dead birds. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Community Education <ul><li>Community groups can assist in “Fight the Bite”! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help neighbors with gutter cleaning, screen repair, trash removal etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread the word, especially to those over 50, to wear DEET from dusk to dawn. </li></ul></ul>Dusk To Dawn Put Your DEET On!
    27. 27. What is Utah doing to prepare? <ul><li>Testing dead birds, mosquitoes, sentinel chickens, horses, and humans for presence of virus. </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking the presence of the virus. </li></ul><ul><li>Get the word out to “Fight the Bite”, through TV, radio, educational material, and motivating the community. </li></ul>How Can You Help?